The Role Of DMOs In The Tourism Ecosystem


Published on

Published in: Business, Travel
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Role Of DMOs In The Tourism Ecosystem

  1. 1. The Role and Future of DMO’s in the Tourism Ecosystem Enter 2002 Innsbruck, Austria Anna Pollock DestiCorp Limited
  2. 2. Purpose and Scope <ul><li>To have you see differently – to unleash your imagination & creativity – in order to work differently! </li></ul><ul><li>Why the Ecosystem metaphor? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce concept of Destination Webs © </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role and purpose of DMO’s in this context? </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons from the Slimemould! </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for organisation, work and culture </li></ul>
  3. 3. From “Industry” to “Ecosystem” A capitalist economy can best be comprehended as a living ecosystem. Key phenomena observed in nature – competition, specialisation, cooperation, exploitation, learning, growth and several others – are also central to business life. …. Information is the essence of both systems. Michael Rothschild (1990)
  4. 4. From “Industry” to “Ecosystem” The new paradigm requires thinking in terms of whole systems – that is, seeing your business as part of a wider ecosystem and environment. Our traditional notions of vertical and horizontal integration fail us in the new world of cooperating communities. In place of industry I suggest a more appropriate term: business ecosystem James Moore (1996): Death of Competition
  5. 5. Out with the Old <ul><li>Mechanical, clockwork view of the universe, the economy as engine </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors, industries as “cogs in a wheel” needing re-engineering, kick starting </li></ul><ul><li>Command and Control structures and cultures drawn from the battlefield or sport </li></ul><ul><li>Linear, supply chains </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Value a reflection of physical, hard assets (real estate, buildings, cash) </li></ul><ul><li>Big is better – control transaction costs, merge, acquire, dominate or die </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is a Destination Web ©? Tapscott’s “Business Web” applied to tourism…. A Destination Web © is an electronically inter-connected community of autonomous but interdependent, travel-related enterprises that collaborate in order to provide value to visitors, profit for providers and partners and benefits to the host community. DestiCorp
  7. 7. How is a DW like an ecosystem? <ul><li>A DW operates as an open system reliant on an external source of energy (visitors); </li></ul><ul><li>Each DW operates within a larger ecosystem (physical, social, financial, cultural, political); </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprises (businesses, associations, agencies) within DWs are equivalent to species that both compete and collaborate; </li></ul><ul><li>They exchange energy and resources with each other and the surrounding environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Stability depends on the DW’s ability to maintain an external and internal balance; and </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprises and ecosystems are self-organising and evolve from simple to more complex systems </li></ul>
  8. 8. Do Destination Webs Exist? They are emerging…… Destinations currently comprise collections of fragmented enterprises focusing on their own customers and products The means to act collectively in response to external change (such as an act of terrorism) or internal change (e.g., rising costs of capital or declining labour availability) is limited. Diffusion of innovation and creativity is slow and uneven – ability to adapt is limited.
  9. 9. Features of a Destination Web <ul><li>Common sources of energy – serve the same visitor </li></ul><ul><li>Wired up – connected electronically via the Internet (TCP/IP) </li></ul><ul><li>Common, open standards for data exchange, interoperability and connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange information, goods, services, knowledge using common e-infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Can anticipate, learn, adapt and evolve </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why the metaphor? <ul><li>Helps us better understand the laws governing success or failure </li></ul><ul><li>Points to new organisational structures and ways of working appropriate to a networked world operating globally and continuously </li></ul><ul><li>To survive, DMO’s need to be: </li></ul><ul><li>R elevant </li></ul><ul><li>A gile </li></ul><ul><li>R esponsive </li></ul><ul><li>A daptive </li></ul>
  11. 11. Role of the DMO Guest Provider Host DMO Territory Intermediary Space
  12. 12. DW Environment Culture Social Political Economic Visitors Channels
  13. 13. DMO Traditional Mechanical Perspective Providers Accommodation Attractions, Events Dining Shopping Transport etc Partners Travel Trade Trade Press Intermediaries Customers Business Leisure Domestic International Holiday Short Break Host Community Regional Agencies County Councils Local Authorities Tourist Info Centres Environment
  14. 14. The Destination Marketing Organisation channels Customers Business Leisure Domestic International Holiday Short Break brands Place Sector Theme Market TIC Web Telephone Kiosk Print Car, mobile Providers Accommodation Attractions, Events Dining Shopping Transport etc Partners Travel Trade Trade Press Associations Host Community Regional Tourism Boards County Councils Local Authorities Tourist Info - Centres Destination Marketing Organisation Destination Management System
  15. 15. DW Environment Culture Social Political Economic Visitors Channels
  16. 16. The DMO? DMO as “brain” ? Visitor Provider Host Partner
  17. 17. DMO As Cell Membrane Sensing, responding Visitor Provider Host Partner
  18. 18. <ul><li>DMO Key activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing and marketing the destination brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving prospects and visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowering and serving providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing benefits to the Host </li></ul></ul>Implications
  19. 19. Developing the Destination Brand <ul><li>DMO’s as Guardians of the Brand </li></ul><ul><li>The visitor has a complex experience – a mosaic of separate pieces </li></ul><ul><li>This mosaic can be packaged and described geographically or thematically </li></ul><ul><li>It remains, however, a highly subjective and personal mental construct – a fantasy prior to experience; a memory after the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Destinations are “the stuff that dreams are made of” and DMO’s “the keepers of the magic” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Developing the Destination Brand <ul><li>The task is complex and highly dynamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the key brand values? How may they be communicated and experienced consistently throughout the sales cycle? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can they be presented and interpreted to appeal to an increasingly broad range of personal tastes and via an expanding range of channels? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The harsh administrative boundaries of a region rarely coincide with the visitor’s perception of a place – yet that is where DMO’s start and focus </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Dancing with the Customer <ul><li>No longer a numbers game </li></ul><ul><li>You’re building relationships with individual visitors and partners across multiple channels in a continuous cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Your prospects, your visitors talk to one another </li></ul><ul><li>They are your greatest allies or worst enemies – treat with care…. </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous implications for organisational structure, business process and information management </li></ul>
  22. 22. Focus Visitor Partner Industry Host Community Resources Strategic Services Quality Assurance Marketing
  23. 23. Visitor Provider Partner Host How do we organise ourselves and work together? <ul><li>Customer facing activity </li></ul><ul><li>Policy, brand, intelligence, comms support </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Support (HR, £) </li></ul><ul><li>Infostructure </li></ul><ul><li>content, connections, tools </li></ul>
  24. 24. Visitor Provider Partner Host How do we organise ourselves and work together? Visitor Services Marketing & Sales Trade Relations Media relations Industry Relations New Products Conference Bureau Research, Planning Policy, Brand, Corporate Strategy Operational Resources Finance Personnel Technology Facilities infostructure Internal support Think, plan, guide Execute, do
  25. 25. Dancing with the Visitor? Reflect stimulate Inform evaluate Reward Recommend Search Compare Select Dream Plan Reject Experience Buy Return sell support
  26. 26. At each stage in the cycle? <ul><li>What content needs to be presented and in what format? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>print, moving image, still image, editorial text, facility descriptors, product inventory, availability, quality….. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What tools will the customer need to make a purchase? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>searching, comparing, selecting, requesting, reserving, paying, confirming, changing, upgrading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What channels are best suited to the customer at each stage and how can the content be presented as relevant? </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Empowering Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to markets – electronic distribution and sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control and choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting Partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to inventory at net rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality assurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serving the Host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance, ROI, impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a balance </li></ul></ul>DMO’s Have Other Customers Too!
  28. 28. The Issue is Managing Complexity <ul><li>Markets are fragmenting from multiple segments to thousands of demanding individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Channels and partners are proliferating in number, type and complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier base – large, heterogeneous, and highly fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Scope and power of the functionality required is increasing exponentially….while </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets and human resources are restrained, reduced. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Lessons from Nature <ul><li>Intelligence has less do with size than connections – internal and external </li></ul><ul><li>Human Embryo: in the first five weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Next 8 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the nerves in the cerebral cortext connect not with sensory input but with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>95% of DNA is pre-occupied with organisation and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Slime mould – primitive funghi, cell clusters, no brain, no “pacemaker” cells – shows signs of intelligence </li></ul>
  30. 30. Slime Cells Working Together <ul><li>Yellow = slime cells filling a maze </li></ul>
  31. 31. Slime Cells Working Together <ul><li>Add food at two ends of the maze ….. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Slime Cells Working Together <ul><li>Slime cells re-organise to minimise the distance between the “organism” and source of food – using inter-cellular, peer-to-peer communication. </li></ul>
  33. 33. To Control or To Enable? <ul><li>DMO in Control Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence concentrated in centre </li></ul><ul><li>Develops complex spec for multi-functional DMS </li></ul><ul><li>Sets standards, compiles content </li></ul><ul><li>Hard-wired solutions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Top Down” approach, mindful of jurisdictions beneath, rationale, structured </li></ul><ul><li>DMO in enabling Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Wires up the participants </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds all players information, intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Creates secure trading environment (QA) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages learning, interaction, innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is pervasive </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bottom up”, self-organising, peer to peer.fluid, messy… </li></ul>
  34. 34. Conclusion <ul><li>Think in system terms – identify their contribution to the destination web and re-examine their role and core competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Organise their internal work differently to match the changing environment; </li></ul><ul><li>Add value by focusing exclusively on customers’ needs – not on its own concerns for survival; </li></ul><ul><li>and…. </li></ul>Smart DMO’s will
  35. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>Enable and encourage maximum communication between all participants in the destination web by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging all participants to “get wired” and use and develop interoperable “web services” and open standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging knowledge sharing and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to (sensing) and talking with (responding) to customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a safe electronic trading environment (QA, trust, security) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing in the direction of energy – allowing collaborative solutions to emerge </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Thank You <ul><li>For more information about Destination Webs, Web Services, Slime Mould and other important topics, please visit us at : </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>