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The Australian Nurses' Dictionary - King - 9780729540841

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The forth edition of this well-established text has been updated to reflect the most current guidelines, terminology, policies and procedures. Australian Nurses' Dictionary 4th edition retains its …

The forth edition of this well-established text has been updated to reflect the most current guidelines, terminology, policies and procedures. Australian Nurses' Dictionary 4th edition retains its user-friendly style and compact size and continues to provide Australian nursing students with local content, relevant, clinically focussed diagrams, the pronunciation guide, easy cross-referencing and useful appendices.

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  • 1. AUSTRALIAN NURSES’DICTIONARY 5th EDITION King Hawley Weller amtkwf @ NO  i° HgbrC qμmdZ pexJ y t
  • 2. Australian Nurses’ Dictionary 5th editionKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd i 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 3. This publication has been carefully reviewed and checked to ensure that the content is as accurate and current as possible at time of publication. We would recommend, however, that the reader verify any procedures, treatments, drug dosages or legal content described in this book. Neither the authors, the contributors, nor the publisher assume any liability for injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any error in or omission from this publication.King & Hawley 5e-final.indd ii 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 4. Australian Nurses’ Dictionary 5th edition Jennie King BA(Hons), RN Clinical Nurse Consultant (Research), Central Coast Local Health District; and Clinical Senior Lecturer, Sydney Nursing School, University of Sydney Rhonda Hawley PhD, RN, RMN, Cardio-Thoracic Cert, DipNursEd, BA, MEd Senior Lecturer, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine (NSW & ACT), Australian Catholic University Adapted from the original written by Barbara F Weller BA MSc RGN RSCN RNT Independent Nurse Consultant, Honorary Consultant Lecturer, Thames Valley University, London Editor of INFANT (Journal for Neonatal and Paediatric Healthcare Professionals) Formerly Nursing Officer, Department of Health and Chief Nursing Adviser, British Red Cross Society, UK Sydney Edinburgh London New York Philadelphia St Louis TorontoKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd iii 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 5. Baillière Tindall is an imprint of Elsevier Elsevier Australia (a division of Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd) Tower 1, 475 Victoria Avenue, Chatswood, NSW 2067 ACN 001 002 357 This edition © 2012 Elsevier Australia 1st Australian edition 1991; 2nd edn 1998; 3rd edn 2004; 4th edn 2008 1st UK edition 1912; 25th UK edition 2009 This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted by any means (including electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior written permission from the publisher. Every attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases this may not have been possible. The publisher apologises for any accidental infringement and would welcome any information to redress the situation. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Author: King, Jennifer. Title: Australian nurses’ dictionary / Jennie King, Rhonda Hawley and Barbara F Weller. Edition: 5th ed. ISBN: 9780729540841 (pbk.) Subjects: Nursing–Australia–Dictionaries. Medicine--Australia--Dictionaries. Nursing–Dictionaries. Medicine–Dictionaries. Other Authors/Contributors: Hawley, Rhonda. Weller, Barbara F. (Barbara Fiona), 1933– Dewey Number: 610.7303 Publisher: Libby Houston Developmental Editor: Elizabeth Coady Project Coordinator: Geraldine Minto Edited by Forsyth Publishing Services Proofread by Tim Learner Cover and internal design by Avril Makula Typeset by Shaun Jury Printed by China Printing and Translating Services LtdKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd iv 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 6. Contents Acknowledgment vi Preface vii Pronunciation guide viii Contributors xi Reviewers xii A–Z entries 1 Appendices 1 Commonly used prefixes, suffixes and combining forms 506 2 Commonly used nursing abbreviations 511 3 Units of measurement 518 4 Table of normal values 522 5 Drug control 526 6 Drug calculations 530 7 Resuscitation 532 8 Nutrition 541 9 Immunisation 549 10 Code of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses and Midwives in Australia 552 11 Aspects of nursing and the law 557 12 Infection control guidelines 561 13 National registration for nurses and midwives 566 14 Useful addresses 569King & Hawley 5e-final.indd v 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 7. Acknowledgment The publisher would like to thank the American College of Surgeons for their kind permission to reproduce the figure in the Lund and Browder chart. References Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 31st edn 2007, Philadelphia, Saunders Forrester K, Griffiths D 2010 Essentials of Law for Health Professionals, 3rd edn. Mosby, Sydney Gatford J D, Phillips N 2006 Nursing Calculations, 7th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh Harris P, Nagy S, Vardaxis N 2010 Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing and Health Professions. 2nd Australian and New Zealand edn. Elsevier, Sydney Schneider Z, Whitehead D, Elliott D et al. 2007 Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn. Mosby, SydneyKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd vi 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 8. Preface The Australian Nurses’ Dictionary was first adapted from the Baillière’s Nurses’ Dictionary in 1991 and over the past 20 years we have seen the face of nursing change as our knowledge base has expanded to incorporate advances in technology, research and innovation. This 5th edition of the Australian Nurses’ Dictionary aims to keep abreast of changing terminology and the shared professional language for nurses and other health professionals. The dictionary is available for the first time as an e-book, making it an easily accessible resource in the ever-developing digital world. It has been expanded to include new, relevant terminologies and an appendix highlighting the change to national registration for nurses and midwives. The guiding principles in the revision have been to establish direct relevance to Australian conditions, and to provide a quick reference source for students and nurses in the clinical setting. For a more extensive background to specific entries, the reader is referred to encyclopaedic nursing dictionaries. This edition has relied upon the support of nurses and allied health personnel in many areas. In particular, the authors would like to thank the team of contributors for their continued support in the revisions of the appendices: Andrea Marshall, Terry Maunsell, Anne Louise Elsom and Marjorie Atchan. Thank you to the reviewers of the 4th edition, who provided valuable recommendations for this 5th edition; thank you also to the reviewers of the 5th edition; and to Tony Smith and John Hawley for their continued encouragement and support in meeting deadlines. Jennie King, Rhonda HawleyKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd vii 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 9. Pronunciation guide All pronunciations in this dictionary are transcribed using ordinary English- spelling letters, with the exception of the upside-down ‘e’ or ‘schwa’ (ə). All pronunciations are given in parentheses immediately following the bold headword and reflect general Australian English in current, spoken usage. Where alternative pronunciations for a word are given, or where alternative spellings or synonyms are given, these are separated by commas. For example: medicine (ˈmedəsən, ˌmedsən) nerone (neuron) (ˌnyoo·rohn, ˌnyoo·ron) Alternative pronunciations are often given in truncated form with hyphens. For example: encephalic (ˈenkəˌfalik, -ˌensə-) Single letters represent single sounds. Where two or more characters are combined, as in the lists below, these also represent precise sounds. Vowel sounds a as in bad (bad) o as in body (ˌbodee) ah as in father (ˈfahdhə) oh as in choke (chohk) air as in hair (hair) oo as in boot (boot) aw as in water (ˈwawtə) oo as in cure (kyooə) ay as in fatal (ˈfayt’l) ow as in now (now) e as in bed (bed) ow as in hour (owə) ee as in fetus (ˈfeetəs) oy as in goitre (ˈgoytə) i as in film (film) oyə as in soya (ˈsoyə) ie as in bite (biet) u as in tongue (tung) i·ə as in chloropsia uh as in foot (fuht) (klawˈropsi·ə) ə as in mother (ˈmudhə) iə as in fear (fiə) ər as in bird (bərd) ieə as in diet (ˈdieət) y as in yet (yet)King & Hawley 5e-final.indd viii 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 10. ix PRONUNCIATION GUIDE Consonant sounds b as in baby (ˈbaybee) nh as in en passant ch as in chat (chaht) (onh ˈpasonh) d as in digit (ˈdijət) ny as in nutrition f as in fever (ˈfeevə) (nyooˈtrishən) g as in gag (gag) p as in pelvis (ˈpelvəs) h as in heal (heel) r as in rod (rod) j as in jump (jump) s as in sac (sak) k as in king (king) sh as in fish (fish) l as in light (liet) t as in test (test) m as in man (man) th as in thirst (thərst) n as in need (need) v as in vein (vayn) ng as in sung (sung) w as in weight (wayt) z as in zero (ˈziə·roh) zh as in pleasure (ˈplezhə) Stress marks Stress marks are used where the word or term has more than one syllable. The stress mark is placed before the syllable to be stressed. The primary stressed syllable is indicated by a superior stress mark (ˈ) and secondary stress by a subscript stress mark (ˌ). For example: respiration (ˌrespəˈrayshən) respirator (ˈrespəˌraytə) respiratory (rəsˈpirətree) Apostrophe Where a consonant is preceded by an apostrophe, this indicates that the consonant should be pronounced as a separate syllable. For example: hospital (ˈhospət’l) Centred full stop Where two letters occur together that may be mistaken for a different sound from that intended, a centred full stop is added to separate the characters. For example: myopia (miəˈohpi·ə)King & Hawley 5e-final.indd ix 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 11. PRONUNCIATION GUIDE x Sub-entries Sub-entries are listed alphabetically under the main entry, with the initial letter(s) of the main entry repeated. For example: abdomen Acute a. Pendulous a. Scaphoid (navicular) a.King & Hawley 5e-final.indd x 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 12. Contributors Marjorie Atchan, RN, RM, CFHCert, GradCertAdEd (Community), IBCLC, BN, MEducation & Work, Professional Doctoral Candidate Clinical Midwife Consultant Lactation Services, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney Anne Louise Elsom, RN, LLB, GradDipLegalPrac, MHL Clinical Nurse Consultant (Mental Health), Central Coast Local Health District Rhonda Hawley, PhD, RN, RMN, Cardio-Thoracic Cert, DipNursEd, BA, MEd Senior Lecturer, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine (NSW & ACT), Australian Catholic University Jennie King, RN, BA(Hons), PhD candidate Clinical Nurse Consultant (Research), Central Coast Local Health District; and Clinical Senior Lecturer, Sydney Nursing School, University of Sydney Dr Andrea Marshall, RN, PhD Professor of Acute and Complex Care Nursing, Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation, Griffith University and The Gold Coast Hospital Terry Maunsell, BPharm, FSHP Director of Pharmacy, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, SydneyKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd xi 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 13. Reviewers Swapnali Gazula, RN, MSc Nursing Lecturer, Faculty of School of Health Sciences, University of Ballarat, Victoria Lee Macdonald Lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University Anne Moates, RN, RM, MCHN, BAppSc(Nursing), Grad Dip Ad Nursing, Grad Cert Nursing (Education), MPH, MED Senior Educator, Centre for Health, Community and Early Childhood Education, Chisholm Institute of TAFE, Melbourne Cecilia Yeboah, RN, BA, RM, MN, PhD Lecturer in Nursing/International Academic Advisor-Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, AustraliaKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd xii 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 14. Aa A abbreviation for accommodation; adenine; anode (anodal); anterior; axial; symbol for ampere and mass number. abacterial (ˌaybakˈtiə·riəl) indicating a condition not caused by bacteria. Diaphragm abarticulation (ˌabahˌtikyəˈlayshən) dislocation of a joint. 1 2 3 abasia (əˈbayzi·ə) the inability to walk. 4 5 6 abatement (əˈbaytmənt) a decrease in the severity of a pain or a symptom. 7 8 9 abdomen (ˈabdəmən, ˈabˈdoh-) the belly. The cavity between the diaphragm and the pelvis, lined by 1. Right hypochondriac region a serous membrane, the peritoneum, 2. Epigastric region and containing the stomach, 3. Left hypochondriac region intestines, liver, gallbladder, spleen, 4. Right lumbar region pancreas, kidneys, suprarenal glands, 5. Umbilical region ureters and bladder. For descriptive 6. Left lumbar region purposes, its area may be divided into 7. Right iliac fossa nine regions (see figure). Acute a. 8. Hypogastric region any abdominal condition urgently 9. Left iliac fossa requiring treatment, usually surgical. Pendulous a. a condition in which Regions of the abdomen the anterior part of the abdominal HYPERPNOEA . A. examination a wall hangs down over the PUBIS. systematic examination of the Scaphoid (navicular) a. a hollowing abdomen by inspection, palpation of the anterior wall commonly seen and auscultation carried out by in grossly emaciated people. midwives during pregnancy and abdominal (abˈdomənəl) pertaining to after delivery. The purpose is to the abdomen. A. aneurysm a dilation determine the equality of uterine of the abdominal aorta. A. aorta that size with the calculated period of part of the aorta below the diaphragm. gestation and later in the pregnancy A. breathing deep breathing; to determine the position of theKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 1 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 15. ABDOMINOCYESIS 2 fetus. Postnatally the examination ability (əˈbilətee) the power to is used to ascertain that the uterus perform an act, either mental or is regaining its former non-pregnant physical, with or without training. size and position. A. reflex reflex A. test a measure of a person’s level contraction of abdominal wall of performance or estimates future muscles observed when skin is lightly performance. Sometimes also known stroked. A. section incision through as an intelligence test, achievement the abdominal wall. A. thrust, see test or aptitude test. Innate a. the HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE. ability with which a person is born. abdominocyesis (abˌdomənoh- ablation (abˈlayshən) removal ˈsieˈeesəs) an abdominal pregnancy. or destruction, by surgical or abdominopelvic (abˌdomənohˈpel- radiological means, of neoplasms vik) concerning the abdomen and or other body tissue. Catheter a. a the pelvic cavity. technique to interrupt conduction abdominoperineal (abˌdomənoh- through accessory atrioventricular ˌperiˈneeəl) pertaining to the pathways and ablate arrhythmogenic abdomen and the perineum. A. foci responsible for TACHYCARDIA. excision an operation performed abnormal (ˌabˈnawm’l) varying from through the abdomen and the what is regular or usual. perineum for the excision of the ABO system see BLOOD GROUPS. rectum or bladder. Often done as abort (əˈbawt) 1. to terminate a a synchronised operation by two process or disease before it has run surgeons, one working at each its normal course. 2. remove or expel approach. from the womb an embryo or fetus abduce (abˈdyoos) to abduct (or before it is capable of independent draw away). existence. abducent (abˈdyoosənt) leading abortifacient (əˌbawtiˈfayshənt) away from the midline. A. muscle an agent or drug that may induce the external rectus muscle of the abortion. eye, which rotates it outwards. A. abortion (əˈbawshən) 1. premature nerve the cranial nerve that supplies cessation of a normal process. 2. this muscle. emptying of the pregnant uterus abduction (abˈdukshən, əb-) before the end of the 24th week. movement of a limb away from the 3. the product of such an abortion. body. Complete a. one in which the abductor (abˈduktə) a muscle contents of the uterus are expelled that draws a limb away from the intact. Criminal a. the termination midline of the body. The opposite of a pregnancy for reasons other than of ADDUCTOR. those permitted by law (i.e. danger to aberrant (aˈberənt) taking an unusual mental or physical health of mother course. Used of blood vessels and or child or family) and without nerves. medical approval. Incomplete a. aberration (ˌabəˈrayshən) deviation that in which some part of the from the normal. In optics, failure to fetus or placenta is retained in the focus rays of light. Mental a. mental uterus. Induced a. the intentional disorder of an unspecified kind. emptying of the uterus. Inevitable a.King & Hawley 5e-final.indd 2 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 16. 3 ABUSE abortion where bleeding is profuse abscess (ˈabsəs) a collection of pus in and accompanied by pains and the a cavity. Caused by the disintegration cervix is dilated and the contents and replacement of tissue damaged of the uterus may be felt. Missed by mechanical, chemical or bacterial a. one where all signs of pregnancy injury. Alveolar a. an abscess in a disappear and later the uterus tooth socket. Brodie’s a. a bone discharges a blood clot surrounding abscess, usually on the head of the a shrivelled fetus, i.e. a CARNEOUS tibia. Cold a. the result of chronic MOLE. Septic a. abortion associated tubercular infection; and so called with infection. Spontaneous a. because there are few, if any, signs a miscarriage or the unintended of inflammation. Psoas a. a cold termination of a pregnancy before abscess that has tracked down the end of the 20th week. Therapeutic the psoas muscle from caries of (legal) a. one induced on medical the lumbar vertebrae. Subphrenic advice because the continuance of a. an abscess situated under the the pregnancy would involve risk to diaphragm. the life of the pregnant woman, or absorbent (əbˈsawbənt, -ˈzaw-) of injury to the physical or mental 1. able to take in, or suck up and health of the pregnant woman or incorporate. 2. a tissue structure any existing children of her family, involved in absorption. 3. a substance greater than if the pregnancy were that absorbs or promotes absorption. terminated; or because there is a absorption (əbˈsawpshən, -ˈzaw-) substantial risk that if the child 1. in physiology, the taking up were born it would suffer from such by suction of fluids or other physical or mental abnormalities substances by the tissues of the as to be seriously handicapped. body. 2. in psychology, great mental Threatened a. the appearance of concentration on a single object or signs of premature expulsion of the activity. 3. in radiology, uptake of fetus; bleeding is slight, the cervix is radiation by body tissues. closed. Tubal a. the termination of a abstinence (ˈabstənəns) a refraining tubal pregnancy caused by rupture from the use of (or indulgence of the uterine tube. in) food, stimulants or coitus. A. abrasion (əˈbrayzhən) a superficial syndrome withdrawal symptoms. injury where the skin or mucous abstract (ˈabstrakt) a brief, compre- membrane is rubbed or torn. Corneal hensive summary of a research study a. condition in which the surface of or other academic report. the cornea has been removed, e.g. abuse (əˈbyoos) misuse, maltreatment by a scratch or other injury. or excessive use — may be physical, abreaction (ˌabriˈakshən) the reliving sexual, psychological or neglect. Can of a past painful experience, with apply to any group of people, e.g. the release of repressed emotion. the vulnerable, children, women, abruptio placentae (əˌbrupshioh- people with learning disabilities plə-ˈsentee, -tioh) premature or the elderly. May also apply to detach ment of the placenta, the misuse of power, authority, causing maternal shock, and fetal drugs and other substances, e.g. compromise or demise. solvents and equipment. Child a.King & Hawley 5e-final.indd 3 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 17. ACANTHOMA 4 the non-accidental use of physical occurring in a healthcare premise. force or the non-accidental act Employers require that the form is of omission by a parent or other completed as soon after the accident custodian responsible for the care as possible. of a child. Drug a. use of illegal accommodation (əˌkoməˈdayshən) drugs or misuse of prescribed drugs. adjustment. In ophthalmology, the Solvent a. the deliberate inhalation term refers specifically to adjustment of volatile chemicals with the aim of the ciliary muscle, which controls of inducing intoxication. the shape of the lens. In negative a. acanthoma (ˌakənˈthohma) a tumour the ciliary muscle relaxes and the originating in the prickle cell layer lens becomes less convex, giving of the epidermis; usually benign long distance vision; in positive a. epithelial tumours. the ciliary muscle contracts and the acanthosis (ˌakənˈthohsis) lens becomes more convex, giving hyperplasia of the prickle cell layer near vision. of the epidermis, as seen in PSORIASIS. accouchement (əˈkooshmonh) [Fr.] acaricide (aˈkarisied) an agent that childbirth. destroys mites. accoucheur (əˈkooshər) [Fr.] the Acarus (ˈakə·rəs) a genus of small person who assists the woman mites. A. scabiei (Sarcoptes scabiei) during childbirth. the cause of scabies. accountable (əˈkowntəb’l) liable acataphasia (ˌaykatəˈfayzi·ə) loss to be held responsible for a course of the ability to express connected of action. A qualified nurse has a thought, resulting from a cerebral duty of care according to law; in lesion. nursing, being accountable refers acceleration (akˌseləˈrayshən) 1. an to the responsibility the qualified increase in the speed or velocity of nurse takes for prescribing and an object or reaction. 2. an increase initiating nursing care. Nurses are in the fetal heartbeat of at least 15 accountable to their patients, their beats per minute over the baseline peers and their employing authority, rate for at least 15 seconds. according to professional codes accessory (akˈsesəri, ˈək-) of conduct. supplementary. A. nerve the 11th accreditation (əkˌredəˈtayshən) 1. to cranial nerve. It is made up of two give someone official status within portions: the cranial and the spinal. an organisation, e.g. an approved accident and emergency (ˈakˌsee- and acknowledged representative of dənt) sometimes referred to as a union or professional organisation. casualty or trauma medicine. A 2. the official system used in some setting for dealing with problems countries for the licensing of a which require immediate attention hospital or healthcare facility by and where patients may be directed government agencies which meet or referred by a general practitioner agreed standards following initial or the emergency services. assessment and regular appraisal accident form a form also known as that they meet a satisfactory level an incident form which provides a of organisational achievement. A. record of any accident to any person for Prior Learning (APL) a systemKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 4 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 18. 5 ACETYLCHOLINE used by academic institutions and other establishments to grant credit for previous academic achievements. Usually used to gain credit transfer Bone between institutions leading to graft academic qualifications. accretion (əˈkreeshən) growth. The accumulation of deposits (e.g. of salts) to form a calculus in the bladder. In dentistry, the growth of tartar on the teeth. acculturation (əkolchəˈrayshən) the process by which a person absorbs the beliefs, values and customs of Acetabuloplasty another culture, usually through direct contact, e.g. migrants resident treatment of congestive heart failure in another country. and GLAUCOMA. ACE inhibitors (ays inˈhibətəz) acetic acid (əˈseetik ˈasəd) the acid a group of drugs used in the of vinegar. It may be used as an treatment of hypertension. The name antidote to alkaline poisons. ‘angiotensin-converting enzyme acetoacetic acid (ˌasətoh·əˈseetik (ACE) inhibitors’ explains part of ˈasəd, əˌsee-) diacetic acid. A their mode of action, although it product of fat metabolism. It occurs is thought that some of their other in excessive amounts in diabetes and actions may also be important in starvation, giving rise to acetone reducing blood pressure. bodies in the urine. acephalic (ˌaykəˈfalik, -sə-) without acetonaemia (ˌasətəˈneemi·ə, əˌsee-) a head. the presence of acetone bodies in acet- (ˈasət-) combining form the blood. denoting acid. From the Latin acetone (ˈasəˌtohn) a colourless acetum, vinegar. flammable liquid with a characteristic acetabuloplasty (ˌasəˈtabyəloh- odour. Traces are found in the blood ˌplastee) an operation performed to and in normal urine. A. bodies improve the depth and shape of the ketones found in the blood and hip socket in correcting congenital urine of patients with uncontrolled dislocation of the hip or in treating diabetes and also in those with osteoarthritis of the hip (see figure acute starvation as a result of the above). incomplete breakdown of fatty and acetabulum (ˌasəˈtabyələm) the cup- amino acids. like socket in the innominate bone, in acetonuria (ˌasətəˈnyoo·ri·ə, əˌsee-) which the head of the femur moves. the presence of an excess quantity of acetate (ˈasəˌtayt) a salt of ACETIC acetone bodies in the urine, giving ACID. it a peculiar sweet smell. acetazolamide (əˌsetəˈzoləmied) a acetylcholine (ˌasətielˈkohleen, sulfonamide compound which is ˌasitil-) a chemical transmitter that an oral diuretic and is used in the is released by some nerve endingsKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 5 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 19. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE 6 at the synapse between one neurone and the next or between a nerve Oesophagus ending and the effector organ it supplies. These nerves are said to be cholinergic, e.g. the parasympathetic nerves and the lower motor neurones to skeletal muscles. Acetylcholine is rapidly destroyed in the body by cholinesterase (an enzyme). acetylcholinesterase (ˌasətiel- Lower ˌkohlənˈestə·rayz) an enzyme oesophagal that reduces or prevents excessive sphincter firing of neurons at neuromuscular junctions. acetylcoenzyme A (ˌasətielkoh- ˈenziem, ˌasətəl-) active form of acetic acid, to which carbohydrates, Achalasia fats and amino acids that are not needed for protein synthesis are converted. acholuria (ˌaykəˈlyoo·ri·ə) deficiency acetylsalicylic acid (ˈasətielˌsaləsilik or lack of bile in the urine. ˈasəd, ˈasətəl-) aspirin. An analgesic, acholuric (ˌaykəˈlyoo·rik) pertaining antipyretic and antirheumatic drug. to ACHOLURIA. A. jaundice jaundice It is available in its pure form or in without bile in the urine. combination with other drugs. achondroplasia (ayˌkondrohˈplay- achalasia (akəˈlayzi·ə) failure of zi·ə) an inherited condition in which relaxation of a muscle sphincter, there is early union of the epiphysis causing dilatation of the part above, and diaphysis of long bones. Growth e.g. of the oesophagus above the is arrested, resulting in short stature. cardiac sphincter (see figure). achromasia (ˌaykrohˈmayzi·ə) 1. ache (ayk) a dull, continuous pain. lack of colour in the skin. 2. absence Achilles (əˈkileez) Greek mythological of normal reaction to staining in a hero who could be wounded only in tissue or cell. the heel. A. tendon tendocalcaneus, achromatopsia (ˌaykrohməˈtopsi·ə) connecting the soleus and gastro- complete colour blindness caused cnemius muscles of the calf to the by disease or trauma. It may be heel bone (os calcis). Tapping the congenital. Achilles tendon normally produces achylia (ayˈkieli·ə) absence of the Achilles reflex (or ankle jerk). hydrochloric acid and enzymes in achlorhydria (ˌayklorˈhiedri·ə) the the gastric secretions. A. gastrica a absence of free hydrochloric acid condition in which gastric secretion in the stomach. May be found in is reduced or absent. pernicious anaemia, pellagra and aciclovir (ayˈsieklohviə) an antiviral gastric cancer. agent used to treat HERPES viruses. acholia (ay·ˈkohli·ə) a lack of Uses include the treatment of secretion of bile. varicella (Herpes zoster) and HerpesKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 6 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 20. 7 ACNE simplex. It is effective only if started of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate at the onset of the infection. May content) in the blood and body also be used as prophylaxis in tissues, and characterised by increase immunocompromised persons and in hydrogen ion concentration for prevention of recurrence. It is (decrease in pH to below 7.30). available as a cream, ophthalmic Metabolic a. acidosis resulting ointment, suspension, tablets and from accumulation in the blood intravenous infusion. of ketoacids (derived from fat acid (ˈasəd) 1. sour or sharp in metabolism) at the expense of taste. 2. a substance which, when bicarbonate, thus diminishing the combined with an alkali, will form body’s ability to neutralise acids. a salt. Any acid substance will turn Occurs in diabetic ketoacidosis, blue litmus paper red. Individual lactic acidosis and failure of renal acids are given under their specific tubules to reabsorb bicarbonate. names A.–alcohol-fast descriptive Respiratory a. acidosis resulting of stained bacteria that are resistant from ventilatory impairment and to decolourisation by both acid and subsequent retention of carbon alcohol. A.–base balance the normal dioxide. Carbon dioxide accumulates ratio between the acid ions and the in the blood and unites with water basic (or alkaline) ions required to to form carbonic acid. Occurs with maintain the pH of the blood and severe birth asphyxia and other body fluids. Most of the body’s respiratory conditions affecting the metabolic processes produce acids as newborn. See also KETOSIS. their end products, but a somewhat acidotic (ˌasəˈdotik) 1. pertaining alkaline body fluid is required to acidosis. 2. a person suffering as a medium for vital cellular from acidosis. activities. Therefore, chemical acinus (ˈasənəs) a minute saccule or exchanges of hydrogen ions must alveolus of a compound gland, lined take place continuously in order by secreting cells. The secreting to maintain a state of equilibrium. portion of the mammary gland An optimal pH (hydrogen ion consists of acini. concentration) between 7.35 and acme (ˈakmee) 1. the peak or highest 7.45 must be maintained; otherwise, point, e.g. the peak of intensity of the enzyme systems and other a uterine contraction during labour. biochemical and metabolic activities 2. the crisis of a fever when the will not function normally. symptoms are fully developed. acidaemia (ˌasəˈdeemi·ə) abnormal acne (ˈaknee) an inflammatory acidity of blood that contains an condition of the sebaceous glands excess of hydrogen ions, in which in which blackheads (comedones) the pH of the blood falls below 7.35. are usually present together with acidity (əˈsidətee) 1. sourness or papules and pustules. A. keratitis sharpness of taste. 2. the state of inflammation of the cornea associated being acid. with acne rosacea. A. rosacea a acidosis (ˌasəˈdohsəs) a pathological redness of the forehead, nose and condition resulting from cheeks due to chronic dilatation accumulation of acid or depletion of the subcutaneous capillaries,King & Hawley 5e-final.indd 7 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 21. ACNEIFORM 8 which becomes permanent with the projection of the spine of the scapula, formation of pustules in the affected forming the point of the shoulder. areas. A. vulgaris a form of acne that acroosteolysis (ˌakroh·ˌostee·oh·- occurs commonly in adolescents ˈlisəs) an occupational disease and young adults, affecting the face, that affects people working with chest and back. polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastics. a c n e i f o r m ( a k ˈ n e e · ə ˌ f aw m ) acroparaesthesia (ˌakrohˌparəs- resembling acne. ˈtheezi·ə) condition in which acousma (əˈkoosmə) the hearing of pressure on the nerves of the brachial imaginary sounds. plexus causes numbness, pain and acoustic (əˈkoostik) relating to sound tingling of the hand and forearm. or the sense of hearing. acrophobia (ˌakrohˈfohbi·ə) morbid acquired (əˈkwieəd) pertaining terror of being at a height. to disease, habits or immunity acrosclerosis (ˌakrohskləˈrohsəs) a developed after birth; not inherited. type of SCLERODERMA that affects the acquired immune deficiency hands, feet, face or chest. syndrome see AIDS. acrosome (ˈakrəˌsohm) part of the acrid (ˈakrəd) bitter; pungent; head of a spermatozoon containing irritating. enzymes that break down the cell acrocephalia (ˌakrohkeˈfayli·ə, -se-) membrane of the ovum and allow malformation of the head, in which penetration. the top is pointed. AC T H a d r e n o c o r t i c o t r o p h i c acrocyanosis (ˌakrohˌsieəˈnohsəs) hormone; corticotrophin. persistent cyanosis, coldness of the actigraph (ˈaktəˌgraf) an instrument hands and feet, and profuse sweating that records changes in the activity of of the digits; often associated with a an organism and produces a graphic vasomotor defect. This is a common record of the process. finding for newborn babies in the actin (ˈaktən) the protein of myofibrils first 48 hours. responsible for contraction and acrodynia (ˌakrohˈdini·ə) an allergic relaxation of muscles. reaction to mercury in children, actinism (ˈaktəˌnizəm) the ability of causing pain and erythema in the rays of light to produce chemical fingers and toes. Pink disease. changes. acromegaly (ˌakrohˈmegəlee) a actinodermatitis (ˌaktənohˌdərmə- chronic condition producing gradual ˈtietəs) inflammation of the skin due enlargement of the hands, feet to the action of ultraviolet or X-rays. and bones of the head and chest. Actinomyces (ˌaktənəˈmieseez) a Associated with overactivity of genus of branching, spore-forming, the anterior lobe of the pituitary vegetable parasites which may give gland in adults. rise to actinomycosis and from which acromioclavicular (əˌkrohmioh- many antibiotic drugs are produced, ˌkləˈvikyələ) pertaining to the joint e.g. streptomycin. between the acromion process of actinomycin (ˌaktənohˈmiesən) a the scapula and the lateral aspect group of cytotoxic drugs used in of the clavicle. the treatment of malignant disease. acromion (əˈkrohmi·ən) the outward actinomycosis (ˌaktənohmieˈkohsəs)King & Hawley 5e-final.indd 8 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 22. 9 ACTIVITY THEORY a chronic infective disease of demonstration of an interest in what cattle that is also found in humans. a person has to say through verbal Granulated tumours occur, chiefly signs, non-verbal gestures and body in the lung and jaw, and more rarely language. A. movements movements in the intestines. made by the patient, as distinct from actinotherapy (ˌaktənohˈtherəpee) passive movements. A. principle the treatment of disease by rays of light, ingredient in a drug that is primarily e.g. artificial sunlight. responsible for its therapeutic action (ˈakshən) the accomplishment action. A. transport the movement of an effect, whether mechanical or of ions or molecules across the cell chemical, or the effect so produced. membranes and epithelial layers, A. research a method of undertaking usually against a concentration social research that incorporates the gradient, resulting directly from the researcher’s involvement as a direct expenditure of metabolic energy. and deliberate part of the research Under normal circumstances more process, i.e. the researcher acts as potassium ions are present within a change agent. Cumulative a. the the cell and more sodium ions sudden and markedly increased extracellularly. The process of action of a drug after administration maintaining these normal differences of several doses. Reflex a. an in electrolytic composition between involuntary response to a stimulus the intracellular fluids is active conveyed to the nervous system and transport. The process differs from reflected to the periphery, passing simple diffusion or osmosis in below the level of consciousness that it requires the expenditure of (see also REFLEX). metabolic energy. activator (ˌaktəˈvaytə) a substance, activities of daily living (ADL) hormone or enzyme that stimulates (akˈtivəteez əvˈ dayleeˈ living) those a chemical change, although it activities usually performed in the may not take part in the change. In course of a person’s normal daily chemistry, a catalyst. For example, routine, such as eating, toileting, yeast is the activator in the process dressing, washing and dressing by which sugar is converted into or cleaning teeth; forms part of a alcohol; the digestive secretions functional health assessment. are activated by hormones to carry activities of living (AL) (ˌakˈtivəteez out normal digestion. ov living) those activities which active (ˈaktiv) causing change; meet the physical, psychological and energetic. A. immunity an immunity social needs of the individual, e.g. in which individuals have been eating, elimination, communication, stimulated to produce their own breathing, expressing sexuality, antibodies. A. labour the normal working, play, etc. progress of the birth process, activity theory describes a psycho- including uterine contractions, social process whereby ageing dilation of the cervix to at least people disengage from some 3–4 cm, and the descent of the fetus activities of their earlier life and into the birth canal. A. listening the replace these with other hobbies act of alert, intentional hearing and and pastimes, according to theirKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 9 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 23. ACTIVITY TOLERANCE 10 changing physical abilities and of acute lung function failure which economic situation. occurs after an event such as trauma, activity tolerance (ˌakˈtivətee inhalation of a toxic substance ˈtolərəns) the amount of physical or septic shock. There is severe activity tolerated by a patient. It breathlessness and a dangerous may be assessed in patients with reduction in the supply of oxygen cardiac or chronic respiratory to the blood. disease. Graded exercise, including acute stress disorder (ˌaˈkyoot stres walking, cycling and going up and ˌdəˈsawdə) an anxiety disorder that down stairs, may be used to rebuild is usually transient which occurs confidence during the convalescent within 4 weeks following exposure phase after any serious illness or or involvement to a traumatic event. injury as an important part of any The staff of the emergency services rehabilitation program. may be affected, e.g. following a actomyosin (ˌaktohˈmieəsən) muscle major road traffic incident. protein complex; the myosin acyclic (ayˈsieklik) occurring component acts as an enzyme independently of a natural cycle of which causes the release of energy. events such as the menstrual cycle. acuity (əˈkyooətee) sharpness. A. of adactylia (ˌaydakˈtili·ə) congenital hearing an acute perception of sound. absence of fingers or toes. A. of vision clear focusing ability. Adam’s apple (ˈadəmz) the laryngeal acupressure (ˈakyəˌpreshə) a system prominence, a protrusion of the front of complementary medicine in of the neck formed by the thyroid which pressure is applied to various cartilage. points on the body to stimulate adamantine (ˌadəˈmanteen, -tien) the innate self-healing capacity of pertaining to the enamel of the teeth. the individual. See ACUPUNCTURE, adaptation (ˌadəpˈtayshən) 1. the SHIATSU. process of modification that a acupuncture (ˈakyəˌpungchə) a living organism undergoes when Chinese medical system which aims adjusting itself to new surroundings to diagnose illness and promote or circumstances. 2. adaptation was health by stimulating the body’s understood by the nurse theorist self-healing powers. The insertion Roy (1976) as being a function of of special needles into specific the stimulus to which the individual points along the ‘meridians’ of the is exposed and of the individual’s body is used for the production of adaptation to the situation. Roy anaesthesia, the relief of pain and maintained that there are four modes the treatment of certain conditions. of adaptation: physiological needs, acute (əˈkyoot) a term applied to a role functions, ‘self’ concept and disease in which the attack is sudden, interdependence relations. 3. the severe and of short duration. process of overcoming difficulties acute physiology and chronic health and adjusting to changing circum- evaluation see APACHE. stances. Neuroses and psychoses acute respiratory distress syndrome are often associated with failure of (ARDS) (ˌaˈkyoot ˌrəˈspirətree adaptation. 4. used in ophthalmology distres ˈsinˌdrohm) a severe form to mean the adjustment of visualKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 10 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 24. 11 ADENOSARCOMA function according to the ambient adducent (əˈdyoosənt) leading illumination. Colour a. 1. changes towards the midline. A. muscle the in visual perception of colour with medial rectus muscle of the eye, prolonged stimulation. 2. adjustment which turns it inwards. of vision to degree of brightness or adduction (əˈdukshən) movement of colour tone of illumination. Dark a limb towards the body. a. adaptation of the eye to vision adductor (əˈduktə) a muscle that in reduced illumination. Light a. draws a limb towards the midline of adaptation of the eye to vision in the body. The opposite of abductor. bright illumination (photopia), with adenectomy (ˌadəˈnektəmee) reduction in the concentration of the excision of a gland. photosensitive pigments of the eye. adenine (ˈadəˌneen) one of the purine addict (ˈadikt) a person exhibiting bases found in DNA. ADDICTION. adenitis (ˌadəˈnietəs) inflammation addiction (əˈdikshən) 1. the taking of a gland. of drugs or alcohol leading to adenocarcinoma (ˌadənohˌkahsə- physiological and psychological ˈnohmə) a malignant new growth dependence with a tendency to of glandular epithelial tissue. increase use. 2. the state of being adenofibroma (ˌadənohfieˈbrohmə) devoted to a particular activity or a benign tumour of connective tissue interest, e.g. gambling or computer which contains glandular structures. games to the exclusion of the adenohypophysis (ˌadənoh·hie- normal activities of daily living. ˈpofəsəs) the anterior lobe of the See DEPENDENCE and DRUG ADDICTION. pituitary gland. Addison’s anaemia (ˈadəsənz adenoid (ˈadəˌnoyd) resembling a əˈneemi·ə) T. Addison, British gland. Generally applied to abnormal physician, 1793–1860. Pernicious lymphoid growth in the nasopharynx anaemia. (see figure, p. 12). Addison’s disease (ˈadiˌsənz diˈzeez) adenoidectomy (ˌadənoyˈdektəmee) deficiency disease caused by partial the surgical removal of adenoid tissue or complete failure of adrenocortical from the nasopharynx. function. There is wasting, brown adenoma (ˌadəˈnohmə) a non- pigmentation of the skin and extreme malignant tumour of glandular tissue. debility. adenomatome (ˌadəˈnohməˌtohm) Addisonian crisis see ADRENAL CRISIS. an instrument for the removal of additives (ˈadiˌtivz) substances added adenoids. to improve, enhance or preserve adenomyoma (ˌadənohmieˈohmə) something. Food a. used in the food an innocent new growth involving industry to preserve and make the both endometrium and muscle food look more attractive; these tissue; found in the uterus or uterine are given serial numbers, e.g. E102 ligaments. (tartrazine), E476 (soya lecithin). adenopathy (ˌadəˈnopəthee) enlarge- Some additives may produce an ment of any gland, especially those allergic reaction in some people, and of the lymphatic system. a few are thought to be implicated adenosarcoma (ˌadənohsahˈkohmə) in behavioural problems in children. a malignant tumour of connectiveKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 11 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 25. ADENOSCLEROSIS 12 Adenoid peritonitis may cause adhesions growth between organs. A possible cause of intestinal obstruction. adiaphoresis (ayˌdieəfəˈreesəs) deficiency in secretion of sweat. adiaphoretic (ayˌdieəfərˈretik) an anti hidrotic agent. A drug that prevents the secretion of sweat. adipocele (ˈadəpohˌseel) a hernia, with the sac containing fatty tissue. adipose (ˈadəˌpohs, -z) of the nature of fat. Fatty. adiposity (ˌadəˈposətee) the state of being too fat. Obesity. adiposuria (ˌadəpohˈsyoori·ə) the presence of fat in the urine. See LIPURIA. Adenoid growth aditus (ˈadətəs) an opening or passageway; often applied to that and glandular tissue. Embryonal a. between the middle ear and the See NEPHROBLASTOMA. mastoid antrum. adenosclerosis (ˌadənohskləˈrohsəs) adjustment (əˈjustmənt) in hardening of a gland. Usually the psychology, the ability of a person result of calcification. to adapt to changing circumstances adenosine (aˈdenəˌseen) a nucleoside or environment. consisting of adenine and D-ribose adjuvant (ˈajəvənt) 1. any treatment (a pentose sugar). A. triphosphate used in conjunction with another to (ATP) compound containing three enhance its efficacy. 2. a substance phosphoric acids. It is present in all administered with a drug to enhance cells and serves as a store for energy. its effect. adenosis (ˌadəˈnohsəs) a disease ADL see ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING. in a gland. Adler’s theory (ˈadləz) A. Adler, adenovirus (ˌadənohˈvierəs) a Austrian psychiatrist, 1870–1937. virus of the Adenoviridae family. The theory that neuroses develop Many types have been isolated, as a compensation for feelings of some of which cause respiratory inferiority, either social or physical. tract infections, while others are adnexa (adˈneksə) appendages. associated with conjunctivitis, Uterine a. the ovaries and tubes. epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and adolescence (ˌadəˈlesəns) the period gastrointestinal infections. between puberty and maturity. In the ADH antidiuretic hormone. male, 14–25 years. In the female, Vasopressin. See also ANTIDIURETIC. 12–21 years. adhesion (ədˈheezhən) union between adopt (ˌaˈdopt) 1. to take a person, two surfaces normally separated. especially another’s child, into a Usually the result of inflammation legal relationship as one’s own. 2. to when fibrous tissue forms, e.g. choose to follow a course of action.King & Hawley 5e-final.indd 12 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 26. 13 ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT (ALS) adoption (ˌaˈdopshən) the legal and the gonads. A. syndrome a procedure by which a child is condition of masculinisation caused transferred from his or her birth by overactivity of the adrenal cortex parents to adopting parents. resulting in precocious puberty in adrenal (əˈdreenəl) 1. near the the male infant and masculinisation kidneys. 2. a triangular endocrine in the female. Both sexes are liable gland situated above each kidney. to Addisonian crises. A. cortex the outer and greater adrenolytic (əˈdreenohˈlitik) a drug portion of the adrenal gland. A. that inhibits the stimulation of the crisis an acute life-threatening sympathetic nerves and the activity state of profound adrenocortical of adrenaline. insufficiency requiring immediate adsorbent (ədˈsawbənt, -ˈzawb-) therapy. Called also Addisonian a substance that has the power of crisis. attracting gas or fluid to itself, e.g. adrenalectomy (əˈdreenəˌlektəmee) charcoal. surgical excision of adrenal gland. adsorption (ədˈsawpshən, -ˈzawp-) adrenaline (əˈdrenələn) a hormone the power of certain substances to secreted by the medulla of the attach gases or other substances adrenal gland. Has an action in solution to their surface and so similar to normal stimulation of concentrate them there. This is made the sympathetic nervous system: (a) use of in chromatography. causing dilatation of the bronchioles; adult (əˈdult, ˈadult) mature. A (b) raising the blood pressure by mature person. constriction of surface vessels and adulteration (əˈdultəˈrayshən) stimulation of the cardiac output; (c) addition of an impure, cheap or releasing glycogen from the liver. unnecessary ingredient to cheat, It is therefore used to treat such cheapen or falsify a preparation. conditions as asthma, collapse and advance directive or statement hypoglycaemia. It acts as a haemostat (ˌadˈvans directiv aw ˈstaytˌmənt) in local anaesthetics. See EPINEPHRINE. a written declaration made by adrenergic (ˌadrəˈnərjik) pertaining a mentally competent person, to nerves that release the chemical which sets out their wishes with transmitter noradrenaline in order regard to life-prolonging medical to stimulate the muscles and glands interventions if they are incapacitated they supply. by an irreversible disease or are adrenocortical (əˌdreenohˈkawtikəl) terminally ill which prevents them pertaining to the adrenal cortex. making their wishes known to Adrenocorticotrophin (əˌdreenoh health professionals at the time. ˌ k aw t i ko h ˈ t r o h f ə n ) a d r e n o - See LIVING WILL. corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) advanced life support (ALS) secreted by the anterior lobe of (ˌadˈvanst lief ˌsəˈpawt) resuscitation the pituitary body. Stimulates the techniques used during a cardiac adrenal cortex to produce cortisol. arrest that follows on from basic life See CORTICOTROPIN. support. They include defibrillation adrenogenital (əˌdreenohˈjenət’l) and the administration of appropriate relating to both the adrenal glands drugs. Paediatric advanced lifeKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 13 23/03/12 1:07 PM
  • 27. ADVANCED TRAUMA 14 support (PALS) is a structured and for long periods without undue algorithmic method of life support breathlessness. The aim of this for children with severe medical form of exercising is to increase emergencies. the effectiveness of the heart and advanced trauma life support lungs and the supply of oxygen to (ATLS) (ˌadˈvanst trawmə lief the tissues of the body. ˌsəˈpawt) a set of protocols aeropathy (airˈropəthee) commonly recommended for use by doctors called the bends (decompression and paramedics when dealing with sickness). seriously injured people at the scene aerophagy (airˈrofajee) excessive of an accident. The immediate swallowing of air. treatment of shock from reduced aerosol (ˈair·rəˌsol) finely divided blood volume by the infusion of particles or droplets. A. sprays fluids is an integral component of used in medicine to humidify air or the life support regimen. oxygen, or for the administration of advancement (ədˈvahnsmənt, drugs by inhalation. ədˈvans-) in surgery, an operation Æsculapius (ˈeeskyəˈlaypi·əs, ˈes- to detach a tendon or muscle and ) the god of healing in Roman reattach it further forward. Used mythology. in the treatment of STRABISMUS and aetiology (ˌeetiˈoləjee) the science plastic surgery. of the causes of disease. adventitia (ˌadvənˈtish·ə, -ˈtishə) afebrile (ayˈfeebriel, -ˈfeb-) without the outer coat of an artery or vein. fever. adventitious (ˌadvənˈtishəs) 1. affect (əˈfekt) in psychiatry, the feeling accidental or acquired. 2. arising experienced in connection with an sporadically. emotion or mood. advocacy (ˈadvəkəsee) the process affection (əˈfekshən) 1. a morbid whereby a nurse provides a patient condition or disease state. 2. a warm and/or the patient’s family with feeling for someone or something. information to enable them to affective (əˈfektiv) pertaining to the make informed decisions relating emotions or moods. A. psychoses to the care situation. The nurse is major mental disorders in which then able to provide support vis-à- there is grave disturbance of the vis other professionals and also to emotions. incorporate the informed decisions afferent (ˈafə·rənt) conveying towards into care planning. the centre. A. nerves the sensory aeration (airˈrayshən) supplying nerve fibres that convey impulses with air. Used to describe the from the periphery towards the brain. oxygenation of blood, which takes A. paths or tracts the course of the place in the lungs. sensory nerves up the spinal cord aerobe (ˈair·rohb) an organism that and through the brain. A. vessels may live and thrive only in the arterioles entering the GLOMERULUS presence of oxygen. of the kidney, or lymphatics entering aerobic exercise (ˌairˈohbik) physical a lymph gland. See EFFERENT. exercise for which the degree of effort affiliation (ˌaˈfileeˌayshən) the is such that it can be maintained judicial decision about the paternityKing & Hawley 5e-final.indd 14 23/03/12 1:07 PM