Alphabet Agencies
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Alphabet Agencies

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Alphabet Agencies Alphabet Agencies Presentation Transcript

  • The New Deal Alphabet Agencies WPA By Mr N Robinson
  • Key Quotes: FDR’s Inauguration Speech This Nation asks for action, and action now. Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. I shall ask congress for broad executive power to wage was against the emergency.
  • The New Deal: Alphabet Agencies
    • The Alphabet Agencies were set up to help reverse the ‘Spiral of Depression.’
    • The main aim was to pump money back into the economy by giving the unemployed jobs.
    • Not everyone within the Democratic Party agreed exactly how this should be done.
  • Causes of the Depression Fewer goods are sold . Demand drops. In order to stay in business companies cut wages People lose their confidence & start saving their money Demand drops even further. Companies are forced to cut costs by laying people off The Cycle Of Depression Even more people Lose their confidence And spend less money People lose their jobs.
  • Reversing the Cycle of Depression Cycle of Recovery leads to Prosperity! Democrats called this Process ‘ Pump Priming’ Government Spending $ Alphabet Agencies More Jobs More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More people with Jobs = more pay $ More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More Jobs More Pay = More Taxes
  • How do you put the USA back to work? V Harry Hopkins Harold Ickes
  • Harry Hopkins Work Relief preserves a man’s morale. It saves his skill. It gives him a chance to do something socially useful Set up two key Alphabet Agencies: CWA & WPA which aimed to help the unskilled unemployed. Criticised for wasting taxpayers money on ‘boondoggles.’
  • CWA = Civil Works Administration
    • Built 800,000 km of roads.
    • Built 40,000 schools
    • Built 500 airports & rebuilt 500 more.
    • Built 150,000 public toilets.
    • Paid people to sweep up leaves in the parks.
    • Paid unemployed actors to give free shows.
    • Hired 100 people to scare pigeons away with balloons from public buildings in Washington DC.
    Winter 1933-34 created 4 million jobs!!! Ended after the winter – 4 million jobs lost!!! Boondoggling
  • Harold Ickes
    • Set up the PWA which gave jobs to the skilled unemployed.
    • Was very careful how he spent taxpayer’s money.
    ‘ My PWA will will give work to the unemployed by creating things of lasting use to the nation.’
  • PWA = Public Works Administration
    • Built 70% of USA Schools.
    • Built 35% of USA Hospitals.
    • Built for river dams.
    • Electrified the New York Washington railway.
    • Built 50 military airports.
    • Built two aircraft carriers.
    • Built four cruisers & destroyers for the US Navy.
    • Built a new sewage system in Chicago.
    PWA only provided jobs for the skilled unemployed!
  • What about the unskilled unemployed?
    • In response to being accused of ‘boondoggling’, when he gave unemployed librarians jobs cataloguing historical documents, Hopkins replied:
    ‘ Hell, they’ve got to eat just like other people.’ In 1934, the CWA was shut down because it was wasting money
  • What about the unskilled unemployed?
    • In 1935, after a terrible winter FDR decided to help the unskilled unemployed by setting up WPA with Harry Hopkins in charge.
    • The PWA continued working until 1939.
  • WPA = Works Progress Administration
    • Built 11,000 schools.
    • Built 70,000 km of roads.
    • La Guardia airport in New York.
    • Employed photographers to make a record of the Depression.
    • Employed 12,000 Actors to put on plays and concerts to cheer people up!
    • Employed artists and painters to make paintings for display in schools and public buildings.
    • Gave work to 2 million people a year.
    ‘ Boondoggles?’
  • Recap: Reversing the Spiral of Depression Cycle of Prosperity! Democrats called this Process ‘ Pump Priming’ Government Spending $ Alphabet Agencies More Jobs More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More people with Jobs = more pay $ More Spending Demand for goods increases More goods have to be produced More Jobs More Pay = More Taxes
  • Summary
    • In order to get a a grade ‘C’ upwards in exams, you must learn and use the key words & facts.
    • These concepts will be awarded as key ‘knowledge.’
    • Spiral of Depression
    • Pump Priming
    • Unskilled & Skilled workers
    • ‘ Boondoggling’
    • CWA, WPA & PWA
    • Alphabet Agencies
    Key Words
  • Exam Question 1
    • How useful is this source for explaining how the New Deal put America back to work?
  • Mark Scheme Uses sources & own relevant knowledge / concepts. C/B 3 Balanced answer covering both parts of the question A/A* 4 Uses or combines information from the sources. D 2 Simple undeveloped answer. E 1 Description Grade Level
  • Level 3
    • PWA = Public Works Administration.
    • ‘ Alphabet Agency’ designed to reverse the ‘ Spiral of Depression’ and kick start demand
    • Jobs created for skilled construction workers: E.g. Builders & Plumbers deducted from poster
    • No mention of WPA which was set up to create jobs for the unskilled workers such as actors & photographers .
    • Photograph taken by a WPA photographer.
    For Against Level 4 = an answer which includes one from each column.
  • Exam Question 2
    • How successful was the New deal at putting USA back to work? Use the source and your knowledge to explain your answer.
  • Mark Scheme Uses sources & own relevant knowledge / concepts . C/B 3 Balanced answer covering both parts of the question A/A* 4 Uses or combines information from the sources . D 2 Simple undeveloped answer. E 1 Description Grade Level
  • Level 3
    • FDR = Roosevelt taking ‘Action’ to end the Depression.
    • FDR is Pouring tax payers money to reverse the ‘Spiral of Depression.’ = ‘Pump Priming.’
    • New Deal wasting money 16 billion spent on ‘ boondoggles’ jobs created by alphabet agencies such as CWA & WPA.
    • E.G. Scaring pigeons with balloons
    For Against Level 4 = an answer which includes one from each column.