2. Introduction• Modern approaches evolve from history• History shows the role of customs and values of various societies
3. Objectives• Identify and discuss the major events, social trends, and religious influences during the following: – Ancient Civilizations – The Dark and Middle Ages – The Renaissance – The Protestant Reformation – The Colonial Period – The Industrial Revolution – The Early Twentieth Century – The Great Depression – World War I and World War II
4. Objectives (cont’d)• Discuss the growth of popular recreation and the changing attitudes toward play following the Industrial Revolution.• Identify the social trends that brought the growth of commercial amusements.• Discuss the impact of racial and ethnic discrimination.• Identify the public concerns about the use of leisure in the early part of the twentieth century.
5. Objectives (cont’d)• Identify the major forces that promoted recreation services in the early part of the twentieth century.• Discuss the role of schools in the provision of recreation and leisure services.• Discuss the societal impact of the Great Depression and the how recreation was used during that time.• Discuss the ways recreation and leisure were impacted by World War I and World War II.
6. The Play of Early Societies• Origins of Games and Sports – Vestiges of warfare – Religious traditions – Teaching and sharing culture – Other play functions • Skill building • Tradition
8. Recreation and Leisure inAncient Civilizations (cont’d) • Ancient Assyria and Babylonia – Many activities in common with Egypt • Boxing, wrestling, archery, table games – Music, dance, banquets – Parks were established for hunting parties – Space was dedicated for feasts, celebrations, and royal gatherings
9. Recreation and Leisure inAncient Civilizations (cont’d)• Ancient Israel – Music and dance as part of ritual – Hunting, fishing, wrestling, and weaponry – Greatest contribution was the Sabbath as a time for rest and worship
10. Recreation and Leisure in Ancient Civilizations (cont’d)• Ancient Greece – Greek philosophy of recreation and leisure • Strong belief in the unity of mind and body • Play was essential to healthy social and physical growth of children • Leisure was for affluent, noblemen – Changes in the Greek approach to leisure • Provisions for parks and gardens, theaters • At first Olympic games were for all free-born Greeks • Later, religious functions replaced by commercial • Skills were left to experts and specialists
11. Recreation and Leisure inAncient Civilizations (cont’d)• Ancient Rome – Leisure was reflection of nationalism • Focus on athletic competition • Utilitarian purposes vs. aesthetic – Leisure closely related to worship – First culture to emphasize spectatorship
12. Recreation and Leisure inAncient Civilizations (cont’d) • Corruption of Entertainment – Evolving emphasis on human combat – Immense commercialization – Death was often the result of losing a competition – Humans were routinely sacrificed in competition
13. Early Christian Era: Dark and Middle Ages• Pastimes in the Middle Ages – Games of the common people • Village feasts and sports • Competition among villages • Hunting was more a means of survival than sport • Love of sightseeing and entertainment seeking
14. The Renaissance• Play as Education – Athenian philosophy emphasizing play in childhood reemerges – Emphasis on the need for physical exercises and games Singing Nature study Dancing Modeling and painting Manual training – Play as an exercise for the mind and body
15. Influence of the Protestant Reformation• Puritanism in England – Constant battle to limit sports and entertainment – Strict observance of the Sabbath – Entertainment and play seen as "devilish pastimes“ – James I issued "Declaration on Lawful Sports" • Acknowledgement of military value of sport • Outlined acceptable activity
16. Development of Parks and Recreation Areas• Types of Recreation Areas – Large parks emerged in the late Renaissance – Types • Royal hunting preserves • Formal garden parks • English garden parks
17. Development of Parks and Recreation Areas• Use of Private Estates – Lavish private grounds – Became custom to open parks to the public for use and viewing• Popular Diversions in England – Outdoor gardens established to provide entertainment and relaxation – Varied amusements provided in the parks – Types of recreation depended upon where you lived
18. Development of Parks and Recreation Areas (cont’d)• Concerns About Leisure• Class Differences – Inequity in leisure time became more pronounced and protested – Commercial entertainment continued to prosper
19. Recreation in America: The Colonial Period• Restrictions in New England – Puritans enthusiastically adopted the Calvinist work ethic – Magistrates curbed amusement and recreation as much as possible – Punishments administered for breaking work ethics
20. Recreation in America:The Colonial Period (cont’d)• Leisure in the Southern Colonies – At first, mandated church attendance and imprisonment for participating in leisure activities on the Sabbath – This changed because aristocrats had slave labor, giving them time for leisure – Lifestyles of slaves in stark contrast to their owners
21. Recreation in America: The Colonial Period (cont’d)• Decline of Religious Controls – Play became gradually tolerated in the colonies – Lotteries became popular and helped endow schools and churches• Parks and Conservation in the Colonial Era – Land seemed plentiful, so little attention was given to conservation – Village greens were created in the cities
22. Recreation in America:The Colonial Period (cont’d)• Early Conservation Efforts – Cutting down trees without permission was against the law – Great Ponds Act of 1641 protected 2,000 bodies of water – PA passed law requiring a 5:1 forest conservation initiative – MA and CT confined hunting to specific seasons
23. Nineteenth Century Changes: Impact of the Industrial Revolution• Urbanization – Shift from rural to urban centers – Population rose rapidly – Urban centers were not prepared for the boom • Tenement living • Unsanitary conditions • Child labor
24. Nineteenth Century Changes: Impact of the Industrial Revolution (cont’d)• The Availability of Leisure – Unionization resulted in shorter work hours and child labor laws• Religious Revivalism and Recreation – Dedication to work was the hallmark of American life – Concern about ability of immigrants to manage free time – Recreation viewed as venue for teaching “American” values
25. Change in Work Week Insert Figure 3.1Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2009. Available at: http://www.bls.gov.Accessed November 10, 2010.
27. Changing Attitudes Toward Play• Churches began to sanction positive recreation• Popular amusements continue to grow• Muscular Christianity influenced schools and philanthropic organizations• College sports – College athletics and social clubs for sporting – Social fraternities – Intercollegiate sports eventually evolved • First intercollegiate football game between Princeton and Rutgers in 1869
28. Changing Attitudes Toward Play (cont’d)• Amateur Sports – New York Athletic Club – Amateur Athletic Union – German turnvereins and Czech sokols – YMCA
30. Growth of Commercial Amusements• Reduction in Work Hours – Obtaining shorter work hours was critical to reform politics• Concerns About Leisure – There were no "professors of play“ – Question of what to do with leisure – Traditional social activities and casual play no longer available
31. The Beginning Recreation Movement• The Adult Education Movement – Civic concern for intellectual civilization and continuing education – Conviction that leisure could contribute to American intellectual heritage – Lyceum movement – Expansion of reading and public libraries
32. The Beginning Recreation Movement (cont’d)• The Development of National, State, and Municipal Parks – State Parks • States establish organized conservation efforts – Municipal Parks • Central Park in New York was the first • Large parks are seen as necessary – County Park Systems • First county park system in New Jersey
33. Case Study: Urban Parks• Periods – Pleasure ground (1850-1900) – Reform park (1900-1930) – Recreation facility (1930-1965)
34. Case Study: Urban Parks
35. Case Study: Urban Parks• How did the 3 periods mirror society?• What were the actual benefits to the beneficiaries?• How many of these types of parks have you visited?• How have they changed? 35
36. The Beginning Recreation Movement (cont’d)• Establishment of Voluntary Organizations – YMCA/YWCA – University Settlement – Hull House
37. Case Study: YMCA• Explain the importance of the YMCA changing from an evangelical to a social organization.• How does the YMCAs “diffusion process” compare to today’s social media?• Differentiate between a preventive- & rehabilitative-focused organization.
39. Effect of Racial and Ethnic Discrimination• Prejudice Against Minorities – Most severe discrimination against African Americans – Mexican Americans and Hispanics viewed as heathens – Strong prejudice against interracial marriage – Widespread prejudice against Asian Americans – Americans of African origin were also barred from many activities
40. Recreation and Parks: Early Twentieth Century• Growth of Public and Park Agencies – City government interest in recreation facilities became accepted – Networks of playgrounds planned and operated throughout cities
41. Recreation and Parks: Early Twentieth Century (cont’d)• Federal Park Expansion – Reclamation Act of 1902 – Antiquities Act of 1906 – Establishment of US Forest Service in 1905 – National Park Service in 1916
42. Emergence of theRecreation Movement: Three Pioneers• Joseph Lee – Father of the playground movement – Viewed little difference between work and play• Luther Halsey Gulick – Established a school for gym instructors; first president of Camp Fire Girls – Instrumental in the establishment of Playground Association of America in 1906
43. Emergence of the Recreation Movement: Three Pioneers (cont’d)• Jane Addams – Established Hull House in Chicago – Considered to be a radical – Aided immigrants in their transition to America• Contrasting Roles of Recreation Pioneers – Styles and contributions unique – Among all, play was seen as a way of Americanizing foreigners
44. Emerging New Lifestyles• Victorian mentality challenged the role of recreation• Women gain greater independence – In the workplace – Money and opportunity for social pursuits• Youth seek excitement beyond organized recreation
45. Public Concerns About the Use of Leisure• Concern About Commercial Amusements – Fear that unregulated places of commercial amusement posed a threat – Studies designed to examine amusements and who was using them – Permit systems established for places of commercial amusement – Increasingly promoted the idea that recreation had to be formally organized and managed
46. Public Concerns About the Use of Leisure (cont’d)• Emerging Mass Culture – Emergence of a new middle class in the early twentieth century – Growing rejection of authoritarian family structures and church dominated values – New craze for excitement and freedom in leisure – Amusement parks gain popularity
47. Major Forces Promoting Organized Recreation Services• Growth of Voluntary Organizations – National Association of Boys Clubs 1906 – Boy Scouts and Camp Fire Girls 1910 – Girl Scouts 1912 – Rotary Club, Kiwanis, Lions Club 1910– 1917
48. Major Forces PromotingOrganized Recreation Services (cont’d)• Playground Association of America – Purpose was to develop services to assist people in using leisure time constructively – The Normal Course in Play training curriculum – Name changed in 1911 to Playground and Recreation Association of America – Name changed in 1926 to National Recreation Association
49. Major Forces Promoting Organized Recreation Services (cont’d)• Recreation Programs in World War I – War Camp Community Service • Joint effort of Council of National Defense, War Department Commission on Training Camp Activities, and the Playground and Recreation Association • Provided wholesome recreation activities for both military personnel and civilians
50. Major Forces PromotingOrganized Recreation Services (cont’d) • Role of the Schools – Urban school boards initiated after-school and vacation play programs – By 1930, thousands of school systems had extensive extracurricular programs
51. Major Forces PromotingOrganized Recreation Services (cont’d)• Outdoor Recreation Developments – National Park Service enlarged outdoor recreation – State governments take greater responsibility• The End of Shorter Hours – Free time gradually declined as the recreation movement increases – Unstable economy tried to create a balance between the workweek and overproduction
52. Figure 3.2Data from National Park System. “National Park System Areas Listed in Chronological Order ofDate Authorized Under DOI.” Available at:http://www.nps.gov/applications/budget2/documents.chronop.pdf. Accessed October 7, 2010.
53. Case Study: The National Park Service• Prepare a series of arguments in favor of creating the National Park Service.• Do the same focusing on opposition to its creation.• How would the national parks areas be different today if we did not have a single agency to manage them?
54. Impact of the Great Depression• Mass unemployment and idleness stimulated national concern about leisure• New Deal programs employed millions of people and built thousands of recreation facilities• Sharpened awareness of leisure needs – The New Leisure Challenges the Schools, 1930s – National Recreation Association examined European trends to draw parallels to the United States
55. Case Study: Franklin D.Roosevelt’s Park Legacy• The New Deal – Responding to 30% unemployment• Key conservation organizations – Civilian Conservation Corps – Works Progress Administration• 47 of 48 states participated• 475 CCC camps on state park lands• WPA worked in urban areas
56. Case Study: Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Park Legacy• How did the New Deal change urban and rural recreation areas, conservation areas, wildlife areas, and other areas?• Can you identify CCC or WPA areas in your community or state?
57. A Nation at War• Special Services Division of the Army provided recreation facilities worldwide• Welfare and Recreation Section of the Bureau of Naval Personnel• Expanded programs of the Recreation Service of the Marine Corps• United Service Organizations (USO) in 1941 was a joint effort of six agencies: Jewish Warfare Board, Salvation Army, Catholic Community Service, YMCA, YWCA, National Travelers Aid
58. A Nation at War (cont’d)• American Red Cross established clubs• Municipal directors extended their facilities• National Industrial Recreation Association• Recreation Division of the Federal Security Agencys Office of Community War Services• Womens Bureau of the US Department of Labor