Theatrical Improvisation Final Slides


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  • Why I chose this topic: I’ve been afraid of improvisingActing classes for 7+ years Acting classes at professional theatreShowsHighschool, community theatre, Acting, directing, lights,Improv in everyday life Improving at the mall
  • It’s a huge part of our cultureSeen on TV (SNL)Seen in all art forms – theatre, art, dance, music, writing, Helps with socialization (interacting with people)Helps people make quick decisions
  • To get an idea of what improv is, we’ll look at the history of improv.Performers improvised based off of familiar situations that everyone could relate to (Improv Handbook)
  • Stanislavski believed that actors should be truthful and vulnerable instead of covering up who they really are.
  • Wrote famous acting trilogy: An Actor Prepares, Building a Character, and Creating a RoleFounded the Moscow Art Theatre in 1897Age 14: joined theatrical group organized by family and soon became central figureBegan producing and directing plays
  • Viola Spolin – GRANDMOTHER OF IMPROV Influenced first generation of improv at The Compass Players Evolution of the current “rules” of comedic improv (1950s & 1960s) Led to the Second City Son Paul Sills and David Shepherd started Compass Players and Second City; success was the modern Chicago improvisational comedy movement Methods were developed by Jo Forsberg and used in the Player’s Workshop, the first official school of improv in the countryJoan Littlewood – USED IMPROV TO DEVELOP PLAYSProsecuted twice for allowing actors to improv in performance; British law required scripts to be approved by Lord Chamberlain’s Office. Inspectors were sent to performances to check that the approved script was compiled correctlyKeith Johnstone – BROUGHT IMPROV TO CANADA The Theatre Machine Originated in London Led to Theatresports; Johnstone moved to Toronto & brought improv with himDick Chudnow – FOUNDED COMEDYSPORTS, WHICH LED TO WORLD COMEDY LEAGUE Founded ComedySports in 1984 in Wisconsin Led to Comedy League of America National Tournament First was held in 1988 10 teams Now known as the World Comedy League w/ roster of 19 international cities
  • ViolaSpolin Theatre educator, director, and actress Created the “theatre games” system of actor training Introduced theatre games to children Used traditional game structures to influence social behavior in inner-city and immigrant children Games can be found in her book “Improvisation for the Theatre,” the actor’s Bible
  • A predominate function of the intuitive: INTUITION is an important tool used in improv, and improv is a big part of intuition.Process as opposed to result: the goal of the improv game is to solve a problem, and the game is over as soon as that goal is reached. This is because improv is the changes, the spontaneity, the involvement in the MOMENT, rather than what happens after the goal is reached.
  • Seven Aspects of SpontaneityGamesHelps students develop skills and grow in intuition and reflexThe players’ focus provokes spontaneity“In this spontaneity, personal freedom is released, and the total person, physically, intellectually, and intuitively, is awakened.” (Spolin pg. 6)Approval/DisapprovalWrong We are so used to judging things critically and putting “good” or “bad” labels on them (a GOOD baby does not cry too much, etc.)Group ExpressionIt’s a group effort, and there are no leadersAudienceThe audience is usually ignored, but in improv, the audience is a big part of theatreTheir response is criticalAudience involvementTheatre techniquesThe techniques of the theatre are the techniques of communicatingSuch as Stanisavski’s techniques, etc.From straight theatreMuscle memoryCarrying the learning process into daily lifeObserving things outside of the classroom to develop a sharp eyePhysicalizationActing is about using your body to express something
  • Del Close – improvisational comedy teacher/director/actor/author Began career with the Compass Players Directed/taught at Second City Trained many SNL cast members Founded ImprovOlympic (improv school) along with CharnaHalpern Invented Longform (& the Harold) Acted in movies Ferris Bueller’s Day Off American Graffiti Etc… Acted on stage Diverse roles Hamlet (won Jeff Award) at Wisdom Bridge Theatre A few of the many plays he was in: You Can’t Take It With You, Pal Joey, All’s Well That Ends Well Author Co-wrote textbook Truth In Comedy with Halpern and Johnson Spoken-word comedy album How To Speak Hip Co-wrote Wasteland for DC Comics
  • The re-birth of improvisation: Chicago (Spolin’s hometown!)Students formed group just for fun; didn’t expect it to become a huge thingThey named their groupThe world wouldn’t have the Second City if the Compass players wasn’t formed
  • Opened in 1959 in Chicago, quickly becomes hot spot for locals and must-see for touristsSecond City TV won Emmy, went on to become one of the most respected and beloved sketch comedy series of all time
  • Formal creation of Training Center was what made classes popularImportance in American society: after 9/11, headlines said that it was the death of comedy, yet The Second City knew that America needed laughter in those times. The Second City helped again for Haiti, establishing Comedy Week for HaitiMany famous stars are alumni of The Second City
  • The objective of the game is to solve the problem that is created.Without a problem, there is no goal. Without a goal, there is no point in playing the game.
  • Beginner students tend to half-heartedly participate because they don’t want to look like idiots, but really it only makes them look like dorks. The student must fully commit in order to become an awesome improviser.
  • Wit and speedShort, unrelated scenes driven by an audience suggestion with a predetermined game, structure, or idea
  • Longform: invented by Del Close (see Del Close slide)Full-length shows Improvised scenes are connected Audience suggestions which drive the narrative of the performance Scenes may be largely unrelated with the exception of a single point of inspiration Seen in Second City, when they have a long series of improvised performancesPantoSummerstage program last summer Developed scenes based on improving scenesThe Harold – constructed improvisational performance; structured improv
  • Trust is an important part of improvisationIn order to incorporate trust into one’s improv career, players must: 1. Trust that their partner will help them a. Never deny the reality set up by partner 2. Train themselves to trust their first response to a suggestion by the audience or an idea by their colleaguesQuote: trust yourself. Also, improviser must set up a bond of trust with colleagues.
  • Why learn it? It reinforces our core belief that improv can and should be about stories, rich characters and believable interactions After the formal, technical exercise, it’s nice for the students to get their feet wet by jumping up and doing improv scenesHigh status Gesture infrequently but purposefully Make middle of body bigger and taller Enter someone else’s personal space Speak in short sentences Hold eye contactLow status Touch face nervously Long rambling sentences Middle of body smaller Try to keep distance from other people Giggle nervously
  • Taking a chance (risk) is one of the most important elements of improv workRisk isn’t as obvious to the audience because the improviser is being guided by their trainingImprovisers turn these everyday skills into an art form
  • Humans like to share memories with people; before we could talk, we played toys with each other Humans like to gossipAs the actor tells a story on stage, audience members immediately start inventing stories based on their own perspective which they are developing as the play goes onWho is she?Where is she?What is she waiting for?
  • Improv companies can mime props, sets, etc. Audience accepts that, because improv is about using your imagination, therefore it is BELIEVABLE
  • If they know something’s wrong, it only makes it worse to acknowledge it. Instead, speak generally to students as if they’re acting in the opposite mannerDon’t be negativeIt’s important to recognize when students step outside of their comfort-zone, but don’t acknowledge that you know it was uncomfortable for them Know what you’re doing. Try out games beforehand so that you know they’ll work for class.It only makes you look weak
  • 6. Don’t rush the students during exercises, warm-ups, and games. Give them time to apply what they’ve learned7. Don’t be afraid to change exercises to fit the needs of your group8. Students should feel comfortable in the place they’re learning. Don’t let anything in the environment hinder one’s growth9. If students become restless, solve the problem immediately and go through a simple warm-up10. Do not teach. Expose students to the theatrical environment through playing, and they will find their own way11. Warm-ups should be before, during, and after sessions12. Be flexible. If things don’t go according to the lesson plan, that’s okay.
  • Too many volunteers is the best kind of problem a teacher can haveDon’t just tell the instructor what you think they want to hearIf you don’t commit, you’re not going to get anything out of itBy planning ahead to avoid mistakes, you’re defeating the purpose of improvEverything is muscle memoryWork with as many people as you can
  • Interpreter’s Theatre (article)A technique used to help students become involved with characters in literature.Leslie Irene Coger and Melvin R. Whitesaid that the purpose of interpreters theatre is to “illuminate literature through creative oral reading that calls forth mental images of characters performing an action that exists primarily in the readers’ and audience’s minds”Pamela Smith said that “if simply watching a performance enriched students’ experience with literature, I wondered how students who actually performed the script benefited.”The “we’re in this together” vibe helped the interaction between students to be positiveAllows students to move into higher levels of thinking
  • The autobiography Actor writes the autobiography about his/her character, in order to understand the person they are portraying The actor must include events outside of the script as well as ones already in the script. Example: if the actor was writing an autobiography about Oedipus, they would include Oedipus’ interaction with the messenger as seen in the script, and his interaction with the drunken man, although not seen in script. Develops depth and forces history. Forces actor to look at the background of the character. Forces students to look deeper than Cliff Notes. The autobiography requires material that isn’t found on Sparknotes or Cliffnotes.The letter Actor sits on stage/playing space, as their character, and writes letter to anoher character in the style of their character. Puts actor into context and makes use of the knowledge garnered from the autobiography.The improv Actors act out scene not seen in the script. (Example: teen subscription classes at People’s Light)
  • One can’t have a strategy until they’re aware of their environment. From strategy, one can obtain other aspects of the practice of management.
  • Interpreting the environmentPrinciple of improv: the environment will teach you if you let it, rather than trying to control it. Principle of improv: you can free-up intuition by carrying out contradictory actionsImprov exercise to develop intuitive thinking: Nonsense Naming – individuals quickly walk around room and give wrong names to object pointed at. The exercise shows that it is difficult to break out of familiar patterns of seeing things.Crafting strategyintended: strategy: analytical, planned, controlled, future-oriented, top-down, episodic. Emergent: intuitive, action-oriented, spontaneous, in-the-moment, bottom-up, ongoingKey challenge of improv: recognizing when story is losing effect and redirecting itCultivating leadershipKey characteristic of improv: individuals take different leads and different times“Freeze-n-Go”Fostering teamworkAccepting the offer and then building on it.Jokes are not made at the extent of other peopleIndividuals do not impose themselves on the scene in a controlling wayIndividuals don’t just survive; they work actively to build the sceneIndividuals do not put one another out on a limbHaving common goal is critical for improv workDeveloping individual skillsConcentrate on the moment rather than what could happen or what already happened“Make a Story” exercise (one word at a time)
  • Interpreting the environmentOrganization members sometimes aren’t able to break out of familiar patterns of interpreting customer needsCrafting strategyStoryline in improv is equivalent to the strategy in organizationsBuild on what others have offered and offer something in returnCultivating leadershipBeing able to take on different leadership roles at different times is heavily dependent upon the ability of the group to work as a teamFostering teamworkDeveloping individual skillsNeed to be committed and engaged in order to be convincingAssessing organizational cultureBusiness of Second is to make people laugh, while business of organizations, a by-product of learning how to improvise is that people laugh
  • Script/strategy = the PLAN for the theatre/company; the mission statementProducer director/CEO = the leader; the person in chargeSets props/assets = concepts/objects used to enhance the theatre/companyRelationships = interactionAudience/Customer input = the reason why the theatre/company is there
  • Join improv troupe – performs at festivals and competitions, as well as improv clubsComedy stand-up – very popular, TV, will usually always find an outlet to performTeach workshops – Professional theatres hold workshops. Many improvisers make good improv teachers; they pass down what they’ve learned.All you need is space and willing studentsCorporate entertainment – performing for a group of business people outside of their normal environment
  • My application was: Teach two improv workshops based on my research. I hoped to learn how to be a good improv teacher and improv student. Film workshops
  • Research Extensive Read many books, articles, websites Asked questions (interviews, emailing websites) Took classes
  • Planning Made lesson plans for each workshop Included extra games and warm-ups just in case Workshop 1 Goals 1. Commit. Free yourself. There’s no right or wrong in improv 2. Don’t act, React Definitions “Improvisation” Warm-ups “Who Started the Motion?” “Play Ball!” Concepts Anyone can improvise Seven aspects of spontaneity Games “Mirror” “Tug of War” “How Old Am I?” “Part of a Whole Relationship” Observations Workshop 2 Goals 1. To identify a problem and solve it 2. To create common environments Definitions “Improvisation” review Warm-Ups “Stop At the Same Time” “Environment Game” Concepts Games SHOWING, not TELLING Teamwork Environment How do we know where we are? Games “Gibberish” “The Room Game” “Emotional Hero” “Yes, And” “Nope!” Observations
  • Chose two experienced seniors and an inexperienced junior and freshman“How Old Am I?” game – students made brave choices and committed themselves to the exercise
  • “Gibberish” game – adapted well and grasped communication through showing
  • What did I learn from my students? Everyone had a general understanding of what improv was, but they didn’t expect it to all be games Class reached goal of commitment by the end of class Worked well as a team Anyone really CAN improvWhat did I learn about being a teacher? You don’t always have to stick to the lesson plan When teaching your peers, you must establish your position as the authoritative figure right away Use experienced students to your advantage (use them in examples) Don’t spend too long on one game. When your praise their hard work, they develop more positive attitudes If you’re not clear enough on explaining how to play a game, they’ll never fully understand what you want them to doWhat did I learn from doing my project? I learned to not be afraid of improvising anymore I learned to respect it as an individual art form apart from actingWhat surprised me? How it really is all fun and games, get intelligent fun and games EVERYONE can do it There’s a whole world of improv that I didn’t know about; I didn’t expect it to be such a big thing There are a lot of improv teachersWhat will I do in the future? Look into taking improv classes in Philly Going to Temple University for Theatre Become ACTIVE in improv
  • Game develops teamwork and gets player’s minds warmed up and active.
  • Theatrical Improvisation Final Slides

    1. 1. Theatrical Improvisation<br />Anna McGahey<br />
    2. 2. Overview of presentation<br />Thesis<br />Relevance<br />History<br />People<br />Companies<br />Aspects<br />Forms<br />Teacher & Student Tips<br />Out of Context<br />Application<br />Conclusion<br />Class Activity<br />Citations<br />
    3. 3. Thesis Statement<br />In order to become a skilled improviser, one must commit their whole self through participation and focus while keeping an open mind. The improvisation teacher must expose the student to the theatrical environment through various games rather than lectures.<br />
    4. 4. What is improvization?<br />Making something up as you go along<br />
    5. 5. Relevance<br />
    6. 6. Personal Relevance<br />
    7. 7. Why you should care<br />
    8. 8. History<br />
    9. 9. HISTORY OF IMPROV<br /><ul><li>Commedia Dell’Arte
    10. 10. Theatrical Theorists
    11. 11. Modern Improv</li></ul>Commedia Dell’Arte<br />1500s – 1700s<br />Performers improvised in streets of Italy<br />(<br />
    12. 12. HISTORY OF IMPROV<br /><ul><li>Commedia Dell’Arte
    13. 13. Theatrical Theorists
    14. 14. Modern Improv</li></ul>Theatrical Theorists<br />Constantin Stanislavski and Jacques Copeau<br />1890s<br />Founders of two major streams of acting theory<br />Used improv in acting training and rehearsal<br />"An actor must work all his life, cultivate his mind, train his talents systematically, develop his character; he may never despair and never relinquish this main purpose - to love his art with all his strength and love it unselfishly” - Stanislavski<br />(<br />
    15. 15. Constantin Stanislavski<br />1863 - 1938<br />(<br />
    16. 16. HISTORY OF IMPROV<br /><ul><li>Commedia Dell’Arte
    17. 17. Theatrical Theorists
    18. 18. Modern Improv</li></ul>Modern Improv<br />Audience participation<br />Theatre games in classroom evolved into an independent art form<br />Viola Spolin – 1930s-1980s<br />Joan Littlewood – 1930s-1970s<br />Keith Johnstone – 1970s<br />Dick Chudnow – 1980s<br />(<br />
    19. 19. Viola Spolin<br />1906 - 1994<br />(<br />
    20. 20. Viola Spolin’s definitions of Improv<br />A predomin-ate function of the intuitive<br />Playing it by ear<br />Trans-forma-tion<br />Playing the game<br />Setting out to solve a problem with no preconception as to how you will do it<br />Process as opposed to result<br />An art form<br />(Spolin)<br />
    21. 21. Viola Spolin’s definitions of Spontaneity<br />An off-balance moment<br />The moment when, in full sensory attention, you don’t think, you act!<br />The gateway to your intuition<br />A free moment of self-expression<br />A moment of explosion<br />(Spolin)<br />
    22. 22. Seven aspects of spontaniety<br />Games<br />Approval/Disapproval<br />Group Expression<br />Audience<br />Theatre Technique<br />Carrying the Learning Process Into Daily Life<br />Physicalization<br />“The first step toward playing is personal freedom” – Viola Spolin<br />(Spolin)<br />
    23. 23. Del Close<br />1934 - 1999<br />"Improv is mutual discovery, mutual support. [It is] the adventure of finding out what it is we're doing while we're doing it. All you know is where you've been. You don't know where you're going.” – Del Close<br />(<br />
    24. 24. The Compass Players<br />The beginnings of modern improv<br />Students from the University of Chicago, 1955<br />Group developed into Compass Players<br />Compass Players developed into Second City<br />History<br />"When we started out at the Compass, we were entertaining each other and our peers. Where did you go to hear jokes about Dostoevski or Newton's third law? Certainly not the burlesque house. And in the anti–intellectual environment of the Fifties, it took a certain amount of courage to stand up in public and admit that you had an education you weren't ashamed of." – Del Close<br />(<br />
    25. 25. The Second City<br /><ul><li>Est. 1959
    26. 26. Training Center est. 1985</li></ul>Chicago<br />Toronto<br />Hollywood<br />"I studied the usual acting methods at college - Stanislavsky and whatnot but none of it really clicked for me. At The Second City, I learnt that your focus should be entirely on your partner. Suddenly it all made sense" - Tina Fey<br />(<br />
    27. 27. The Second City (continued…)<br /><ul><li>Largest school of improv-based arts in the world
    28. 28. 11 full-time touring ensembles
    29. 29. Important in American society</li></ul>TINA FEY<br />STEVE CARELL<br />MIKE MYERS<br />JERRY STILLER<br />(<br />
    30. 30. Aspects<br />
    31. 31. IMPROV GAMES<br /><ul><li>Vital aspect of improv
    32. 32. Develops alertness, agility, readiness, and eagerness
    33. 33. Has a problem which needs solving</li></ul>“Skills are developed at the very moment a person is having all the fun and excitement playing a game has to offer” – Viola Spolin<br />(Spolin)<br />
    34. 34. The Commitment Meter<br />“Failure is unimportant. It takes courage to make a fool of yourself” – Charlie Chaplin<br />Students must put themselves out there instead of worrying about looking stupid <br />(<br />
    35. 35. Forms of improv<br />Short scenes constructed from predetermined game<br />Developed by Viola Spolin<br />Example: Whose Line Is It, Anyway? <br />Shortform<br />(<br />
    36. 36. Forms of improv<br />Longform<br />Scenes related by story or character<br />Examples:<br />Spontaneous Broadway<br />Panto<br />The Harold<br /><br />(<br />
    37. 37. Trust<br />Players must…<br />Trust partner<br />Trust their instinct<br />“Improv is about teaching a person that it is okay to look foolish and say silly things; that only by saying what is silly can you get to what is truly funny. The more you trust yourself, the more amusing you can be.” – Tim Soter<br />(<br />
    38. 38. Why learn it?<br />SOCIAL<br />STATUS<br /><ul><li>Enforces character
    39. 39. Relieves players who are caught up in technical aspects</li></ul>High Status<br />Low Status<br /><ul><li>Hold eye contact
    40. 40. Speak in short sentences
    41. 41. Enter someone else’s personal space
    42. 42. Touch face nervously
    43. 43. Use long, rambling sentences
    44. 44. Try to keep distance from other people</li></ul>(Salinsky & Frances-White)<br />
    45. 45. The Audience and the Actor<br />Fast, clever scenes<br />Taking a chance and being guided by:<br />A series of rehearsal/performance games which develop training and discipline<br />Everyday skills<br />Listening<br />Observing<br />Communicating<br />What audience sees:<br />What actor sees:<br />On stage, improv theories aren’t obvious because improvs are fast and clever<br />(<br />
    46. 46. Storytelling<br />Why is storytelling important in improv?<br />Humans are collaborative in nature<br />As an actor tells a story on stage, audience members immediately start inventing stories as to what is happening<br />(Salinksy & Frances-White)<br />
    47. 47. Advantages of improv<br />“Improvisation is the only art form that I can think of that has an unlimited budget. Our budget is only limited by our imagination” – Salinsky & Frances-White<br /><ul><li>Improv companies can mime instead of purchasing equiptment
    48. 48. Believability</li></ul>(Salinsky & Frances-White)<br />
    49. 49. Teacher & Student Tips<br />
    50. 50. How to be a good improvteacher<br />Don’t acknowledge students’ neuroses<br />Praise hard work<br />Praise anything the students do that’s outside of their comfort-zone<br />Practice what you preach<br />Never tell students off<br />(<br />
    51. 51. How to be a good improvteacher<br />Don’t rush the students<br />Make variations on exercises<br />Preserve a safe environment<br />Keep the focus<br />Don’t teach, expose<br />Use warm-ups frequently<br />Be flexible<br />(Spolin)<br />
    52. 52. How to be a good improvstudent<br />Always volunteer<br />Tell the truth<br />Give it a shot<br />Don’t try to impress<br />Keep it up<br />Spread the love<br />(<br />
    53. 53. Out of Context<br />
    54. 54. Interpreter’s Theatre<br />Technique used in classrooms to help students understand literature<br />The Theatre of the Mind<br />Focuses on creating a picture in the mind of the audience rather than providing an exact visual picture of a scene <br />“We’re in this together”<br />“In trying to interpret the meaning of the literature to their classmates, students became personally involved with their characters” – Pamela Smith<br />“It is impossible for you to communicate a selection to an audience unless you understand it thoroughly yourself first” – Cogar and White <br />(Smith, Pamela)<br />
    55. 55. Script-based improv in classroom<br />The autobiography<br />Written by actor on his/her character<br />Includes events in script and not in script<br />Develops depth and forces history<br />Forces students to look deeper than Cliff Notes<br />The letter<br />Written by actor on stage to another person in the world of the play<br />Demands both thought and language as the character<br />The improv<br />Actors improvise scene depicted in the story but not written in the script<br />(Tretler)<br />
    56. 56. How does IMPROV relate to ORGANIZATIONS?<br />Six key areas that link improv exercises to the practice of management:<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />“Improvisation is an orientation and a technique to enhance the strategic renewal of an organization” - Crossan<br />(Crossan)<br />
    57. 57. HOW DOES<br />Interpreting the environment<br />Let the environment teach you<br />Free-up intuition<br />Crafting strategy<br />Blend of intended and emergent<br />Cultivating leadership<br />Give and take<br />Fostering teamwork<br />Yes-Anding<br />Tug-of-War<br />Developing individual skills<br />Vulnerability<br />Being in-the-moment<br />Assessing organizational culture<br />IMPROV<br />relate to<br />Organizations?<br />(Crossan)<br />
    58. 58. HOW DOES<br />Interpreting the environment<br />Members unable to use unfamiliar patterns of helping customer needs<br />Crafting strategy<br />Anticipate/depend on customer needs<br />Cultivating leadership<br />Adaptability to leadership roles<br />Fostering teamwork<br />Open to new ideas<br />Share common goal<br />Developing individual skills<br />Result of commitment: convincing<br />Assessing organizational culture<br />By-product of learning is laughter<br />IMPROV<br />relate to<br />organizations?<br />(Crossan)<br />
    59. 59. Management<br />Strategy<br />CEO<br />Assets<br />Relationships between coworkers<br />Customer input<br />Improv Theatre<br />Script<br />Producer/director<br />Sets/props<br />Relationships between fellow actors<br />Audience input<br />more<br />PARALLELS<br />PARALLELS<br />(Crossan)<br />
    60. 60. Careers in improv<br />Join improv troupe<br />Comedy stand-up<br />Teach workshops<br />Corporate entertainment<br />"To me, it doesn't matter whether or not people pursue acting careers. If acting class makes their lives richer and gets them to open up and lead warmer, emotional lives, it's worthwhile." - Alan Miller<br />(Salinsky & Frances-White)<br />
    61. 61. Application<br />
    62. 62. Overview<br />Research<br />Planning<br />Workshop 1<br />Workshop 2<br />Observations<br />A pplic a tion<br />
    63. 63. Overview<br />Research<br />Planning<br />Workshop 1<br />Workshop 2<br />Observations<br />A pplic a tion<br />
    64. 64. Planning<br />Overview<br />Research<br />Planning<br />Workshop 1<br />Workshop 2<br />Observations<br />Goals<br />Definitions<br />Warm-ups<br />Concepts<br />Games<br />Observations<br />A pplic a tion<br />
    65. 65. A few examples of Improv Workshop 1<br />Overview<br />Research<br />Planning<br />Workshop 1<br />Workshop 2<br />Observations<br />Introduction<br />Warm-Up<br />A pplic a tion<br />Teaching<br />Game<br />MANY thanks to Amanda Vandenburg, Steven Copp, Carlos Martinez, Melissa Reinbold, and Corey Cohen<br />
    66. 66. A few examples of Improv Workshop 2<br />Overview<br />Research<br />Planning<br />Workshop 1<br />Workshop 2<br />Observations<br />Warm-Up<br />Game<br />A pplic a tion<br />Game<br />MANY thanks to Amanda Vandenburg, Steven Copp, Carlos Martinez, Melissa Reinbold, and Corey Cohen<br />
    67. 67. Conclusion<br />
    68. 68. Overview<br />Research<br />Planning<br />Workshop 1<br />Workshop 2<br />Observations<br /><ul><li>What did I learn from my application?
    69. 69. What did I learn from my project?</li></ul>A pplic a tion<br />
    70. 70. Class Activity<br />
    71. 71. Class Activity: “One Word At A Time”<br />“Three men and two women stand on a bare stage. Suddenly, quickly, each says one word at a time. "Jim" "went" "to" "see" "his" "mother." Faster and faster, they speak until the five sound like one person telling one complete story. It is an impressive performance, and even more impressive when one realizes that it is completely improvised.” – Tim Soter<br />Everyone stands in a circle<br />Player 1 starts the story by saying one word<br />The story gets passed around the circle as each player adds one word to the story<br />
    72. 72. Citations<br />
    73. 73. Citations<br />AllExperts, comp. “Improvisational Comedy at AllExperts.” AllExperts. About, Inc., 2010. Web.<br /> 15 Apr. 2010. < e/ i/ im/ improvisational_comedy.htm>.<br />Anthony. “You Know Everything.” Theatrical Improvisation :) :(. Meetup, 2010. Web. 15 Apr.<br /> 2010. < Theatrical-Improvisation/>.<br />Bennetts, Brendon. Weblog post. Story Robot. Ed. Brendon Bennetts. Wordpress, 31 Oct. 2009.<br /> Web. 27 Nov. 2009. < improv>.<br />Berner, Robert L. “Athol Fugard and the Theatre of Improvisation.” Books Abroad 50.1 (1976):<br /> 81-84. PDF file.<br />Boulware, Mollie Hall. Personal interview. 10 Jan. 2010.<br />Casson, John W. “Theatre and Therapy.” The Living Newspaper 44.2 (2000): 107-122. PDF file.<br />Centerstage Chicago, comp. WhosWho Chicago: Del Close. Centerstage Chicago. Sun-Times<br /> Media, LLC, 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. < theatre/<br />whoswho/ DelClose.html#>.<br />Crossan, Mary M. “Improvisation in Action.” Organization Science 9.5 (1998): 593-599. PDF<br /> file.<br />Dixon, Randy, Tove Hansen, and Andrew Rogers. The Living Playbook. Ed. Randy Dixon.<br /> Seattle: Unexpected Productions, 2001. PDF file.<br />Experience Festival. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <>.<br />Flickr, comp. Flickr. Flickr. Yahoo! Inc., 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <>.<br />Frances-White, Deborah, and Tom Salinsky. The Improv Handbook. N.p.: Continuum<br /> International Publishing Group Ltd., 2008. Print.<br />Goldstein, Dan. “How To Be A Better Improviser.” Dan Goldstein. Dan Goldstein, 2010. Web.<br /> 15 Apr. 2010. < howtoimprovise.html>.<br />Google, comp. “Google Images.” Google Images. Google, 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <http://<br />>.<br />
    74. 74. Citations (cont.)<br />MacLeod, Hugh. Learn Improv. Ed. Hugh MacLeod. Hugh MacLeod, 1995-2007. Web. 27 Nov.<br /> 2009. <>.<br />People’s Light and Theatre. Snow White. 2009. PDF file.<br />The Second City, Inc. The Second City - 50 Years of Funny. The Second City. The Second City,<br /> Inc., 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <>.<br />Smith, Pamela. “Interpreter’s Theatre: A Tool of Teaching Literature.” English Journal 7.82<br /> (1993): 71-72. PDF file.<br />Soter, Tom. Tom Soter’s Sunday Night Improv. N/ A, 2010. Web. 15<br /> Apr. 2010. <>.<br />Spolin, Viola. Improvisation for the Theater. 3rd ed. 1963. Evanston: Northwestern University<br /> Press, 1999. Print.<br />Stanislavski, Constantin. An Actor Prepares. Trans. Elizabeth Reynolds Hapgood. Vol. 1. 1936.<br /> New York, London: Routledge, 2003. Print. 3 vols.<br />Stanislavski, Constantin. Building A Character. Trans. Elizabeth Reynolds Hapgood. Vol. 2. 1936. New York,<br /> London: Routledge, 2003. Print. 3 vols.<br />Stephan, Ed, Daniel Dopierala, and Amy Smith, comps. “Charles Chaplin - Biography.” IMDB.<br />, Inc., 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. < name/ nm0000122/<br /> bio>.<br />Tretler, Lawrence J. “Improvisation in the Theatre and the English Classroom.” English Journal<br /> 72.3 (1983): 71-72. PDF file.<br />Tyson, Lucy. Personal interview. 10 Jan. 2010.<br />Wapedia. Improvisational Theatre. Wapedia. Wapedia, 9 Apr. 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <http://<br /> en/ Improvisational_theatre>.<br />Whitehouse, Ben, Amy Whitehouse, and Philip Buuck. Improvoker - Agreement With Attitude.<br />Improvoker. Wordpress Sandbox, 10 Aug. 2009. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <http://<br />>.<br />