Importation of Second-Hand Products and Its Impact on Waste from Electrical and Electronic Waste (WEEE) management scheme ...
Structure of the presentation   <ul><li>Problem definition/ Challeng i es for Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li...
Issues   raised   <ul><li>Export / importation of Second-Hand products  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on material/waste flo...
Country background  –Lithuania  <ul><li>Recent history: 1990  re-establishes  Independence </li></ul><ul><li>1991  is admi...
Why waste stream from EEE ? <ul><li>Rapid changes in technology/ consumer behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is increasin...
Why waste stream from EEE in Lithuania ? <ul><li>Legal framework and waste management systems are under development </li><...
An overview of environmental problems associated  with  WEEE <ul><li>Uncertain return </li></ul><ul><li>A very heterogeneo...
European legislation on WEEE <ul><li>Directive 2002/96/EC  of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 200...
Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic e...
Waste management of WEEE in Lithuania  State-of-the art <ul><li>Administrative framework   </li></ul><ul><li>(Ministry of ...
Waste management legislation in Lithuania relevant to WEEE <ul><li>Producer Responsibility  for used tires, batteries and ...
  Importation of Second -Hand Products Magnitude (Lithuania) <ul><li>80 %  of all imported  vehicles  into Lithuania are s...
Importation of second-hand computers into Lithuania (1994-2000)
Importation of second-hand refrigerators into Lithuania (1994-2000)
Importation of second-hand refrigerators into Lithuania (1994-2000)
  Restrictions on Importation of Second-Hand Products  in Lithuania <ul><li>Importers of  used tyres  must obtain permit f...
Environmental and other  problems/impact associated with uncontrolled importation of Second-hand EEE products <ul><li>Ille...
<ul><li>Possible solutions / Recent developments </li></ul><ul><li>Research, investigations towards obtaining the maximum ...
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10 % Of All Imported Textile Products Are Second Hand (1992 1998)

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10 % Of All Imported Textile Products Are Second Hand (1992 1998)

  1. 1. Importation of Second-Hand Products and Its Impact on Waste from Electrical and Electronic Waste (WEEE) management scheme Case study of Lithuania Lina Šleinotaitė-Budrienė, PhD candidate, Waste management project group leader, Institute of Environmental Engineering at Kaunas University of Technology Advanced Research Workshop on Life Cycle Analysis for Assessing Energy and Environmental Implications of Information Technology Budapest, Hungary, September 1-3, 2003
  2. 2. Structure of the presentation <ul><li>Problem definition/ Challeng i es for Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Conclu s ions </li></ul><ul><li>Floor for the discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Issues raised <ul><li>Export / importation of Second-Hand products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on material/waste flows in the country of destination/ exporting country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on existing waste management schemes in exporting country and country of destination (financing, infrastructure, logistics, transportation, collection scheme, recycling etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on implementation of producer responsibility principle / “historical waste” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental / Economical /Social considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Impact on policy making, drafting of legislation/ transposing of WEEE directive 2002/96/EC </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Country background –Lithuania <ul><li>Recent history: 1990 re-establishes Independence </li></ul><ul><li>1991 is admitted to United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>1994 applied for NATO membership </li></ul><ul><li>1995 signs A Europe /Associate Agreement with the EU </li></ul><ul><li>2003 04.16 signs European Treaty of Accession </li></ul><ul><li>2003 05.10-11 Referendum (91,07 %) </li></ul><ul><li>2003.12.11-12 negotiations with EU have finished 2004 EU and NATO member ? </li></ul><ul><li>Economy: 1991-1994 dramatic decline; 1995-1998 period of recovery, macroeconomic stability and growth, GDP- 5,7 % (2001), 6,7 (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Well-developed industrial base complemented by strong transportation and service sector </li></ul>Area: 65 300 sq.km Population: 3.7 mln. (68 % urban ) Population density- 55 inhabitants per sq. km Major cities: Vilnius (578 200), Kaunas (414 500) Natural resources : timber, peat, gravel, construction sand, quartz sand, dolomite, clay, limestone, brick clay, mineral water, amber, oil
  5. 5. Why waste stream from EEE ? <ul><li>Rapid changes in technology/ consumer behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is increasingly knowledge based </li></ul><ul><li>Services are taking predominant share </li></ul><ul><li>Possession / transformation of information and communication is crucial to success </li></ul><ul><li>Production and consumption of EEE will dominate in the future scenarios, providing platform for many activities… this will increase amount of EEE </li></ul><ul><li>Significant environmental impacts during the life cycle of EEE </li></ul><ul><li>Problematic nature of the waste/ limited research and attention </li></ul><ul><li>Final disposal (incineration and land filling) is widespread solution </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why waste stream from EEE in Lithuania ? <ul><li>Legal framework and waste management systems are under development </li></ul><ul><li>Little attention to specific waste steams </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hot” topic /Priority waste stream in EU, Japan, Taiwan, USA </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic changes in the country : integration, transformations in economic and social life, qualitative and quantitative improvements (renovations, construction of the new infrastructure) </li></ul>
  7. 7. An overview of environmental problems associated with WEEE <ul><li>Uncertain return </li></ul><ul><li>A very heterogeneous spectrum of categories and products (differentiated by technical characteristics, life expectancy, users and modes of use) </li></ul><ul><li>The complex structures of the products (materials, joint structures, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials and substances involved; complex mixture of plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of management techniques to handle such a diverse spectrum of products , hazardous waste </li></ul><ul><li>“ Historical waste” </li></ul><ul><li>Slow implementation of incentives to promote eco-design within the EEE sector… </li></ul>
  8. 8. European legislation on WEEE <ul><li>Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) <ul><ul><li>Mandatory producer responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate collection : a) from private household ( return at least free of charge, individual/ collective take-back systems set by producers, 13 August 2005, b) other than WEEE from private household – producer responsibility for collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate for separate collection at least 4 kg an average per inhabitant per year of WEEE from private households (by 31 December 2006), new mandatory targets by 31 December 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling targets of WEEE (by 31 December 2006) Range from 50 % to 80% depending on the type of equipment, recovery targets are also set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical requirements for WEEE treatment facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing aspects of WEEE from private household- producer responsibility (by 13 2005 for deposited WEEE, for products put on the market later than 13 August 2005-collective or individual systems of producers, recycling insurance or blocked bank account, “historical waste” – by the existing producer’s schemes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing of WEEE from users other than private household ( after amendments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For products put on the market after 13 August 2005 –producers, partial or total responsibility of users additionally) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Waste management of WEEE in Lithuania State-of-the art <ul><li>Administrative framework </li></ul><ul><li>(Ministry of Environment, Regional Environmental Protection Departments, EPA, Municipalities) </li></ul><ul><li>WEEE treatment infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection ( public drop off centers (9), other collection routes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More sites developing 10 Regional Waste Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low collection rates, mainly for household appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling (2 recycling companies only for brown goods, JSC Kuusamet shredding facility (capacity 90 t/hour !). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing mechanism (municipal funds, ISPA structural fund for RWMS (collection infrastructure)) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Waste management legislation in Lithuania relevant to WEEE <ul><li>Producer Responsibility for used tires, batteries and accumulators, packaging, fuel oil filters, air filters (for internal combustion engines), hydraulic (oil) shock absorbers, end-of-life vehicles (project) </li></ul><ul><li>Producers/ importers have different alternatives: pay tax to state budget (Programme for Waste Management of Products and Packaging) or to meet recycling/recovery targets established and present documents confirming that targets are met, establish their own individual or collective systems </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single legal document concerning WEEE (except general waste related laws) </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of Environment initiating the project of transposition of WEEE directive (possible partners- Okopol (Germany), Baltic Environmental Forum). It is plan to start one year project in September 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministry of Environment asking EU for the extension of the period of full transposition, because of failure to meet collection targets </li></ul>
  12. 12. Importation of Second -Hand Products Magnitude (Lithuania) <ul><li>80 % of all imported vehicles into Lithuania are second-hand </li></ul><ul><li>10 % of all imported textile products are second-hand (1992-1998) </li></ul><ul><li>25 % of all imported tyres are second- hand (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Importation of Second-Hand Electrical and Electronic Products /data for 4 products out of 87 listed in CNG(1994-2000): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dishwashers (of household type)- 30 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing machines- 31 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigerators- 83 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal computer – 57 % </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Importation of second-hand computers into Lithuania (1994-2000)
  14. 14. Importation of second-hand refrigerators into Lithuania (1994-2000)
  15. 15. Importation of second-hand refrigerators into Lithuania (1994-2000)
  16. 16. Restrictions on Importation of Second-Hand Products in Lithuania <ul><li>Importers of used tyres must obtain permit from the Ministry of Environment. Permit condition- importers must collect and deliver to recycling/recovery companies 75 % of total amount of imported used tires (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Second-hand clothes (sanitary-hygienic norm- requirements for the companies importing seconds-hand clothes (Humana, individual importers, etc.) (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Second-hand End-of-Life Vehicles (introduction of differentiated customs for second-hand vehicles according to age) </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Environment failed to restrict importation of Second-hand EEE products in 1998, because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems identifying “used” or “second-hand” products within the frame of Combinated Nomenclature of goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products has no certificates of origin, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of products, year of production, age of the products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of a technical infrastructure for testing of products (huge investments, training needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of research, data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems cooperating between various Ministries concerned </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Environmental and other problems/impact associated with uncontrolled importation of Second-hand EEE products <ul><li>Illegal importation of hazardous and non-hazardous waste </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on environment (absence of facilities to remove CFCs and other hazardous substances, land filling, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Financial pressure to municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Constrains of exporting countries ( loss of materials energy, components, impact on collection/recycling targets </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on future centralized national or European treatment facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Positive social impacts </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Possible solutions / Recent developments </li></ul><ul><li>Research, investigations towards obtaining the maximum benefit ( economic, social) from the second-hand EEE products ( this stream should be seen as potential source of valuable materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Financing of Feasibility Studies ( at national and companies level) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of possible restriction schemes (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of collection infrastructure through Regional Waste Management Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of producer responsibility </li></ul>

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