A Brief History


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A Brief History

  1. 1. A Brief History of Videogames by Shawn Rider September 03, 2003
  2. 2. Current Facts About Videogames <ul><li>50% of all Americans age 6 and older play computer and video games </li></ul><ul><li>The average age of a game player is 29 years </li></ul><ul><li>43% of game players are women </li></ul><ul><li>Game sales in 2002 were $6.9 billion </li></ul><ul><li>In 2002, more than 221 million games sold. </li></ul><ul><li>92% of all games are purchased by adults </li></ul>
  3. 3. Current Facts About Videogames <ul><li>63% of all games released in 2002 were rated “E” for Everyone </li></ul><ul><li>16 of the top 20 best-selling games in 2002 were rated “E” or “T” </li></ul><ul><li>60% of frequent gamers play with friends </li></ul><ul><li>33% play with siblings </li></ul><ul><li>25% play with spouse or parents </li></ul><ul><li>96% of parents with children under 18 say they are paying attention to the content of games their kids play </li></ul><ul><li>60% of parents play videogames with their kids at least once a month </li></ul>
  4. 4. Current Facts About Videogames <ul><li>Currently there are three major console systems active in the US: </li></ul><ul><li>PlayStation 2 (18.4 mil) </li></ul><ul><li>Xbox (5.7 mil) </li></ul><ul><li>Gamecube (4.4 mil) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Pre-History of Videogames <ul><li>Early forms of pinball date back to the mid-1800s </li></ul><ul><li>In 1889 Fusajiro Yamauchi establishes Marufuku Co. Ltd. To distribute Hanafuda, Japanese playing cards </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Pre-History of Videogames <ul><li>1932 – the Connecticut Leather Company is formed by Maurice Greenburg </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – Williams builds the first electronic pinball game, “Contact” </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Pre-History of Videogames <ul><li>During the 1930s and 40s, anti-slot machine fever sweeps the US </li></ul><ul><li>1941 – Pinball is outlawed in New York City by mayor Fiorello LaGuardia </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Pre-History of Videogames <ul><li>1951 – Yamauchi changes the name of Marufuku Co. Ltd to Nintendo </li></ul><ul><li>The name means “leave luck to heaven” </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Bromley opens Service Games in Japan, focusing on slot machines and jukeboxes </li></ul><ul><li>1956 – David Rosen imports $200,000 worth of coin-op electromechanical games to Japan </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Early Pioneers <ul><li>1958 – Willy Higinbotham invents “Tennis for Two” </li></ul><ul><li>Played on 5 inch oscilloscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented for open house at Brookhaven National Laboratories in Upton, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Remains for two years. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Early Pioneers <ul><li>1961 Steve Russel and the Tech Model Railroad Club create Spacewar! </li></ul><ul><li>Runs on PDP-1 mainframe </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic physics </li></ul><ul><li>Playable over ARPAnet </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Early Pioneers <ul><li>1962 Nolan Bushnell enrolls at University of Utah, plays Spacewar! </li></ul><ul><li>1964 – Rosen Enterprises merges with Service Games to create Sega Enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>1966 – Sega exports Periscope </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Early Pioneers <ul><li>1966 Ralph Baer begins researching interactive television games at Sanders Associates </li></ul><ul><li>1968 Baer patents his invention </li></ul><ul><li>1970 Magnavox licenses Baer’s invention and calls it Odyssey </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Early Pioneers <ul><li>1972 – Magnavox demonstrates Odyssey in private showings </li></ul><ul><li>Ships Odyssey same year, MSRP $100 </li></ul><ul><li>Unit sells 100 thousand </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Early Pioneers <ul><li>1972 – Nolan Bushnell attends May 24 demo of Odyssey </li></ul><ul><li>Forms Atari with Ted Dabney </li></ul><ul><li>Orders Al Alcorn to create an imitation of Baer’s game, calls it Pong </li></ul><ul><li>Atari is sued, settles, makes a fortune </li></ul><ul><li>Pong keeps score </li></ul><ul><li>Pong incorporates “english” </li></ul><ul><li>Pong is made into arcade and home versions </li></ul>
  15. 15. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Atari creates home version of Pong for Sears Roebuck </li></ul><ul><li>Namco begins making games </li></ul><ul><li>Midway releases Gunfight!, first game to use a microprocessor </li></ul>
  16. 16. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut Leather Co., now known as Coleco, releases Telstar </li></ul><ul><li>Fairchild releases Channel F </li></ul><ul><li>Exidy releases Death Race, sparking first videogame violence controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak create Breakout </li></ul><ul><li>Bushnell sells Atari to Warner Communications </li></ul>
  17. 17. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Atari opens first Pizza Time Theater </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases Video Computer System, aka the 2600, sells 25 mil in the next 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Mattel introduces a line of LED-based handheld games </li></ul><ul><li>Shigeru Miyamoto joins Nintendo </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases its first home videogame in Japan </li></ul>
  18. 18. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Bushnell is forced out of Atari, buys Pizza Time theater </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Othello, its first arcade game </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases Football with record success </li></ul><ul><li>Taito/Midway release Space Invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Magnavox releases Odyssey 2 </li></ul>
  19. 19. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Capcom is founded in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases Lunar Laner, its first vector graphics game </li></ul><ul><li>Atari game designer Warren Robinett creates Adventure, Easter Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Mattel introduces Intellivision </li></ul><ul><li>Milton Bradly releases Microvision handheld </li></ul>
  20. 20. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Namco releases Galaxian, first color arcade game </li></ul><ul><li>Epyx releases Temple of Apshai, first graphical RPG for computers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe users worldwide begin programming “interactive fiction” – text based adventure games </li></ul>
  21. 21. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases Space Invaders for VCS </li></ul><ul><li>Renegade Atari programmers form Activision </li></ul><ul><li>Namco releases Pac-Man, most popular arcade game of all-time </li></ul><ul><li>Minoru Arakawa opens Nintendo of America </li></ul><ul><li>Taito releases Stratovox, first game with voice synthesis </li></ul>
  22. 22. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Williams releases Defender, first side-scrolling game </li></ul><ul><li>California Pacific releases Richard Gariott’s Ultima </li></ul><ul><li>Zork I sells a million copies </li></ul><ul><li>Ken and Roberta Williams create On-Line Systems, quickly renamed Sierra On-Line, release Mystery House for Apple II, first computer game with graphics </li></ul>
  23. 23. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Donkey Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases Pac-Man and ET for VCS </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases Tempest </li></ul><ul><li>US arcade revenues reach $5 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Games is first videogame magazine </li></ul><ul><li>IBM ships the IBM PC </li></ul>
  24. 24. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Coleco releases Colecovision </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases 5200 </li></ul><ul><li>GCE releases Vectrex </li></ul><ul><li>Ultima II is released for Apple II by Sierra On-Line </li></ul>
  25. 25. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Eugene Jarvis designs Robotron 2084 </li></ul><ul><li>Features first use of dual joystick interface </li></ul><ul><li>Midway releases MS. Pac-Man, most popular arcade game in American history </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Pac Man is first ever game modification </li></ul>
  26. 26. The “Golden” Age <ul><li>1982 – The Fall </li></ul><ul><li>Atari represents 2/3 of the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Atari has produced some bad games </li></ul><ul><li>Third party developers have created bad games that have hurt Atari’s reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable home computers like the Commodore Vic-20 and just-released Commodore 64 have bit into hardware sales </li></ul>
  27. 27. The “Crash” <ul><li>1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Yu Suzuki joins Sega </li></ul><ul><li>Sega releases first home console in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematronics releases Dragon’s Lair, first arcade game using laser disc technology </li></ul><ul><li>Former Phillip Morris exec James Morgan becomes head of Atari </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Garriott leaves Sierra On-Line to form Origin </li></ul><ul><li>Trip Hawkins forms Electronic Arts, releases Dr J and Larry Bird Go One on One </li></ul>
  28. 28. The “Crash” <ul><li>1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases FamiCom in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Coleco releases Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Warner Comm sells Atari to Jack Tramiel </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra On-Line releases King’s Quest </li></ul><ul><li>Apple releases Macintosh </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Way of the Exploding Fist and Yie Ar Kung Fu released, first fighting games </li></ul><ul><li>Space Panic released, first platform game </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo test markets FamiCom in NYC as the Nintendo Entertainment System </li></ul><ul><li>Russian mathematician Alex Pajitnov designs Tetris </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft ships Windows </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo of America releases the NES </li></ul><ul><li>Strict licensing requirements helps Nintendo avoid poor third party titles </li></ul><ul><li>Sega releases the Sega Master System in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Atari releases the 7800 </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo publishes Legend of Zelda </li></ul><ul><li>Sega unveils 16-bit Mega Drive console in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>NEC releases PC Engine in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Lucasfilm Computer Games releases their first game, Maniac Mansion – first point and click adventure game </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Square Soft publishes Final Fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Tonka acquires US distribution rights to Sega Master System </li></ul><ul><li>Coleco files for bankruptcy </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1989 </li></ul><ul><li>NEC brings PC Engine to US as TurboGrafx </li></ul><ul><li>Sega releases Mega Drive in US as the Genesis </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Game Boy worldwide </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Super Mario Bros. 3, most successful non-bundled cartridge of all time </li></ul><ul><li>SNK brings 24-bit NeoGeo game console to the US </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Super Nintendo Entertainment Sytem </li></ul><ul><li>Sega recreates itself with Sonic the Hedgehog </li></ul><ul><li>Galoob Toys releases Game Genie, first game cheat device </li></ul><ul><li>Capcom releases Streetfighter, giving arcades a needed boost </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Midway releases Mortal Kombat, sparking new outcry over videogame violence </li></ul><ul><li>Genesis outsells SNES, giving Sega control of the American market </li></ul><ul><li>Sega ships Sega CD peripheral for Genesis </li></ul>
  37. 37. Videogames Mature <ul><li>1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Panasonic releases 32-bit 3DO Multiplayer </li></ul><ul><li>Atari launches 64-bit Jaguar </li></ul><ul><li>Broderbund publishes Myst for Macintosh </li></ul><ul><li>Id Software publishes Doom for PC </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin Interactive publishes 7 th Guest for PC CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Senate hearings on videogame violence led by Senators Lieberman and Kohl </li></ul>
  38. 38. Videogames Mature <ul><li>1994 </li></ul><ul><li>IDSA is formed in response to Senate hearings </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Donkey Kong Country, retakes control of US market </li></ul><ul><li>Sega releases 32x peripheral for Genesis </li></ul><ul><li>Sega releases Saturn in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Sony releases PlayStation in Japan </li></ul>
  39. 39. Videogames Mature <ul><li>1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Sega releases Saturn in US </li></ul><ul><li>Sony releases PlayStation in US </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Virtual Boy in US </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo unveils N64 in Japan </li></ul>
  40. 40. Videogames Mature <ul><li>1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo discontinues Virtual Boy </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo sells one billionth cartridge worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Tramiel sells Atari to disk drive maker JTS </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases N64 in US </li></ul><ul><li>Sony unveils Crash Bandicoot </li></ul>
  41. 41. Videogames Mature <ul><li>1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Sega discontinues Saturn </li></ul><ul><li>Bandai releases Tamagotchi </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamworks, Universal and Sega team up to create GameWorks </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Goldeneye 007 for N64 </li></ul><ul><li>Square Soft publishes Final Fantasy VII </li></ul><ul><li>Origin releases Ultima Online </li></ul>
  42. 42. Videogames Mature <ul><li>1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Valve releases Half-Life </li></ul><ul><li>Pokemon comes to America </li></ul>
  43. 43. Videogames Mature <ul><li>1999 </li></ul><ul><li>JTS sells Atari to Hasbro Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>SNK Corp brings NeoGeo Pocket Color to US </li></ul><ul><li>Sega releases Dreamcast in US </li></ul>
  44. 44. Videogames Mature <ul><li>2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft unveils plans for Xbox game console </li></ul><ul><li>Sega launches SegaNet for Dreamcast </li></ul><ul><li>SNK discontinues NeoGeo </li></ul><ul><li>The French take over </li></ul><ul><li>Sony releases PS2 in US </li></ul>
  45. 45. Videogames Mature <ul><li>2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Sega discontinues Dreamcast </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Game Boy Advance </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Gamecube </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft releases Xbox </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Theft Auto III is released </li></ul>
  46. 46. Videogames Mature <ul><li>2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft releases Xbox Live online service </li></ul><ul><li>Sony releases Network Adapter for PS2 </li></ul>
  47. 47. Videogames Mature <ul><li>2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Nintendo releases Game Boy Advance SP </li></ul><ul><li>Sony announces PlayStation Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia releases N-gage mobile gaming console </li></ul><ul><li>Infogrames officially changes their name to Atari </li></ul>
  48. 48. Sources <ul><li>The Dot Eaters: Classic Gaming History </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.emuunlim.com/doteaters/ </li></ul><ul><li>The Ultimate History of Videogames by Steven L. Kent </li></ul><ul><li>The Medium of the Videogame edited by Mark JP Wolf </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger Happy by Stephen Poole </li></ul>