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Geopolitics in Asia: American Influences in Japan and South Korea
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Geopolitics in Asia: American Influences in Japan and South Korea

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  • Korean war which began 60 years ago, resulted from the post-WWII division of Korea by the USA and USSR – intended to be temporary – and from the political struggle that developed between Seoul and Pyongyang.
  • Had it not been for the US, there would now be one all communist Korea. USA sent all the money, troops, supplies.Money received after normalizing relations with Japan
  • Financial support: like for sending 20,000 Korean soldiers to VietnamBecause of that: US had to ensure Korea developed into and economically and politically viable nationFailure of Korea to develop would be seen by the world as a US failureThe United States have stationed a substantial contingent of troops in South Korea since the Korean War to defend South Korea in case of East Asian military crises.
  • Financial support: like for sending 20,000 Korean soldiers to VietnamBecause of that: US had to ensure Korea developed into and economically and politically viable nationFailure of Korea to develop would be seen by the world as a US failureThe United States have stationed a substantial contingent of troops in South Korea since the Korean War to defend South Korea in case of East Asian military crises.
  • Westernization=modernizationHollywood -> but much influence was from Japanese films -> which copied Hollywood films

Transcript

  • 1. American Influences in East AsiaA Discussion on the influences of the United States of America in Japan and South Korea Larroza, Rellama, Zajec
  • 2. Where is which?
  • 3. Overview: Japan• Capital: Tokyo• Population: Approximately 128 000 000• Land area: 378 000 km2• Bounded by: o East – Pacific Ocean o West – Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea, Russia o North – Sea of Othotsk o South – East China Sea, Taiwan
  • 4. America and Japan• 1791, John Kendrick (first arrival in Japan)• 1848, James Glynn (first agreement)• 1852: Matthew Perry and the “Black Ships”• American occupation after WWII: 1946 - 1952• Japan is the “pilot plant” of America’s Far Eastern policies.
  • 5. Japan after America EconomicMilitary Forces Democratization Liberalization Labor Standards EducationTrade Union Act Act Reform
  • 6. Military Forces American 6th largest Post-WWIIWorld War II pressure to military Constitution rebuild army budget Japan was not allowed to Threats of COMMUNISM wage war or maintain military forces. America wanted to use Japan as a bulwark against DEMILITARIZATION Communism in Asia.
  • 7. Democratization• The US Bill of Rights was one of those documents that inspired the 1946 constitution of Japan.• Involved the: o “De-politicization” of the Japanese royalty; o Enfranchisement of women; o Strengthening of the parliament’s power; and o Decentralization of the police and local government.• Current form of government: Unitary Parliamentary Democracy and Constitutional Monarchy
  • 8. Economic Liberalization• When the demilitarization and democratization slowed down a bit, US authorities encouraged business practices.• Monopolizing financial coalitions were abolished.• Land reform: o Distribution of lands to peasants from wealthy landlords through the Japanese government
  • 9. Trade Union Act• “To elevate the status of workers by promoting their being on equal standing with the employer.” Labor Standards Act• “Working conditions shall be those which should meet the needs of workers who live lives worthy of human beings.”
  • 10. Educational Reform Before WWII: German System Gymnasiums and universities after primary school After WWII: American System3-year junior high school (compulsory) Senior high schools (optional) Imperial University System
  • 11. Overview: South Korea• Capital: Seoul• Population: Approximately 48 875 000• Land area: 100 210 km2• Bounded by: o East – East Sea, Japan o West – Yellow Sea o North – North Korea o South – Jeju Strait
  • 12. Korea• Japanese colony (1919-1945)• Confucian heritage• World War II• Korean War
  • 13. First encounters with USA• American government: reason why there is a North and South Korea• USA as a reliable hero! o Liberator, philanthropist and protector• Korea received $800 million between 1965 and 1975• normalized their relations with its former colonial enemy, Japan  buffer
  • 14. Military• Aided by American financial support and training• Allies in Korean War o 20,000 troops fighting in Vietnam for the Vietnam War o Received monetary rewards• USA: anticommunism movements  democracy• Protected SK from being taken over by North Korean Communists
  • 15. Military• Aided by American financial support and training• Allies in Korean War o 20,000 troops fighting in Vietnam for the Vietnam War o Received monetary rewards• USA: anticommunism movements  democracy• Protected SK from being taken over by North Korean Communists
  • 16. Government & Laws• Democracy• Family planning practices• Higher education: Fulbright Program• Nationalism
  • 17. “Westernization”• 1960s: modernization and industrialization• Led to urbanizations and consumerism o Fueled by influence of American popular culture• Acquisition of anything reflecting American culture o Improvement of social standing in Korean society• Led to a more socially mobile society o Appealing to many Koreans• Infatuation with the West• Turned to US for insights about S&T – keys to industrialization
  • 18. Conclusions/Recommend ations• Identifying what is truly Japanese or Korean is not going to be easy as the US will most likely be always in the picture, therefore more careful research must be done to ensure greater sensitivity and clarity.• Messing with South Korea and/or Japan would mean messing with the United States and its allies.• The success/failure of South Korea and/or Japan can serve as a determinant to the success/failure of the United States, not just as a colonizer, but also as a nation (power).
  • 19. Sources• Asahi Shimbun Staff, The Pacific rivals; a Japanese view of Japanese-American relations, New York: Weatherhill, 1972.• Dower, John W. Japan in War and Peace. New York: The New Press, 1993. ISBN 1-56584-067-4 or ISBN 1-56584-279-0• Kawai, Kazuo. "American influence on Japanese thinking" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 278, 1951.• Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Trading (Trade Union Law, Labor Standards Act)• Kuppuswamy, C.S. “South East Asia: US Interests, Influence and Involvement.” South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved from http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers22%5Cpap er2188.html
  • 20. • http://www.eastwestcenter.org/news-center/east-west- wire/60-years-after-korean-war-peninsula-still-divided- and-tense• http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=7678• http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=2011010 8190247AAdapMf• http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/GS_PIPA_EU. html• https://litigation- essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=Document Display&crawlid=1&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&doctype=ci te&docid=22+S.+Ill.+U.+L.+J.+71&key=135e93007925294e 6fbb54d350574dbc