Beyond Recovery: Transformation! Tourism’s Contribution to Community Development in a Network Economy
 

Beyond Recovery: Transformation! Tourism’s Contribution to Community Development in a Network Economy

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Reason why leader's need to change their mindset...

Reason why leader's need to change their mindset
The shift from an industrial to ecological, network model of tourism
Relevance of changing worldviews to tourism
The need for transformation
The look and feel of transformation

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    Beyond Recovery: Transformation! Tourism’s Contribution to Community Development in a Network Economy Beyond Recovery: Transformation! Tourism’s Contribution to Community Development in a Network Economy Document Transcript

    • 














 
 


 Beyond
Recovery:
Transformation!
 Tourism’s
Contribution
to
Community
 Development
in
a
Network
Economy
 
 
 Anna
Pollock
 DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 5th
November,
2009

    • 


Introduction
This
paper
is
for
use
and
reflection
by
clients
and
audience
members
who
have
participated
in
presentations
by
Anna
Pollock
and
who
have
expressed
an
interest
in
contributing
to
the
discussion
regarding
the
future
of
tourism
and
economic
development
at
the
community
level.


It
has
three
parts:


 1. A
discussion
of
the
reason
why
industry
leaders
need
to
change
their
mindset
from
one
 that
views
tourism
as
an
industry
to
one
that
perceives
it
as
a
complex
networked
 system;
 2. An
introduction
to
the
six
key
change
drivers
that
necessitate
such
a
shift;
and

 3. A
discussion
of
the
changes
that
tourism
must
make
to
operate
in
a
carbon‐constrained,
 highly
networked,
creative
economy.

 
This
PDF
version
is
frozen
in
time
(see
date
stamp
in
footer).
The
author
has
posted
an
electronic
version
that
will
be
continuously
up‐dated
and
expanded
in
response
to
reader
feedback;
new
information
and
ideally,
success
stories
from
the
field.
Thus
this
work
is
intended
to
be
a
collaborative
process
in
which
the
reader
is
also
creator.
An
ever
expanding
reading
list
will
enable
readers
to
follow
lines
of
inquiry
that
are
of
personal
interest.



A
Change
in
Perception
While
five
years
in
the
history
of
humanity
is
a
mere
blink
of
an
eye,
future
historians
may
recognise
this
coming
decade
as
marking
a
tipping
point
in
human
development
–
a
period
during
which
a
critical
mass
of
human
beings
changed
their
perception
of
how
the
world
works
and
human’s
role
and
relationships
on
the
planet
we
call
home.


The
seeds
for
this
shift
were
sown
between
the
two
world
wars
as
scientists
delved
deeper
into
the
heart
of
the
atom
and
realised
that
objective
reality
was
an
illusion;
that
the
very
act
of
observing
sub‐atomic
phenomena
changed
their
properties
and
that
what
we
perceive
as
solid
is
really
energy
and
matter
in
constant
motion.



Even
though
enormous
breakthroughs
in
the
hard
sciences
were
shaking
the
foundations
of
our
worldview,
the
commercial
world
carried
on
business
as
usual
developing,
refining
and,
occasionally,
re‐engineering,
an
industrial
model
of
production
and
consumption
that
had
emerged
in
the
late
18th
and
early
19th
centuries.


This
so
called
“industrial
worldview”
is
premised
on
the
assumption
of
a
precisely
working,
fragmented,
non‐changing,
non‐living,
and
predictable
‘Clockwork
Universe’,
which
is
expressed
in
the
metaphors
of
‘machine’
and
‘control’.


 The
machine
imagery
led
to
the
belief
that
studying
the
parts
was
key
to
understanding
the
 whole.
Things
are
taken
apart,
dissected
literally
or
figuratively
(as
we
have
done
with
 business
functions,
academic
disciplines,
areas
of
specialisation,
human
body
parts)
and
 then
put
them
back
together
without
any
significant
loss.
The
assumption
is
that
the
more
 we
know
about
the
workings
of
each
piece,
the
more
we
learn
about
the
whole.
….i

The
materialistic
worldview
seeks
to
comprehend
the
world
through
our
physical
senses.
It
tends
to
operate
on
the
principle
belief
that,
unless
phenomena
can
be
sensed
and
measured,
they
are
considered
either
unmanageable
or
not
worth
managing.


The
foundations
of
most
business
management
theories
pioneered
by
the
likes
of
Taylor,
Sloan,
and
Kettering,
and
taught
by
Harvard
and
countless
other
business
schools,
were
based
on
this
mechanistic
perspective
and
were
designed
in
response
to
the
prolific
output
of
industrialists
such
as
Ford.
…

November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 2

    • 

 …whose
workers
functioned
as
parts
of
the
machine,
each
carrying
out
a
specified,
 unvarying
sequence
of
tasks.
In
fact,
the
appropriate
metaphor
for
make­and­sell
 companies
is
efficient,
offer­making
machines.
Such
firms
are
characterised
by
replaceable
 parts,
economies
of
scale
and
replaceable
people
executing
repeatable
procedures
in
 accordance
with
prescribed
business
plans.
ii
 
There’s
no
disputing
the
fact
that,
in
terms
of
material
output,
this
industrial
model
has
been
highly
productive
and
efficient
resulting
in
vast
increases
in
Gross
Domestic
Product.
But
by
the
end
of
the
1990s,
the
stability
needed
to
sustain
this
output
was
fast
disappearing.
Rapidly
shifting
consumer
preferences
combined
with
boom
and
bust
cycles
and
resource
constraints
necessitated
a
degree
of
agility
and
resilience
that
centralised,
“hard
wired”
complex
supply
chains
could
not
produce.


Limitations
to
the
mechanistic
and
highly
controlled
method
of
production
and
distribution
coincided
with
a
growing
awareness
that
the
world
might
not
work
in
such
an
orderly,
linear
fashion
after
all.
Advances
in
molecular
biology,
quantum
physics,
astronomy,
neuroscience
and
network
science
(to
name
but
a
few
areas)
combined
with
increased
awareness
of
resource
shortages
and
the
environmental
impacts
of
waste
and
pollutants
to
usher
in
a
systems
or
ecological
worldview
that
focused
on
networks
and
the
relationships
connecting
parts
of
a
network
to
produce
a
dynamic
whole.


Quantum
physics
showed
that
there
are
no
basic
building
blocks
in
nature
–
subatomic
particles
come
into
form
and
are
observed
only
as
they
are
in
relationship
to
something
else.
All
living
systems
–
from
the
human
body
through
to
the
planet
as
a
whole
–
are
now
recognised
as
complex
and
self‐regulating,
comprising
multiple
and
diverse,
self‐organising
agents
in
constant
relationship
with
each
other
and
larger
systems
of
which
they
are
a
part.
They
respond
to
change
by
re‐organising
themselves
into
higher
levels
of
organisation.
Systems
and
human
organisations
act
like
networks
or
communities
and
while
some
physical
laws
still
apply,
they
also
obey
a
new
set
of
rules
that
are
only
now
being
mapped
and
understood.



 Figure
1
 The
Shift
in
Perception

 


This
shift
in
perspective
from
machine
to
organic,
dynamic
system
is
profound
and
is
affecting
every
aspect
of
human
society.
The
only
way
leaders,
be
they
in
economic
development
or
tourism
or
both,
can
lead
effectively
is
to
understand
the
full
nature
and
implications
of
this
shift.

New
ways
of
thinking
are
needed
that
draw
on
parts
of
the
brain
that
the
industrial
worldview
considered
irrelevant.
Dan
Pink’s
book,
A
Whole
New
Mind,
provides
an
excellent
and
highly
accessible
introduction
to
the
need
to
balance
the
differing
capacities
of
the
left
and
right
hemispheres
of
the
brain
in
order
to
make
sense
of
a
rapidly
changing,
and
increasingly
complex,
world.



November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 3

    • 

Relevance
of
Changing
Worldviews
to
Tourism
&
Economic
Development
Following
the
invention
and
rapid
diffusion
of
mass
transportation
(rail
and
air)
that
rapidly
increased
the
volume
of
travellers
in
the
1950s
and
1960s,
tourism
businesses
looked
to
manufacturing
for
organisational
models
and
best
management
practice.


The
visitor’s
experience
was
perceived,
managed
and
marketed
not
as
a
whole
but
as
a
series
of
products
that
could
be
assembled
–
like
the
parts
of
a
car
–
from
within
a
vertically
integrated
chain
of
supply.


The
science
of
marketing
focused
on
identifying
customer
segments
that
could
be
targeted
and
on
which
various
messages
and
products
could
be
pushed
in
order
to
persuade
consumers
to
consume
and
thereby
capture
market
share.
The
language
and
metaphors
were
decidedly
military,
highly
competitive
and
product
centric.


The
results
were
impressive
–
in
just
under
sixty
years,
international
tourism
grew
from
a
trickle
to
a
flood
with
just
under
a
billion
international
travellers
exploring
the
planet
and
at
least
five
times
that
number
staying
within
their
own
borders.
Spokespersons
for
the
leading
tourism
agencies
such
as
the
WTTC
and
UNWTO
regularly
boasted
of
tourism’s
resilience
and
projected
annual,
compound
increases
in
traffic
of
4‐6%
over
the
next
decade.


Figure
2
is
a
chart
illustrating
the
UNWTO
projections
of
tourism
growth
between
1950
and
2020
that
shows
an
exponential
increase
in
the
volume
of
tourism
traffic
which
appears
to
have
no
end.
The
pattern
reflects
an
industrial
mindset
that
tends
to
think
in
straight
lines,
by
projecting
the
future
from
growth
rates
experienced
in
the
present
or
recent
past
and
by
viewing
the
tourism
phenomenon
as
somehow
disconnected
from
the
sub‐systems
of
environment,
economy,
consumer
values
and
behaviour
on
which
it
depends.


The
pattern
assumes
a
degree
of
constancy
in
the
factors
that
influence
demand
that
simply
does
not
occur
in
the
real
world.
It
ignores
the
potential
for
internal
self
limiting
factors
that
might
halt
the
upward
trajectory
of
growth,
be
they
environmental
constraints,
congestion,
or
diminishing
rates
of
return
to
suppliers
and
or
diminishing
rates
of
satisfaction
experienced
by
tourists.
The
chart
is
often
used
to
convince
public
and
private
agencies
that
tourism
has
seemingly
unlimited
growth
potential
and
therefore
justifies
further
investment
in
both
development
and
marketing.


 Figure
2:
International
Tourism
Arrivals,
1950­2020
 
 

By
contrast,
Figure
3
illustrates
what
happens
to
real
tourist
destinations
located
at
the
local
community
or
regional
level.
The
research
underpinning
Butler’s
Tourist
Area
Lifecycle
Model,
and
that
of
countless
tourism
planners
since,
has
shown
that
most
destinations
pass
through
a
sequence
of
stages:
exploration,
involvement
(locals
respond
to
the
needs
of
visitors),
development
(investment
occurs
from
local
and
external
sources
to
expand
services
and
facilities),
consolidation
(a
mature
period
during
which
the
rate
of
visitor
growth
and
investment
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 4

    • 

slows
down)
and
then
stagnation
(when
re‐investment
in
maintenance
also
declines
and
the
quality
of
the
infrastructure
and
experience
deteriorate).
At
this
point
only
some
form
of
“re‐think”
in
the
form
of
different
attractors
and
experiences,
or
a
mammoth
facelift/makeover
can
rescue
the
destination
from
further
decay.








Figure
3:
Butler’s
Tourism
Area
Life
Cycle
Model

 

The
chart
in
Figure
3
reflects
an
ecological
mindset.
The
graph
applies
to
the
rise
and
fall
of
all
species
in
any
ecosystem
and
more
accurately
reflects
reality
than
Figure
2.
It
suggests
that
the
pattern
described
for
local
tourism
can
and
should
be
applied
to
global
tourism
growth
as
there
could
be
both
self‐limiting
factors
within
tourism’s
industrial
model
as
well
as
external
factors
(environmental
limits,
economic
factors
and
societal
trends)
that
might
affect
its
performance.




The
Need
for
Transformation
Despite
the
optimism
and
certainty
suggested
by
UNWTO’s
projections
in
Figure
1,
tourism
growth
has
stalled
in
response
to
a
severe
global
recession.

The
end
of
2009
projects
international
tourism
traffic
to
have
declined
by
6%iii.

Few
expect
the
global
economy
to
resume
“business
as
usual”
once
that
downward
trend
bottoms
out.
It
is
perhaps
appropriate
to
ask
whether
the
current
decline
represents
the
temporary
downturn
associated
with
a
business
cycle
or
could
represent
the
first
signs
of
the
stagnation
phase
illustrated
in
Figure
3.



Either
way,
the
lull
in
frenetic
economic
and
visitor
growth
provides
every
destination
with
the
opportunity
to
assess
its
own
strengths
and
weaknesses
and
reflect
on
the
kinds
of
tourism
it
wishes
to
pursue
in
the
future.

It
is
time
for
some
form
of
re‐orientation
or
shift
in
the
way
tourism
is
developed
and
delivered
in
order
for
it
to
emerge
from
this
period
of
difficulty
rejuvenated
and
renewed.



This
transformative
requirement
is
not
unique
to
tourism
–
virtually
every
socio‐economic
activity
is
going
through
some
form
of
re‐think
or
re‐boot.
Borrowing
from
the
term
used
to
describe
the
evolution
of
the
web,
the
moniker
2.0
is
being
applied
to
sectors
as
diverse
as
government,
healthcare,
agriculture
and
the
terms
“transformation”
and
“re‐boot”
are

cropping
up
everywhere
–even
being
used
by
relatively
conservative
accounting
firms!iv
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 5

    • 


At
least
six
key
change
drivers
are
necessitating
a
profound
re‐think.

 • The
end
of
NICE
Times.
 • Technology
&
connectivity
 • Changing
Demographics,
Skills
and
Values
 • Internal
Failure
–
tyranny
of
commoditisation
&
inequality
of
wealth
distribution
 • Biophysical
realities
 • The
need
to
de‐materialise
growth

Tourism
growth
is
inextricably
linked
to
economic
growth
and
we
can
be
sure
that
the
way
in
which
these
factors
emerge
and
intertwine
will
directly
impact
the
global
economy.
Each
factor
will
singly,
or
in
combination,
also
shape
the
nature
of
tourism
demand.
Neither
time
nor
space
permits
a
detailed
examination
of
these
factors
and
their
interdependencies
in
this
paper.
Instead,
we
can
merely
outline
their
key
dynamics
as
a
form
of
map
that
highlights
the
issues
that
tourism
marketers
and
economic
developers
must
be
aware
of.

Readers
of
the
electronic
version
will
discover
that
the
analysis
will
grow
in
depth
over
time.


The
End
of
NICE
Times
Mervyn
Bragg,
the
Governor
of
the
Bank
of
England,
coined
the
term
NICE
to
describe
a
period
of
Non‐inflationary
Constant
Expansion
in
which
a
number
of
growth
factors
propelled
economic
growth
forward
during
the
1990s
and
first
part
of
the
second
Millennium.
The
UK
based
Forum
for
the
Future
and
Cap
Gemini
charted
these
factors
(illustrated
below)
and
developed
four
alternative
scenarios
for
global
business
in
a
report
titled
Acting
Now
for
a
Positive
2018
Preparing
for
Radical
Changev.
Their
analysis
posited
8
growth
factors
which
had
contributed
to
the
NICE
times
but
which
have
subsequently
weakened
and
show
little
signs
of
robust
recovery.
 
 
 
 Figure
4:

The
Factors
That
Contributed
to
NICE
Times
 
 
 Source:
Acting
Now
for
a
Positive
2018
Preparing
for
Radical
Change,

 Future
Foundation
&
Cap
Gemini


As
few
expect
these
growth
drivers
to
dominate
the
scene
in
a
post
recessionary
world,
we
can
expect
significant
changes
in
the
pace
and
type
of
tourism
demand
over
the
next
decade.


Technology
&
Connectivity
We
can
be
confident
in
assuming,
however,
that
the
pace
of
technological
advancement
will
continue
to
accelerate
and
that
the
next
generation
will
have
access
to
computing
power
and
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 6

    • 

bandwidth
that
is
wildly
greater
than
that
enjoyed
today.
By
2020,
over
2
billion
people
will
be
connected
to
the
internet
and
over
5
billion
will
have
access
to
a
mobile
phone.
Readers
are
recommended
to
a
succinct
and
informative
overview
of
the
five
key
technological
forces
shaping
future
economies
and
societies:
processing
power,
connectivity
as
in
bandwidth,
nanotechnology,
biotechnology
–
see
the
Future
of
the
Leading
Edge
viby
InfoSavy.

 
The
web
has
indeed
changed
everything
but
not
just
as
a
global
distribution
channel
but
as
a
platform
for
collaboration
in
which
the
impact
of
consumers
talking
with
each
other
about
brands
significantly
outweighs
the
messages
that
brands
can
convey
about
themselves.
Ubiquitous
and
pervasive
connectivity
and
access
to
almost
perfect
information
has
enabled
the
customer
to
seize
control
–
the
task
now
is
less
to
“push”
messages
to
customers
in
an
attempt
to
persuade
them
to
buy,
but
to
support
customers
by
enabling
them
to
pull
the
quality
content
they
need
when,
where
and
how
they
need
it.

 
 
 Figure
5:
Evolution
of
the
Web
(David
Armano)
 
 
 
In
short,
all
marketing
is
now
social
in
nature
and
requires
a
new
set
of
listening,
interactive
and
collaborative
tools
and
skills.


Consumers
must
now
be
viewed
as
partners
not
targets
as
they
have
almost
equal
power
to
produce
content
(blogs,
books,
photos,
movies
and,
thanks
to
web
services
or
widgets,
entire
web
sites
with
sophisticated
functionality).
If
markets
have
become
conversations
as
the
authors
of
The
ClueTrain
Manifesto
viipresciently
forecast
in
1999,
then
the
objective
now
is
not
to
talk
but
to
become
the
topic
of
other’s
conversation.
Each
consumer
sits
at
the
centre
of
his
or
her
own
distribution
network
and
thanks
to
intersecting
online
social
networks
may
be
able
to
influence
thousands
of
peers.
The
new
metric
to
watch
is
“return
on
influence”.

Marketers
have
long
understood
the
battle
for
consumers’
time,
attention
and
income.
Now
the
battle
for
their
trust
assumes
far
greater
importance.
The
combination
of
connectivity
and
content
has
generated
a
degree
of
transparency
unparalleled
in
the
history
of
commerce
such
that
a
brand’s
equity
is
increasingly
a
function
of
its
reputation.
Soon
all
products,
places
and
people
wishing
to
do
business
will
be
reviewed
and
rated
and
these
reviews
and
ratings
will
appear
alongside
the
search
engine
results.


Destination
Marketers
and
Economic
Developers
must
embrace
the
new
collaborative
platforms
and
understand
the
impacts
of
pervasive
social
connectivity
if
they
are
to
stay
relevant
and
if
they
are
to
support
their
communities
in
fully
participating
in
a
globally
networked
economy.



Changing
Demographics,
Skills
and
Values
Professional
tourism
marketers
and
economic
developers
are
fully
aware
of
the
power
of
demographics
to
impact
communities
and
shape
development
as
well
as
influence
the
profile
and
behaviour
of
visitors.

November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 7

    • 


Demographics
The
underlying
challenge
affecting
all
of
us
pertains
to
sheer
numbers.
Despite
reducing
fertility
rates
in
many
countries,
the
global
population
continues
to
rise
–
it
will
exceed
7
billion
by
2011
and
add
another
billion
in
the
next
decade.


In
2006,
almost
500
million
people
worldwide
were
65
and
older.
By
2030,
that
total
is
projected
to
increase
to
1
billion—1
in
every
8
of
the
earth’s
inhabitants.
Significantly,
the
most
rapid
increases
in
the
65‐and‐older
population
are
occurring
in
developing
countries,
which
will
see
a
jump
of
140
percent
by
2030.
The
impact
of
this
trend
on
the
economies
of
such
countries
is
not
yet
clear
although
we
can
expect
to
see
a
growing
tax
burden
placed
on
the
existing
workforce
as
it
copes
with
caring
for
an
aging
population
who
may
not
have
planned
to
live
so
long.

Nor
is
the
impact
on
propensity
to
travel
certain.
Much
depends
on
the
value
of
pensions
and
savings.
If
boomers
remain
healthy
in
body
and
finance,
we
can
expect
senior
travel
to
boom;
on
the
other
hand,
pensions
crises
combined
with
costly
medical
bills
could
leave
little
cash
for
vacations.
In
addition
to
the
growing
gap
between
young
and
old,
we
are
also
witnessing
a
widening
gap
between
rich
and
poor.
The
realities
of
the
stark
contrasts
in
population
dynamics
between
rich,
developed
and
developing
nations
is
illustrated
in
the
following
chart
published
by
the
Population
Reference
Bureau
in
its
2009
World
Population
Data
Sheet
viii.
Even
though
Canada
and
Uganda
have
close
to
the
same
population
today,
Uganda
is
expected
to
have
more
than
double
Canada’s
population
by
2050.


 
Eighty
percent
of
today’s
youth
(all
1.2
billion)
live
in
Africa
and
Asia
and
can
be
expected
to
be
highly
mobile
as
they
search
for
education,
training
and
work.

In
1950
there
were
two
people
for
every
rich
person;
by
2025;
that
ratio
will
have
increased
to
8:1
with
the
poor
people
having
almost
equal
access
to
the
same
information
through
the
Internet
and
mobile
devices
as
their
wealthier
peers.

The
growth
of
piracy
on
the
high
seas
adjacent
to
impoverished
countries
such
as
Somalia
could
spread
into
more
kidnapping
events
on
land.
Failure
to
be
able
to
guarantee
tourists’
personal
safety
can
effectively
kill
international
tourism
overnight.


In
the
western
world,
propensity
to
travel
and
preferred
style
of
travel
will
vary
between
three
key
demographic
groups:
Boomers,
born
after
1946
and
now
thinking
of
either
full
or
part‐time
retirement;
Generation
X,
a
smaller
cohort
born
between
X
and
Y
who
will
be
assuming
the
majority
of
leadership
positions
in
business
and
government;
and
the
generation
variously
described
as
Gen
Y,
the
Net
Generation
and
the
Echo
population
born
between
1977
and
1997.
This
is
the
generation
that
can
best
help
Destination
Marketing
Organisations
and
Economic
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 8

    • 

Development
agencies
best
understand
the
impact
and
opportunities
afforded
by
today’s
connecting
technologies
as,
according
to
Don
Tapscott,
it
represents
the
first
generation
that
grew
up
“bathed
in
bits.ix”
In
a
world
dependent
on
effective
use
of
information
technologies
and
collaborative
ways
of
working
this
generation
will
be
a
prized
source
of
talent,
competence
and
creativity.



N­Gen
employees
expect
the
companies
they
go
to
work
for
to
have
the
collaborative
tools
and
processes
in
place
that
they
have
grown
accustomed
to
in
their
personal
lives.
As
an
example,
28%
of
N­Gners
dislike
email
as
a
communications
technology
because
it
is
too
slow.

Our
ability
to
forecast
the
impact
of
climate
change
on
travel
behaviour
also
suffers
from
inconsistent
and
ambiguous
research
findings.
In
2007,
the
UK
Civil
Aviation
Authority
stated,
“at
present,
passengers’
attitudes
towards
the
environment
do
not
seem
to
be
having
a
significant
effect
on
the
demand
for
air
travel”
x
In
2009,
another
study
on
social
attitudes
in
Britain
found
that
70
percent
agree
that
air
travel
has
an
effect
on
climate
change.
xi
The
take
up
of
carbon
offsets
offered
by
airlines
remains
low
–
hovering
around
3‐5%

for
a
variety
of
reasons.
It’s
interesting
to
note
that
while
Americans’
understanding
of
the
issues
has
strengthened,
only
9%
are
willing
to
pay
more
for
eco‐friendly
options.
Skills
Shortage
Despite
the
recession,
the
globe
is
facing
a
major
skills
shortage
as
the
population
ages
and
the
mismatch
between
current
workforce
skills
and
future
requirements
worsens.
The
competition
for
talent
will
become
even
fiercer
in
the
years
ahead.
Successful
organisations
and
communities
will
find
ways
of
helping
the
three
generations
work
effectively
together
and
harnessing
the
different
talents
and
perspectives
that
each
brings
to
problem
solving
and
creativity.

The
nature
of
work
will
also
change
dramatically
–
more
jobs
will
be
shared;
the
proportion
of
people
self‐employed
will
rise
with
a
potential
impact
on
use
of
leisure
time;
sub‐contracting

and
outsourcing
will
escalate;
and
individuals
will
have
multiple
careers.

Changing
Values
At
the
same
time,
each
generation
is
exhibiting
a
steady
shift
in
values.

According
to
Claire
Ratushny
in
the
MediaPost
article
“Meeting
Consumers’
Emerging
Values,
xii”

 People
 are
 paring
 down
 and
 simplifying
 their
 lives.
 Consumers
 are
 increasingly
 selective
 about
 the
 products
 they
 purchase.
 “Excess
 is
 causing
 revulsion,
 prompting
 consumers
 to
 purchase
 fewer
 products
 and
 more
 in
 bulk;
 then
 to
 repurpose
 as
 much
 as
 they
 can.
 Even
 trendsetters
are
reorienting
their
lifestyles
to
eliminate
unnecessary
waste.
Good
news
for
 the
environment
and
overflowing
landfills.
According
to
the
2008
Going
Green
xiii
study
by
Yankelovich,
62
percent
of
Americans
agree
that
“People
today
consume
far
more
of
everything
than
they
really
need,”
up
from
49
percent
in
2007
reflecting
an
emerging
trend
called
Enoughism.

Richard
Watson,
futurist
and
author
of
Trend
Blend
2009
has
suggested;

 
 Organisations
will
become
increasingly
values­driven.
They
will
also
become
more
 connected
with
their
communities,
be
it
a
geographic
area
or
the
wider
community
of
 employees,
customers
and
suppliers.
…People
will
be
spending
more
time
with
their
 immediate
family
and
friends.
This
is
an
opportunity
because

people
will
be
interested
in
 things
that
enable
this
or
tap
into
the
need
to
slow
things
down
a
little.
 
The
corporate
world
has
certainly
made
a
huge
shift
in
its
perception
of
what
business
is
all
about.
Just
a
few
years
ago,
Milton
Friedman’s
view
that
profits
was
the
only
legitimate
focus
of
business
dominated
the
commercial
sector.

Over
the
past
decade
Corporate
Social
Responsibility
has
shifted
from
an
issue
of
compliance
to
an
opportunity
to
build
and
enhance
an
attractive
brand
reputation.


The
Barrett
Values
Centrexiv
has
undertaken
significant
research
mapping
corporate
values
and
determined
that
corporate
values
can
be
classified
by
the
same
Maslow
hierarchy
used
to
map
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 9

    • 

consumer
behaviour.
–
as
illustrated
below.

A
growing
number
of
leading
corporations
are
finding
that
it
makes
very
good
business
sense
to
move
up
the
hierarchy
from
survival
to
actualisation.

 
Destinations
will
soon
find
themselves
measured,
indexed
and
rated
according
to
the
seriousness
with
which
they
take
their
environmental
and
social
stewardship
responsibility.
Simon
Anholt,
one
of
the
key
experts
on
place
branding
has
this
to
say
on
the
subject:

 Three
aspects
of
reputation
have
become
critical:
perceived
environmental
credentials;
 perceived
competence
and
productivity
in
technology;
and
attractiveness
as
a
place
of
 learning
and
economic
and
cultural
self
improvement.xv


Internal
Failure
–
the
Challenge
of
Commoditisation
One
of
the
most
telling
signs
that
a
shift
in
perception
is
now
taking
place,
is
the
reference
to
widespread
and
fundamental
market
failures
be
they
associated
with
climate,
food
or
the
most
recent
economic
meltdown.
There
is
a
growing
awareness
that
while
industrialised
capitalism
may
have
brought
many
benefits
in
terms
of
wealth
creation,
it
contains
internal
design
flaws
that
may
limit
its
long‐term
success.


One
of
these
self‐limiting
factors,
aggravated
substantially
by
consumers’
digital
access
to
unparalleled
amounts
of
information,
has
been
the
relentless
onslaught
of
commoditisation
–
the
mechanism
whereby
goods
and
services
drop
in
perceived
value
over
time.

 
Tourism
is
particularly
vulnerable
and
susceptible
to
the
curse
of
commoditisation
for
a
number
of
reasons:
a)
the
product
is
perishable;
b)
there
are
low
barriers
to
entry;
c)
products
have
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 10

    • 

become
homogenised;
d)
fierce
global
competition;
e)
reliance
on
debt
financing
and
f)
prevalence
of
notoriously
thin
profit
margins.
While
airlines
may
be
able
to
adjust
capacity
by
parking
planes
in
the
desert,
the
rest
of
the
tourism
supply
chain
is
stuck
with
fixed
operating
costs
and

heavy
investments
in
hard
and
soft
overheads
(facilities,
buildings
and
people).


Even
during
boom
economic
times,
when
consumers
felt
their
disposable
incomes
rising,
tourism
suppliers
often
competed
on
price.
During
bust
periods,
price
discounting
appears
to
be
the
preferred
coping
mechanism.

As
revenues
decline,
operators
have
few
choices
–
they
must
cut
costs
and
this
can
only
be
done
by
reducing
services,
redundancies,
by
standardising
the
product
offering
or
through
automation.

All
these
responses
result
in
a
deterioration
in
customer
experience.
Revenues
can
only
be
grown
by
mergers
and
acquisitions
or
by
a
focus
on
volume
which,
in
turn,
leads
to
more
congestion,
greater
dissatisfaction
and
increased
vulnerability
to
substitution
(staying
at
home,
replacing
travel
with
video
conferences
and
net
meetings).



This
negative
and
downward
spiral
harms
destinations as
the
tourism
community
is
less
able
to
generate
tangible
benefits
to
the
host
community

(wages
drop
and
cheap
labour
is
imported
)
and
tourism
enterprises
are
less
able
to
pay
for
external
costs
such
as
ecosystem
services.

In
order
to
boost
tax
revenues
and
sustain
employment,
destinations
must
encourage
growth
in
volume
(more
visitors
or
more
suppliers).

In
short,
during
and
after
recessionary
periods,
destinations
and
suppliers
must
find
the
antidote
to
commoditisation
or
face
their
long‐term
decline.

Biophysical
realities
If
these
internal
flaws
were
not
troublesome
enough,
the
tourism
community
is
now
being
forced
to
face
some
biophysical
realities.
Tourism
is
all
about
the
movement
of
people
through
space
and
their
consumption
of
resources
at
specific
places
and
times.
There
are
biophysical
limits
to
the
amount
of
resources
that
can
be
consumed
both
in
total
and
during
a
specified
period
without
there
being
a
negative
consequence.

This
phenomenon
is
called
“carrying
capacity”.


While
notoriously
hard
to
define
at
the
local
level,
we
are
now
experiencing
the
challenge
of
living
beyond
our
means
as
a
species
on
the
planet
called
earth.

Globally,
humanity
is
practising
the
ecological
equivalent
of
deficit
spending,
utilising
resources
at
a
rate
faster
than
that
which
the
planet
can
regenerate
in
a
calendar
year.
In
other
words,
we
now
require
the
equivalent
of
1.4
planets
to
support
our
lifestyles.
Put
another
way,
in
less
than
10
months,
humanity
will
use
ecological
services
that
the
Earth
takes
12
months
to
regenerate.
If
humanity
consumed
at
the
same
rate
as
North
American
populations
do,
then
we
would
need
another
5
planets
to
supply
the
resources
necessary
to
sustain
our
way
of
life. xvi
The
Carbon
Footprint,
which
accounts
for
the
use
of
fossil
fuels,
is
almost
half
the
total
global
footprint,
and
is
its
fastest‐growing
component,
increasing
more
than
eleven
fold
from
1961
to
2005.
The
majority
of
the
global
scientific
community
is
now
convinced
that
climate
patterns
are
changing
at
a
faster
rate
than
most
natural
systems
can
adjust
impacting
the
viability
of
species,
landscapes,
food
production
and
the
habitability
of
vast
tracts
of
land
along
coastlines
and
deltas
where
vast
numbers
of
humans
live.


Tourism
is
thought
to
have
contributed
5%
of
the
planet’s
carbon
footprint
in
2005
but
should
tourism
grow
at
the
rates
forecast
by
the
UNWTO
and
should
other
industries
reduce
their
carbon
footprint
as
required,
tourism
will
become
one
of
the
single
most
significant
contributors
to
carbon
generation.

 
 The
Icarus
Foundation
was
founded
in
2007
as
an
attempt
to
 encourage
the
tourism
industry
in
Canada
to
address
the
climate
 change
issue
straight
on.
More
information
can
be
found
on
the
 web
site
and
blog
dedicated
to
the
climate
change
topic.

A
paper
 outlining
the
issues
associated
with
climate
change
and
tourism
 is
available
here. 
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 11

    • 

According
to
Sir
David
Beddington,
the
UK’s
Chief
Scientist,
humanity
is
facing
a
biophysical
“perfect
storm”
over
the
next
20
years
with
energy
demand
and
food
demand
both
rising
50%
while
water
availability
reduces
30%.
It
doesn’t
require
more
detailed
data
to
suggest
that
the
tourism
industry
will
be
operating
in
a
very
different
biophysical
environment
as
time
passes
and
some
form
of
adjustment
to
business
as
usual
will
be
essential.
Whilst
the
efforts
of
individual
businesses
to
become
sustainable
through
reductions
in
waste,
carbon
and
resource
use
must
be
applauded,
they
will
be
in
vain
unless
the
broader
tourism
community
can
address
its
dependency
on
volume
growth.
 
The
Need
to
De­materialise
Growth
The
really
big
issue
affecting
all
humanity
is
the
need
to
de‐couple
growth
from
the
use
of
scarce
resources
and
generation
of
wastes
in
excess
the
earth’s
biophysical
capacity
to
absorb
and
process
without
harmful
side
effects.

Until
recently,
the
subject
of
growth
was
so
built
into
the
assumptions
of
“how
things
work”
that
questioning
the
need
for
economic
growth
was
considered
taboo.
Our
current
economic
model
is
dependent,
to
the
point
of
addiction,
on
growth
for
two
fundamental
reasons:

 
 a. output
has
to
offset
productivity
gains
in
order
to
keep
people
in
employment
 and
 b. output
has
to
increase
in
order
to
pay
the
interest
in
debt
that
compounds
over
 time.

 
The
history
of
the
western
world
is
all
about
production
and
once
the
market
for
essential
goods
and
services
was
sustained,
business
had
to
innovate
through
novelty
or
technology
that
changed
the
rules
of
the
game.


Novelty
has
been
the
main
growth
driver
in
tourism
–
see
Butler’s
Tourist
Area
Lifecycle
chart
above,
Figure
3.
Privileged
travellers
(never
tourists)
discovered
new
places
that
sooner
or
later
became
tourist
destinations.
The
problem
is
that
the
number
of
undiscovered
places
is
running
out.
New
ways
of
creating
novelty,
adding
value
and
generating
yield
have
to
be
created.


 Fortunately,
the
growth
discussion
is
no
longer
taboo
and
 economists
who
question
its
net
benefit
and
value
are
no
longer
 relegated
to
the
wilderness.
An
increasing
number
of
publicly
 and
privately
funded
research
agencies
and
think
tanks
is
now
 examining
how
we
might
sustain
well‐being
and
quality
of
life
 without
the
need
to
live
beyond
our
means.
One
really
 important
contribution
to
this
important
discussion
is
the
 thought
piece
published
by
the
UK‐based
Institute
for
 Sustainable
Development
Growth
titled
Prosperity
Without
 Growthxvii
 
 Presently
growth
is
measured
by
increases
in
GDP
even
though
 there
is
growing
evidence
that
GDP
–
a
measure
of
total
output
–
 can
rise
without
their
being
any
corresponding
increase
in
well‐ being.

 
If
the
tourism
community
wishes
a)
to
be
taken
seriously;
and
b)
to
be
allowed
to
continue
to
use
increasingly
precious
natural
resources
(both
stuff
and
places),
it
too
must
focus
its
attention
on
how
to
sustain
its
operations,
generate
benefits
to
host
communities;
and
provide
delight
to
customers
without
increasing
its
ecological
footprint.
Any
other
conversation
is
the
medieval
equivalent
to
debating
how
many
angels
dance
on
a
pin
head.

 
Nothing
short
of
transformation
is
needed
–
a
complete
metamorphosis
in
the
way
travel
and
tourism
is
conducted
and
sold.
The
balance
of
this
paper
highlights
what
the
author
believes
are
some
fruitful
places
to
start
that
transformation
process
and
invites
all
readers
to
join
in
this
common
endeavour…..


November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 12

    • 

 
The
Look
and
Feel
of
Transformation
The
following
concepts
are
preliminary
thoughts
on
the
way
tourism
and
community
economic
development
might
develop
in
response
to
the
shift
in
perception
and
the
change
forces
described
about.
They
obviously
constitute
a
“work
in
progress”
and
are
shared
in
order
to
invite
discussion
and
refinement
from
practitioners
in
the
field.

Places
are
Back

While
the
need
for
transformation
is
universal,
I
contend
that
they
can
only
be
faced
from
the
community
level
up.
Only
when
we
shift
our
perception
from
tourism
as
an
industry
(consuming
resources,
making
and
selling
products)
to
tourism
as
a
phenomenon
or
system
based
on
communities
of
people,
will
effective
solutions
emerge.
Places
are
re‐emerging
as
the
organising
principle;
the
“queen
bees”
around
which
activity
coalesces
and
creates
meaning
and
value
for
guest,
host,
supplier
and
consumer.


Prior
to
industrialisation
and
the
connectivity
that
has
been
associated
with
it
(the
printing
press,
the
telegraph,
telephone,
internet),
most
people
stayed
put,
with
the
vast
majority
travelling
at
most
just
a
few
miles
from
their
homes.
Each
place
developed
its
own
distinctive
“sense
of
place”
based
on
a
unique
combination
of
geography
and
history.
To
travel
far
really
did
mean
to
encounter
the
unknown.
The
industrial
process,
with
its
focus
on
volume,
necessitated
standardised
production
and
distribution
and
now
many
towns
offer
the
same
mix
of
commercial
buildings
and
services.

 
 Local
is
back.
Paradoxically,
globalisation
has
made
unique
places
more
important
than
 ever.
Neighbourhoods,
cities,
regions,
even
countries
are
all
trying
to
define
and
 communicate
a
one­of­a­kind
authenticity
that
will
lure
people,
investment
and
visitors
to
 their
locale.
xviii
The
objective
of
the
community
is
viability,
vitality,
stability,
health
and
prosperity,
as
expressed
in
the
capacity
for
its
people
to
flourish.



The
question
now
focuses
on
how
communities
differentiate
themselves
and
sustain
their
inhabitants
in
a
globalised
network
that
is
increasingly
valuing
wellness,
creativity,
ideas,
thought
and
mental
processing
over
the
production
and
consumption
of
stuff.

To
answer
that
question
requires
examination
of
values,
viability,
diversity,
connectivity
and
scale.
It
also
requires
understanding
how
complex
adaptive
systems
behave
and
looking
to
new
sources
of
conceptual
understanding
based
on
networks
and
complexity.

People
are
Back
The
industrial
model
focuses
on
things,
materiality
and
stuff.
An
ecological
mindset
focuses
on
people,
agents
and
relationships.
The
industrial
mindset
labels
reality,
breaks
it
into
components
parts
that
are
assigned
to
boxes
or
categories.
The
ecological
mind
works
with
wholes
and
sees
individuals
acting
out
multiple
roles
that
thrive
on
dynamic,
ever
changing
sets
of
relationship.


Destination
Marketing
Organisations

(DMOs)
currently
exist
to
focus
on
the
needs
of
visitors
and
those
tourism‐related
suppliers
who
cater
to
visitors
from
outside
the
community.
But
there
are
so
many
other
kinds
of
people
that
without
direction
attract
outsiders
to
the
community:
residents,
workers,
students,
export
business
owner/managers,
investors,
immigrants
(would
be
and
actual),
people
of
influence
(media,
celebrities);
film
producers
seeking
the
perfect
location;
and
event
creators.

Each
of
these
types
of

individual
has
a
stake
in
the
destination.
Their
roles
are
often
interchangeable
–
a
visitor
becomes
an
immigrant
or
an
investor;
a
business
traveller
returns
to
buy
property
and
rent
out
to
friends

Each
plays
an
important
role
in
building
and
shaping
the
place
brand
and
each
has
its
own
network
of
connections
that
can
be
tapped
as
a
future
source
of
visitation.
There
are
no
longer
serious
technological
impediments
for
individuals
to
perform
the
same
invitation
functions
as
were
delegated
to
DMOs.
They
can
produce
complex
web
sites,
for
example,
using
free
software
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 13

    • 

that
provides
a
range
of
content
and
functionality.
The
task
of
the
DMO
in
the
future
will
increasingly
be
to
stimulate
and
harness
this
creative
energy
of
the
community
to
support
the
work
of
inviting
others
to
visit
a
place.


The
Need
for
Integration
The
ecological
mindset
sees
all
things
as
inter‐connected
and
inter‐dependent
even
though
the
nature
and
impact
of
those
connections
may
be
hard
to
isolate,
describe
and
measure.
Sometimes,
small
connections
can
have
big
consequences.


Given
this
inter‐connected
reality
and
the
fact
that
places
are
settings
for
people
and
that
people
play
multiple,
interchangeable
roles;
does
it
make
sense
to
put
the
activities
associated
with
making
a
place
attractive
into
separate
boxes,
ie,
to
separate
tourism
from
economic
development?

Place
branding
cannot
be
undertaken
by
DMOs
in
isolation
from
all
the
other
people
with
a
stake
in
the
community’s
future
and
most
certainly
cannot
be
outsourced
to
an
external
agency.

 
Placemaking
is
a
shared
activity,
especially
in
what
has
been
described
as
The
Creative
Economy.

 
 Urban
planners
and
strategists
agree
that
vibrant,
authentic
places
bubbling
with
lively
 cultural
and
entertainment
options
are
magnets
that
attract
and
retain
creative
people.
 This
creative
workforce
in
turn
generates
wealth
in
an
expanding
knowledge
economy.
The
 old
assumption
in
economic
development
was
that
people
follow
business
and
investment.
 We
know
that
the
reverse
is
true.
If
we
build
communities
where
people
want
to
live
and
 work,
business
and
investment
follow
people,
not
vice
versa.
xix
 
Tourism
is
a
major
contributor
to
the
viability
of
a
community.

Tourism
connects
the
place
with
the
people
who
might
be
investors,
employees,
entrepreneurs,
idea
generators,
managers,
leaders
and
influencers
who
make
the
community
work;
make
it
attractive
to
others;
and
make
it
possible
to
visit
and
enjoy.

 
Tourism
is
the
means
and
not
the
end
to
community
development
and
sustained
prosperity.

Brand
Magic
–
an
inclusive
process
In
a
globalised,
networked
and
utterly
connected
world
comprising
thousands
of
places,
it
is
vital
that
each
can
stand
out
and
have
the
capacity
to
attract
the
people,
investment,
ideas
and
capital
it
needs
to
sustain
itself.

(Each
place
being
an
open
system
nested
in
a
global
network
of
systems).



Capturing
distinctiveness
is
the
essence
of
any
brand.
But
brands
are
far
more
complex
than
implied
by
taglines,
images
or
logos.
Place
brands
cannot
be
owned,
let
alone
controlled
by
any
agency.
Place
brands
constitute
the
sum
total
of
interactions
and
encounters
between
guest
and
host.

 We
live
in
a
world
where
the
little
things
do
really
matter.
Each
encounter
no
matter
how
 brief
is
a
microinteraction
which
makes
a
deposit
or
a
withdrawal
from
our
rational
and
 emotional
subconscious.
The
sum
of
these
interactions
and
encounters
adds
up
to
how
we
 feel
about
a
particular
product,
brand
or
service.
Little
things.
Feelings.
They
influence
our
 everyday
behaviours
more
than
we
realise.xx

Place
brands
represent
the
interaction
of
two
sets
of
desire:
1)
what
the
resident
community
intends
the
place
to
be,
what
it
values
and
what
it
stands
for;
and
2)
what
the
visitor
is
hoping/expecting
to
experience
there.

The
brand
is
the
sum
total
of
the
micro
interactions
that
occur
between
visitors
and
residents
and
visitors
with
visitors
and
their
peers,
ie,
experiential
reality
is
expressed
as
the
buzz
of
conversation
taking
place
about
it.




 

November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 14

    • 

Figure
6:
Brands
as
Interactions
Between
Residents
and
Visitors

 


It
is
not
enough
for
the
place
simply
to
stand
out.
Places
are
now
expected
to
offer
“authentic”
and
meaningful
experiences
based
on
a
unique
identity
that
reflects
the
unique
attributes
of
the
history
and
geography
of
the
place,
the
past
and
present
aspirations
of
its
people,
their
culture
and
past
achievements.

Cultural
mapping
is
now
emerging
as
a
key
tool
to
help
communities
determine
what
makes
them
different
and
this
is
extremely
important
in
the
fight
against
commoditisation
as
it
creates
a
“scarcity
of
place”
that
prevents
one
community
substituting
for
another.


While
the
body
of
literature
on
place
branding
is
increasing
rapidly,
I
would
like
to
suggest
three
additional
aspects
of
this
topic
that
justify
further
attention:


 a. Attraction
 Most
marketers
still
follow
the
five
Ps
of
product,
positioning,
price,
place
and
promotion
–
 in
other
words,
push
a
product
or
its
brand
to
an
audience
with
the
intent
of
persuading
a
 customer
to
purchase.
Given
the
plethora
of
channels,
the
surfeit
of
messages
and
 customers’
limited
time,
attention,
income
and
trust,
a
new
strategy
is
evolving
–
that
of
 attracting
or
pulling
the
visitor
towards
a
place.
The
distinction
is
not
a
subtle
one.
 Attracting
requires
clarity,
energy,
transparency,
commitment,
authenticity
and
alignment
 from
all
aspects
of
a
community.
It
means
being
what
and
who
you
want
to
attract.
As
 marketing
shifts
from
a
push
to
a
pull
activity
new
skills
and
ways
of
measuring
success
will
 be
developed.

 
 b. Alignment
 Attraction
occurs
when
molecules
are
in
alignment.
A
laser
beam
can
attract
attention
 because
its
light
beams
“march
in
step”
–
they
are
said
to
be
cohesive
or
coherent
and,
 thereby,
become
visible
over
great
distances.
Communities
also
need
to
have
their
members
 act
coherently
–
ie,
to
align
their
perception
of
themselves
and
their
intent.
They
need
to
 know
who
they
are
and
the
kind
of
people
they
wish
to
attract.

The
process
of
reaching
 community
alignment
is
still
poorly
developed.
There
has
been
a
tendency
for
both
DMOs
 and
Economic
Developers
to
retain
the
services
of
professionals
to
help
frame
the
brand
but
 without
a
core
of
support
and
identification
from
within
the
community,
the
brand
can
ring
 hollow.

 
 c. Values
 While
the
process
known
as
culture
mapping
helps
a
community
map
its
resources
and
 identity;
there’s
still
a
piece
of
the
puzzle
missing
and
that
revolves
around
community
and
 visitor
values.
According
to
Victor
Frankl,
it’s
our
values
that
give
our
lives
meaning
and
 render
one
experience
significant
over
another.
What
do
we
consider
important?
What
 types
of
behaviour
are
to
be
encouraged
or
discouraged?

 
 If
the
values
of
the
visitor
clash
with
those
of
the
host
community
we
can
expect
a
high
 degree
of
discontent
and
dissatisfaction.
Similarly,
if
there
is
internal
disagreement
about
 core
values,
few
organisations
can
achieve
success.

 
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 15

    • 

 For
example,
as
I
value
peace
and
quiet,
being
in
or
near
nature,
natural,
home
made
objects
 etc.,
I
am
attracted
neither
to
Las
Vegas
nor
to
a
cruise
experience.
Fortunately
Las
Vegas
 “knows
itself”
and
I
am
very
clear
about
its
values
so
I
can
avoid
making
the
wrong
vacation
 choice.

Thanks
to
the
connectivity
and
communication’s
capacity
of
the
internet
(as
a
 collaborative
platform)
places,
products
and
people
are
now
“naked”.

Reputation
is
 sustained
through
authenticity.

 
 Values
mapping
(as
opposed
to
value
mapping)
is
a
relatively
new
science
and
has
only
been
 rarely
applied
to
tourism.
The
Canadian
Tourism
Commission’s
extensive
investment
in
 identifying
and
measuring
different
Explorer
types
and
their
development
of
the
Explorer
 Quotient
has
made
an
outstanding
contribution
to
understanding
what
travellers
value.

xxi
 
 As
corporate
culture
is
known
to
be
a
reflection
of
shared
values,
many
companies
have
 undertaken
values
mapping
exercises
and
these
techniques
are,
just
now,
being
applied
to
 places.
One
of
the
most
powerful
methodologies
is
that
undertaken
by
the
Barrett
Values
 Centre
that
over
the
last
ten
years,
has
conducted
national
values
studies
in
Argentina,
 Bhutan,
Denmark,
Latvia,
Iceland,
and,
most
recently,
USA.
Latvia
is
using
the
results
from
 their
national
survey
as
the
foundation
for
their
sustainable
development
strategy,
Latvia
 2030,
which
was
presented
to
the
EU
in
September
2008.
Weeks
before
the
collapse
of
the
 Icelandic
economy,
the
Icelandic
National
Survey
revealed
critical
levels
of
dysfunction
in
 their
current
culture
with
potential
bankruptcy
on
the
horizon.
xxii


Excelling
in
The
Experience
and
Transformative
Economy

There
are
only
three
antidotes
to
commoditisation:


 • to
stage
experiences
unique
to
a
place
and
time;
 • to
engage
and
enable
customers
to
personalise
their
own
experiences
in
meaningful
 and
effective
ways;
and
 • to
enable
the
customer
to
have
a
transformative
experience
–
ie,
experience
an
inner
 change
of
perspective,
being
or
value.

 
While
Joe
Pine
and
Jim
Gilmore,
authors
of
The
Experience
Economy
xxiii
identified
all
three
steps
over
10
years
ago,
very
few
destinations
have
invested
time
and
energy
in
applying
these
antidotes.
The
Scandinavians
are
an
exception.
In
Lapland,
they
have
created
LEO
–
a
Centre
of
Expertise
for
the
Tourism
Industry
and
run
a
series
of
programmes
that
enable
small,
medium
sized
operators
of
attractions,
events
and
activity
providers
to
re‐think
their
core
business
from
the
provision
of
products
(a
highly
industrialised
concept)
to
the
staging
of
experiences
that
the
customer
perceives
as
delivering
additional
value.


LEOxxiv
has
developed
the
Experience
Pyramid,
based
on
Pine
and
Gilmore,
which
incorporates
six
key
elements
of
a
meaningful
experience
(individuality,
authenticity,
story,
multi
sensory
perception,
contrast
and
interaction
–
for
more,
read
here).
While
an
academic
rigour
has
been
applied
to
the
development
of
the
programme,
it
is
also
considered
highly
practical
and
valuable
by
those
SMEs
who
enjoy
significant
improvements
to
their
margins
as
a
result
of
this
shift
in
thinking
and
practice.

 
 The
personalisation
of
experiences
can
 only
occur
when
individual
consumers
 can
access,
assemble
and
manipulate
 various
elements
of
their
desired
 vacation
experience
prior
to
and
during
 their
trip
and
then
create
suitable
 memories
to
make
the
experience
last
 after
they
have
gone
home.
Since
two‐ thirds
of
the
visitor
experience
(the
 fantasy
and
the
memory)
is
a
virtual
 one,
revolutions
in
the
digitisation
of
 content
could
be
useful.
But
a
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 16

    • 

preoccupation
with
transactions
has
resulted
in
an
obsession
with
bookings
by
DMOs
and
tour
operators
and
online
travel
agencies
have
focused
on
dynamic
packages
and
product
control.

It
remains
very
difficult
for
customers
to
be
able
to
access
all
the
information
they
could
use
to
plan
their
fantasy
trip,
enrich
its
experience
and
create
entertaining
memories
that
won’t
bore
their
family
and
friends.
This
frontier
of
customer‐oriented
usability
has
yet
to
be
fully
explored
by
the
travel
industry.


The
business
literature
on
Web
2.0
seems
more
focused
on
new
channels
and
eyeballs
(Facebook
fans,
Twitter
followers)
rather
than
customer
service
and
integration.
Venture
capitalists
are
gamblers
at
heart
betting
on
business
models
that
might
rise
to
domination
like
Facebook
and
Google.
While
we
wait
for
winners
to
emerge,
the
traveller
is
finding
their
online
experience
increasingly
frustrating.

 
Acting
Responsibly

Sadly
the
term
sustainability
has
lost
much
of
its
meaning
due
to
overuse
and
misuse.

The
three
so‐called
pillars
of
sustainability
are
not
equal
any
more.
The
economy
is
a
wholly
–owned
subsidiary
of
the
environment.
If
we
lose
our
life
support
system
(breathable
air,
clean
water
and
sufficient
wholesome
food
to
sustain
health)
we
won’t
have
either
a
society
or
an
economy.
The
opportunity
to
balance
society,
economy
and
environment
was
squandered
a
few
decades
ago.


It’s
now
up
to
every
tourism
destination
regardless
of
scope
(i.e.
national,
regional
or
local)
to
minimise
the
footprint
left
by
the
activity
called
tourism
and
to
go
one
step
further
–
to
demonstrate
leadership
by
renewing
the
environment
so
that
healthy
economies
and
societies
might
be
sustained
into
to
the
future.


Responsible
tourism
does
not
mean
saying
no
to
travel
but
it
does
mean
saying
yes
to
activity
that
leaves
minimal
trace.
It
means
reducing
the
carbon
and
ecological
footprint
of
ground
activities
(accommodation,
ground
transport,
activities
etc)
to
zero
and
switching
more
transport
from
air
to
ground,
where
possible.
Responsible
travel
doesn’t
necessarily
mean
saying
no
to
growth
but
it
does
mean
a
genuine
switch
from
a
focus
on
volume
and
gross
benefit
to
a
preoccupation
with
value
and
net
benefit
growth.

 
It
means
stopping
discounting
and
selling
the
destination
short.
It
means
invoking
the
scarcity
of
place
and
the
development
of
highly
value
added,
transformative
experiences
to
maximise
the
value
from
the
experience.
It
means
ensuring
that
all
existing
suppliers
are
operating
at
optimum
capacity
and
are
catering
to
a
diverse
set
of
customers
whose
propensity
to
refer
others
and
return
also
exceeds
industry
averages.
It
means
avoiding
further
expansion
of
facilities
and
services
until
it
can
be
demonstrated
that
the
host
community
will
not
be
negatively
impacted
(ie,
the
net
benefits
from
an
increase
in
visitation,
when
fully
assessed,
would
exceed
costs.)



In
short
it
means
leaving
industrial
tourism
behind
and
developing
a
creative,
low
impact
place
and
community‐based
alternative.
Or
more
to
the
point,
it
means
that
destinations
and
the
businesses
and
residents
located
there
must
now
convince
visitors
that
they
CARE
(ie,
they
are
Communities
that
are
Actively
Renewing
their
Environment).
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
has
developed
an
innovative
programme
designed
to
help
communities
show
that
they
care.xxv

The
Future
is
Creative
and
SURREAL!
Since
Pine
and
Gilmore
wrote
The
Experience
Economy,
a
number
of
authors,
including
John
Howkins
in
The
Creative

Economy:
How
People
Make
Money
from
Ideas
and
Dan
Pink,
in
his
A
Whole
New
Mind,
has
identified
that
wealth
in
the
western
world
would
increasingly
come
from
applying
higher
levels
of
creativity
to
the
provision
of
services
and
experiences.
Things
that
are
beautifully
designed
will
be
more
valued
than
things
that
simply
perform
a
function.

Services
that
can
be
wrapped
in
meaningful
experiences
will
fetch
a
higher
price,
etc.


Whilst
the
majority
of
reports
on
the
Creative
Economy
focuses
on
the
role
of
culture
and
the
arts,
software,
media,
content
and
design,
many
authors
are
recognising
that
creativity
can
be
applied
to
virtually
all
human
endeavour.

An
important
working
paper
from
the
Martin
Prosperity
Institute
titled
From
Kraft
to
Craft:
Innovation
and
Creativity
in
Ontario’s
Food
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 17

    • 

Economy,
points
to
the
possibilities
for
tourism.
The
author
distinguishes
the
older
industrial
“Kraft”
food
economy
from
a
new
“Craft”
economy.

 
 Economic
power
within
the
industrial
food
economy
is
highly
concentrated;
food
is
highly
 processed
and
incremental
innovation
is
invested
in
packaging
and
marketing;
firms
are
 located
close
to
traditional
production
inputs.

 
 By
contrast,
in
the
new
“Craft”
economy,
economic
power
is
diffused
and
decentralised
from
 owners
or
controllers
of
the
means
of
production
to
individual,
highly
creative
knowledge­ workers
and
extra­firm
institutions.
Ideally
the
control
of
land,
resources
and
capital
are
 dispersed
and
quality
is
a
measure
of
taste,
terroir
(the
attribution
of
a
product’s
quality
 and
reputation
to
its
geographical
origin)
and
talent
of
entrepreneurs.
The
traditional
 production
dimension
is
important,
but
place
becomes
central
to
quality
food
making,
 marketing
and
consuming.
xxvi
 
Tourism
forms
a
critical
contributor
to
the
emerging
creative
economies,
especially
those
associated
with
places.
Tourism‐related
activities
transport
and
house
visitors
who
may
in
turn
chose
to
live,
invest,
and
work
in
the
region
they
visited.
This
external
market
of
non‐residents
plays
a
critical
role
in
maintaining
the
viability
and
enabling
the
diversity
of
various
amenities
and
services
enjoyed
by
the
resident
population.


In
the
same
way
that
a
craft
food
economy
is
emerging
to
stand
as
a
counterpoint
to
an
industrial
food
production
system,
so
does
tourism
need
to
encourage
a
form
of
craft
tourism
which
for
the
time
being
we
have
described
as
an
anagram
spelling
SURREAL
in
which:


 
 S=
slow
(visitors
are
encouraged
to
stay
longer,
savour
more)
 U=
uniquely
expressive
of
the
place
(minimising
the
potential
for
substitution
and
 taking
advantage
of
the
scarcity
of
place)
 R=
responsible

minimising
the
environmental
footprint
and
maximising
net
benefits
to
 host
community,
employees
and
investors
 R=
regenerative
–
actually
renewing
both
the
host
community,
its
people,
its
 environment
while
rejuvenating
and
refreshing
the
visitor;

 E=experiential
–
replacing
products
with
value
wrapped
experiences
based
on
mutual
 respect
and
reciprocity
between
guest
and
host
 A=artisans
–
using
products
and
materials
that
are
created
by
artisans
and
artists
and
 convey
a
level
of
meaning
not
present
in
factory
generated
things
 L=local
–
making
maximum
use
of
materials
and
services
that
can
be
supplied
locally.


There
is
a
real
need
and
an
opportunity
for
tourism
marketers
and
economic
developers
to
work
together
to
develop
and
sustain
a
highly
profitable
form
of
craft
tourism
that
draws
sustenance
from
a
local
creative
economy
and
in
return
provides
sustenance
to
its
host.

 
 
Joining
Up
the
Dots
–
Empowering
and
Enabling
the
Connectors.
Tourism
is
ultimately
all
about
connecting
people
to
each
other
and
people
with
places.
It
moves
physical
bodies
through
space
for
that
purpose.
It
has
much
in
common
with
telecommunications
–
the
process
of
moving
digitised
content
(bits
of
information)
between
people
and
places.
Sadly
and
ironically
these
two
giants;
these
two
huge
economic
drivers
have
not
yet
joined
forces
despite
their
common
focus
and
their
interdependence.
It
will
be
interesting
to
see
what
can
happen
when
they
“get
into
bed
with
one
another”.



Destination,
place‐based,
craft
tourism
would
benefit
enormously
from
the
knowledge
and
skills
resident
in
the
information
technology
and
telecommunications
sector.
Tourism
has
been
a
major
factor
in
the
web’s
rise
and
domination
as
travel
has
been
one
the
most
frequent
and
extensive
users
of
the
web.
A
significant
chunk
of
the
business
enjoyed
by
such
firms
as
Google,
Nokia,
Apple
and
Cisco
is
generated
by
the
travel
industry.
Thus
far,
the
interactions
have
occurred
most
effectively
when
between
industrialised
corporates
on
either
side
of
the
travel‐communications
divide.

 
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 18

    • 

I
venture
to
suggest
that
over
95%
of
the
businesses
engaged
in
tourism
and
the
ones
with
the
greatest
potential
to
serve
tomorrow’s
customer
and
generate
highest
net
benefits,
is
still
under
utilising
the
available
technology
either
due
to
lack
of
broadband
connectivity,
inferior
hardware
or
a
dearth
of
skills
and
awareness.


This
paper
opened
with
the
observation
that
if
you
want
to
change
tourism
you
have
to
change
your
perception
of
how
it
works.
By
following
the
machine‐based
industrial
model,
destination
marketers
and
managers
(ie
economic
developers)
have
missed
a
key
opportunity,
ie,
to
use
our
knowledge
of
networks,
computerisation
and
information
processing
to
create
a
powerful,
highly
flexible,
loosely
coupled,
distributed
electronic
infrastructure

(combining
wired,
wireless,
hardware,
applications
and
content)
that
would
enable
a
destination
to
become
truly
smart.
The
technology
now
exists
to
support
an
activity
called
tourism
the
way
it
is
in
reality
–
ie,
as
a
complex
adaptive
system
–
not
as
we
might
falsely
perceive
it
to
be
–
ie,
as
a
highly
integrated
supply
chain.


Destinations
most
closely
approximate
the
“business
web”
so
ably
described
by
IT
guru
Don
Tapscott

in
his
books

Paradigm
Shift
and
Wikinomics.
DestiCorp
has
often
described
them
as
“Destination
Webs”
arguing
that,
in
the
same
way
that
a
brain
is
smart,
thanks
to
its
connections
between
cells
and
not
the
number
of
cells,
so
destinations
could
become
smart
if
their
small
enterprises
were
wired
together
and
some
forethought
was
invested
into
the
nature
of
content,
and
the
purpose
and
benefits
of
its
exchange.
Because
few
destinations
have
invested
in
that
kind
of
thought,
we
have
a
system
that
is
as
messy
and
as
haphazard
as
the
reality
it
could
support
–
literally
millions
of
discrete
and
independent
web
sites;
and
terabytes
of
content
(text,
data,
images,
videos
and
now
reviews
and
ratings)
that
can’t
be
mixed
and
matched.
At
the
same
time
we
have
individuals
responsible
for
marketing
that
have
to
wait
years
to
find
out
how
their
sector
is
performing;
we
have
investors
having
to
look
in
a
rear
view
mirror
in
order
to
make
future
investment
decisions
and
many
businesses
either
leaving
business
on
the
table
or
unable
to
secure
emerging
opportunities.


Never
has
the
need
been
so
urgent
for
a
coming
together
of
tourism
and
IT
in
a
constructive
way.
A
destination
web
would
significantly
enhance
intelligence
gathering
and
permit
a
degree
of
adaptability
and
agility
essential
in
this
world
of
increasing
change
and
uncertainty.
It
might
also
enable
existing
businesses
to
improve
their
economic
sustainability
and
profitability
without
needing
to
multiply.







It
would
be
surreal
but
it
would
be
worth
it!
 
Conclusion
This
paper
is
dedicated
to
tomorrow’s
leaders.
Over
the
next
5‐10
years
the
leadership
of
the
global
tourism
community
will
change
dramatically
as
its
boomer
leaders
finally
hand
over
power
and
responsibility
to
a
new
generation.
It
is
not
yet
clear
how
the
next
cohort
of
leaders
will
perceive
the
tourism
community
and
its
place
in
that
of
the
global
society.
Will
they
see
the
world
through
the
ecological
lenses
described
in
this
paper
or
will
they
need
to
unlearn
the
paradigm
that
has
dominated
mass
tourism?


Peter
Drucker
once
observed:

 
 "A
paradigm
shift
may
take
25
years
­­
the
time
it
takes
for
the
unwilling
to
unlearn
 proponents
of
the
old
paradigm
to
retire."

Unfortunately,
we
don’t
have
25
years,
so
every
effort
must
be
made
to
accelerate
that
learning
process.
As
inspiration,
let
me
quote
the
famous,
current
philosopher,
Erik
Hoffer:



 “In
times
of
radical
change,
the
learners
inherit
the
earth,
while
the
learned
find
themselves
 perfectly
equipped
for
a
world
that
no
longer
exists.”
 
Readers
are
invited
to
join
in
this
learning
adventure
for
the
stakes
are
indeed
high.





November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 19

    • 

 
 
ENDNOTES
























































i
Leadership
and
the
New
Science,
Wheatley
Margaret.
J.
Berrett
Kohler,
1999
ii
Adaptive
Enterprise,
Stephan
Haeckel,
Harvard
Business
School
Press,
1999
iii
UNWTO
forecasts
iv
Change
Your
World
Or
Your
World
Will
Change
You,
Deloitte,
2009
‐
http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/industries/government/article/719ef16bc31fb110VgnVCM100000ba42f00aRCRD.htm
v
Acting
Now
for
a
Positive
2018
Preparing
for
Radical
Change,
Forum
for
the
Future
and
Cap
Gemini
vi
Future
of
the
Leading
Edge,
by
InfoSavy
–
see
www.committedsardine.com
vii
The
Cluetrain
Manifesto,
Locke,
Levine,
Searls,
Weinberge,
2000
viii
www.prb.org
ix
Don
Tapscott
and
Keith
Goodwin,
Success
in
the
Second
Wave
of
the
Internet
for
Cisco,
March
2008
x
Recent
Trends
in
Growth
of
Air
Passsenger
Demand,
Civil
Aviation
Authority,
January
2008.
xi
British
Social
Attitudes
Survey,
National
Centre
for
Social
Research,
28
January
2009.
xii
Meeting
Consumer’s
Emerging
Values,
Claire
Ratushny

http://www.mediapost.com/publications/?fa=Articles.showArticle&art_aid=112295
xiii
Going
Green
Yankelovich:
http://www.yankelovich.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&sectionid=13&id=75&Itemid=257
xiv
The
Barrett
Values
Centre
http://www.valuescentre.com/
xv
Simon
Anholt’s
Introduction
in
The
Handbook
on
Tourism
Destination
Branding,
World
Tourism
Organization
and
the
European
Travel
Commission,
2009
xvihttp://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/earth_overshoot_day/
xvii
Prosperity
Without
Growth
–
Tim
Jackson
for
Sustainable
Development
Commission,
2009

xviii
Culture,
Authenticity,
Place:
Connecting
Cultural
Mapping
and
Place
Branding,
Greg
Baecker
and
Jeanette
Hanna,
in
Municipal
World,
February
2009
xix
ibid
xx
David
Armano
http://www.slideshare.net/darmano/microinteractions‐marketing‐20‐paris
xxi
http://eqgb.canada.travel/
xxii
The
Barrett
Values
Centre:
http://www.valuescentre.com/
xxiii
The
Experience
Economy;
Joe
Pine
and
Jim
Gilmore,
1999
xxiv
LEO:
English
website
‐
http://www.leofinland.fi/LEO/In_English.iw3

xxv
Places
That
Care
–
concept
developed
by
DestiCorp
(available
on
request)

xxvi
From
Kraft
to
Craft:
innovation
and
creativity
in
Ontario’s
Food
Economy,
Betsy
Donald,
Martin
Prosperity
Institute,
February
2009
November
5th,
2009
 Anna
Pollock,
DestiCorp
UK
Ltd.
 20