Dr Anna SpenceleyChair, IUCN World Commission on Protected AreasTourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group (TAPAS group)Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism3rd Annual Partners’ Symposium, 25 March 2013Achieving the Aichi Targets:Concessions and Protected Areas
2Tourism concessions• Granting of delegated rights to develop tourismactivities and infrastructures in protected areasand subject to conservation public interest:– Unilaterally, in the form of a License– In a mutually agreed manner, in the form of aConcession Contract• How do they contribute to Sustainable Tourism?– PA authority requirements on concessionaires onbiodiversity conservation: development & operation
3Tourism concessions & Aichi• 10th CoP of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Nagoya,Japan, October 2010– Strategic plan for CBD implementation: Aichi targets for 2020Tourism concession contributions to Aichi strategic goals:Strategic goal A. Address the underlying causes of biodiversityloss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and societyStrategic goal B. Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversityand promote sustainable useStrategic goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity bysafeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversityStrategic goal D: Enhance the benefits to all frombiodiversity and ecosystem services
4De-commissioningWaste disposalRemediationPlanningLocationDesignFootprintAccessConstructionMaterialsWasteFootprintOperationActivitiesWater use &disposalEnergyMaterialsWasteStrategic goal A. Address the underlying causes of biodiversityloss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society1. Include conservation requirements inconcession planning and bidding2. Monitoring and reporting on environmentalimpacts of concession contract
5NIASSA RESERVE, PRINCIPLES1. Concession Units for Conservation Hunting & Non -ConsumptiveTourism2. Reach the high end Market clientele3. Combination of Commercial and Philantropic Operators4. Sharing Management Costs and responsibilitiesObjectives: Implement the best practices to monitor theBioversity of the Reserve, with respect to hunting – “ Maximizetrophy quality and economic returns while maintaining viabilityand growth of wildlife populations through ecologicallysustainable hunting practices1. Conservation requirements in concessionplanning and biddingRodrigues and Booth 2012,
62. Monitoring and reportingSue Snyman, 2012; WildernessHoldings Ltd, 2012Strategic Goal A: Target 2: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values havebeen integrated into . . . planning processes . . . and reporting systems.
7Principal Features:• Joint venture development -Mpunga community (60%) &Eco-MICAIA Ltd (40%)• Situated in Moribane Forest(conservation area) on a 5.5hasite allocated by the community• 18 beds in 4 rondavels, a 3-bedroom family lodge and 2fixed tents + prepared & servicedcampsites• Restaurant and bar servingcreative locally inspired dishesusing seasonal produceAndrew Kingman, 2012, Eco-MICAIAStrategic goal B. Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity andpromote sustainable use
8Sustainability initiatives:forest conservation• Direct conservation of the Moribane Forest.– Planting and landscaping within the Camp grounds– Establishing a tree seedling nursery– Planting 1,000s of trees– Training Community Forest Rangers– Further work on zoning, creating new community agreedlimits on settlement and agriculture areas– Preparing detailed information about the biodiversity ofthe Forest – creating the Moribane Forest Learning CentreAndrew Kingman, 2012, Eco-MICAIA
9Training community forestrangersForest NurseryAndrew Kingman, 2012, Eco-MICAIAStrategic goal B: Target 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats . . .is at least halved . . . and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.Indigenous tree nursery
10Conservation of water bodiesEnsure that there are no significant negative impacts on these bodiesMinimise water usage through collection buckets in solar showers &education…most camps (70%) rely on borehole waterSue Snyman, 2012Strategic goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguardingecosystems, species and genetic diversity
11Integration into concession site plan• Project design• Location – sensitive sites• Design standards - siting, design compatibility, aesthetics,impact reduction re ecological and cultural values (design tominimize negative effects on site and surrounding areas)• Design for operation – waste water, water use, energyconservation. Build in energy conservation technology• Access – by road, air, water and implications• Planning requirements – Environmental ImpactAssessmentAdapted from Ted Manning, Tourisk IncStrategic goal C: Target 11: By 2020, at least 17% of terrestrial and inlandwater, and 10% of coastal and marine areas, . . . . are conserved througheffectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connectedsystems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures
12• Tourism as contributor to health of visitors(healthy people, healthy parks)• Livelihoods of host populations:– Economic: employment, equity in concessions,sales of products/services, poverty reduction– Social/Cultural: Enrichment, craft/dance, tours,healthcare, education etc.Strategic goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity andecosystem services
13Protected Area StakeholdersAdapted from ILO, 2011Protected Area .NaturalattractionsTourism concessionFarmersCommunity .Culturalattractions andactivities Small Medium andMicro EnterprisesExternalactivitiesTour operatorsCommunitybasedorganisationsGovernment and authoritiesTraditionalauthoritiesNational governmentLocal governmentConservationauthoritiesTourism facilitiesTouristsNon-governmentalOrganisations
14Strategic goal D. Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essentialservices, including services related to water, and contribute to health,livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into accountneeds of women, indigenous &local communities, & the poor & vulnerable.Involvement of local people in concessions
15Relevant TAPAS memberactivities• Best Practice guidelines on Sustainable Tourism inProtected Areas (3rd Edition) – in progress• Manual on tourism concessions with UNDP– inprogress• Guidelines for the planning and management ofconcessions, leases, licenses, and permits in parks andprotected areas (2012)• International concessions workshop, analysis andprivate sector toolkit with USAID (2012)• IUCN WCC workshop on tourism and concessions inprotected areas (2012)
16Further information on theIUCN WCPA TAPAS groupEmail: Dr Anna Spenceley (chair TAPAS) - email@example.comWebsite:www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_capacity2/gpap_wcpacap/gpap_tourism/Wiki: planeta.wikispaces.com/TAPASFacebook: www.facebook.com/pages/Tourism-and-Protected-Areas-Specialist-Group/122961127797095Linked-In group: www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=4735342&trk=myg_ugrp_ovr
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