Challenges to sustainable tourism

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A presentation made at the Southern African Sustainable Tourism Alliance meeting, in Durban, South Africa in May 2014. The presentation summarised findings of a study undertaken for the Global Partnership on Sustainable Tourism, through UNEP and supported by GiZ

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Challenges to sustainable tourism

  1. 1. { ! Understanding  challenges  to   sustainable  tourism  development   Dr  Anna  Spenceley   Alliance  3rd  Annual  Conference,  Garden  Court  Marine  Parade,   Durban,  8  May  2014  
  2. 2. Spenceley,  2013:    accessible  from  hFp://www.unep.org/resourceefficiency/tourism  
  3. 3. Approach   Key  ques(ons:   §  What  is  happening  in  sustainable                                                                               tourism  (ST)  in  southern  Africa?   §  What  are  the  challenges  to                                                                               mainstreaming  sustainable                                                                                               tourism?     Methods:   §  Literature  review   §  Online  survey:  Sent  to  199  people     §  50  respondents  (29%  parUcipaUon)   §  Stakeholder  review  &  virtual  meeUng  
  4. 4. Approach   Key  ques(ons:   §  What  is  happening  in  sustainable                                                                               tourism  (ST)  in  southern  Africa?   §  What  are  the  challenges  to                                                                               mainstreaming  sustainable                                                                                               tourism?     Methods:   §  Literature  review   §  Online  survey:  Sent  to  199  people     §  50  respondents  (29%  parUcipaUon)   §  Stakeholder  review  &  virtual  meeUng  
  5. 5. Barriers  to  mainstreaming  sustainable  tourism  
  6. 6. Barriers  to  mainstreaming  sustainable  tourism  
  7. 7. There  is  a  “    .  .  .  percep(on  that  to  operate   sustainably  is  costly  and  that  interven(ons   that  require  retro-­‐fi9ng  are  expensive.       Cer(fica(on  schemes  are  too  expensive  for   the  average  tourism  operator  who  would   rather  spend  their  money  becoming  more   sustainable  than  ge9ng  recogni(on  for  it.”  
  8. 8. Barriers  to  mainstreaming  sustainable  tourism  
  9. 9. 205  stakeholders  interviewed  (including  56  government,   tourism  authoriUes,  trade  associaUons,  investment  agencies)                                 Demand  mostly  for  courses  on  general  tourism          (e.g.  business  development,  management  etc)            -­‐  9%  -­‐  opUons  for  local  communiUes  in  tourism            -­‐  7%  -­‐  responsible  and  sustainable  tourism            -­‐  3%  -­‐  tourism  management  protected  areas     Spenceley  and  Rozga,  2007:    accessible  from  www.anna.spenceley.co.uk   Tourism  training  needs  in  9  African  countries   Madagascar  -­‐‑    Mozambique    -­‐‑  South  Africa  –  Tanzania    -­‐‑  Zambia
  10. 10. Public  sector     capacity  building   needs   Spenceley,  2013  
  11. 11. Public  sector     capacity  building   needs   Spenceley,  2013   Have  needs  for   sustainable   tourism  training   have  increased   over  5  years? (or  just  an  artifact   of  sampling?)
  12. 12. Barriers  to  mainstreaming  sustainable  tourism  
  13. 13. Private  sector   needs  in  order   to  develop   sustainable   tourism  
  14. 14. Source:  h,p://www.actsa.org/page-­‐‑1003-­‐‑TheFacts.html   How  do  we  overcome   the  barriers?
  15. 15. Approaches  to   overcoming   barriers    
  16. 16. Global  stocktaking:  Gaps  and  criUcal  needs   ! Public  sector:  General  awareness:  poliUcians  and  policy  makers  –   adequate  frameworks  /  long  term  view   Guidelines:    mandatory  (?)  for  tourism  policies   Communica(on:  strengthen  cross  sector:  tourism  to  other  sectors   Sta(s(cs  &  M&E:  improved  staUsUcs  collecUon/analysis  for  public  &   private  sector;  M&E  of  sustainable  tourism  impacts,  global  sustainability   index  for  desUnaUons   Technical  support/capacity  building:  sustainable  tourism  policies,  PPPs,   mulU-­‐stakeholder  dialogue;  M&E     UNEP,  2014  
  17. 17. POTENTIAL     INTERVENTIONS  FOR   SOUTHERN  AFRICA   1.  Strategies  and  policies     2.  Tourism  products  and  services   3.  Training  and  capacity  building   4.  Technical  tools  and  guidance   5.  Networks   Spenceley,  2013:    accessible  from  hFp://www.unep.org/resourceefficiency/tourism  
  18. 18. Needs:  More  consistent  implementaUon  of   ST;  stronger  enabling  environment;  use  of   regional  bodies   Recommenda(ons:   §  Develop  regional  framework  on   sustainable  tourism:  parUcipatory  process,   gap  analysis   §  Integrate  ST  goals  into  naUonal  tourism   offices   §  IncenUves  for  tourism  developments  with   ST  criteria   §  ParUcipatory  desUnaUon  planning  for  ST;   acUon  plans  with  local  parUcipaUon.  Focus   on  yield  not  CC     RecommendaUon  1:  Strategies  and  policies  
  19. 19. RecommendaUon  2:  Tourism  products  &  services   Need:  Greater  supply  of  sustainable  tourism   products:   §  reach  ‘Upping  point’  -­‐    sustainable  pracUces  are   the  norm  (i.e.  under  250  enterprises  cerUfied  in   southern  Africa)   Recommenda(ons:   §  Regional  markeUng  plan/brand  for  ST   southern  Africa   §  Mobilise  private  sector:  encourage   innovaUon   §  M&E  management  plans  for  ST  operaUons   §  Match  supply  and  demand  for  ST   §  Promote  local  community  involvement:  value   chains,  employment,  ownership  and  equity   Namibia TorraTorra Conservancy &Conservancy & DamaralandDamaraland CampCamp Author: Anna Spenceley. Photographs: Dana Alan, Wilderness Sa
  20. 20. RecommendaUon  2:  Tourism  products  &  services   Need:  Greater  supply  of  sustainable  tourism   products:   §  reach  ‘Upping  point’  -­‐    sustainable  pracUces  are   the  norm  (i.e.  under  250  enterprises  cerUfied  in   southern  Africa)   Recommenda(ons:   §  Regional  markeUng  plan/brand  for  ST   southern  Africa   §  Mobilise  private  sector:  encourage   innovaUon   §  M&E  management  plans  for  ST  operaUons   §  Match  supply  and  demand  for  ST   §  Promote  local  community  involvement:  value   chains,  employment,  ownership  and  equity   Namibia TorraTorra Conservancy &Conservancy & DamaralandDamaraland CampCamp Author: Anna Spenceley. Photographs: Dana Alan, Wilderness Sa Linking  with  the   ‘green’  corporates (remember  –   business  people   tale  leisure  trips   too!) Using  channels   like  Trip  Advisor’s   greenleaders Enouraging   sustainable   destinations  (e.g.   GSTC)
  21. 21. RecommendaUon  3:  Training  &  Capacity  building   Need:  Enhanced  understanding  by  government   agencies,  tourism  boards,  protected  areas:   §  IntegraUon  of  sustainable  tourism  in  their  work   Recommenda(ons:   §  Develop  capacity  at  universiUes    on  ST  training   &  knowledge   §  Train  and  build  capacity  key  stakeholders  in  ST   –  public  and  private  sector   §  DisseminaUon  of  informaUon  and  awareness   raising  
  22. 22. RecommendaUon  4:  Technical  Tools  &  Guidance   Need:  Balanced  tools  and  guidance  on                                                 sustainable  tourism  related  to  country                                                 prioriUes.   Recommenda(ons:   §  Research  on  the  business  case  for  ST:     §  cost  savings,  market  access,  best  pracUces   §  Balanced  tools  to  encourage  uptake  of  ST:  environmental,   social,  economic   §  Share  informaUon  on  best  pracUces:    Scaling  up  
  23. 23. RecommendaUon  5:  Networks   Need:  Encourage  relaUonship  and  linkage   building  between  professionals  and   insUtuUons     Recommenda(ons:   §  Support  networking  and  sharing  best   pracUces   §  Annual  conference  on  sustainable  tourism   §  Network  of  technical  advisors  on  ST   §  Develop  partnerships  to  promote   sustainability  
  24. 24. Thank  you! Dr  Anna  Spenceley       Email:  annaspenceley@gmail.com   PresentaUons:  www.slideshare.net/AnnaSpenceley   Website:  www.anna.spenceley.co.uk  

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