2. 1. a)We decided to move to New York, but it wasnt an easy decision.b)(Even though)c)(Despite)--------------------------------------2. a) The children wanted to visit Disneyland, so we booked a flight and hotel room for four days in June.b) (Because of)c) (Therefore)d) (Because)
3. A declarative sentence "declares" or states a fact, arrangement or opinion. Declarative sentences can be either positive or negative. A declarative sentences ends with a period (.). Ill meet you at the train station. The sun rises in the East. He doesnt get up early.
4. The imperative commands (or sometimes requests). The imperative takes no subject as you is the implied subject. The imperative form ends with either a period (.) or an exclamation point (!). Examples Open the door. Finish your homework Pick up that mess.
5. The interrogative asks a question. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb precedes the subject which is then followed by the main verb (i.e., Are you coming ....?). The interrogative form ends with a question mark (?). Examples How long have you lived in France? When does the bus leave? Do you enjoy listening to classical music?
6. The exclamatory form emphasizes a statement (either declarative or imperative) with an exclamation point (!). Examples Hurry up! That sounds fantastic! I cant believe you said that!
7. Simple Sentences Simple sentences contain no conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.). Examples Frank ate his dinner quickly. Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday. Are you coming to the party? Compound Sentences Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.). Examples I wanted to come, but it was late. The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus. I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes.
8. Complex Sentences Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator (i.e, which, who, although, despite, if, since, etc.). Examples My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang. Thats the man who bought our house Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.
9. Compound - complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions (i.e., but, so, and, etc.) and subordinators (i.e., who, because, although, etc.) Examples John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation. Jack forgot his friends birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered. The report which Tom compiled was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex.
10. Simple Sentence -> Complex Sentence Example: Tom is a boy. He is eight years old. He goes to school in Philadelphia. Complex Sentence: -> Tom is an eight-year old boy who goes to school in Philadelphia. Here are some simple rules to remember when combining simple sentences into complex sentences: Dont repeat words Change words if necessary Add words to connect ideas
11. Complex Sentence Exercise Combine the following sentences into complex sentences. Remember that a number of answers may be correct. Click on the following page to compare your answers with two possible paragraphs. His name is Peter. Hes a famous professional athlete. Hes a baseball player.He has a large house in Miami. The house is beautiful. He often travels around the US. He plays away games in different cities in the US. He travels by airplane.
12. He usually sleeps on the plane. He stays up late after games. He is an excellent pitcher. Fans love his abilities. Coaches love his abilities. Every week he plays a home game. The game is played in Glover Stadium. The game is usually sold out. Glover Stadium is old. Glover Stadium doesnt have enough seats for all the fans. The fans wait in line to buy tickets. The fans often pay more than $60 dollars for a ticket. The fans are unhappy about the ticket prices. The fans love Peter.
13. Change this paragraph into complex sentences Complex Sentence - Possible Paragraph 1 Peter is a famous baseball player. He lives in a beautiful house in Miami. He often flies around the United States to play away games. Both fans and coaches love his excellent pitching abilities. Every week he plays home games in Glover Stadium which is usually sold out. Glover Stadium is an old stadium without enough seats for all the fans. Fans wait in line to buy the tickets which often cost more than $60. Even though the fans are unhappy about ticket prices, they love Peter.
14. Complex Sentence - Possible Paragraph 2 Peter is a famous baseball player who lives in a beautiful house in Miami. He often flies to different cities around the United States to play away games. His excellent pitching is loved by both fans and coaches. Old Glover Stadium doesnt have enough seats for the fans who want to come to home games. Even though they are unhappy about ticket prices, the wait in line and pay more than $60 to see Peter play
15. Using 5 senses:sight sound touch feel smell “She opened the door and was overcome with ghost of lemons and lavender Focus on little details Instead of saying look tired- say”dark circles” “Perry walked in, and everyone noticed the dark circles under his eyes.” Watch out for weak verbs “Mary spoke softly Mary mumbled, murmured More evocative “Jim walked quickly across the room” “Jim strode across the room” Engage readers-pat of the story
16. “Jenny jumps high over the fence” “Jenny gallops over the fence” Read Over and revise as necessary
17. When I was a child, my grandfather built me Me the wonderful treehouse.It had wide pine floorboards, and the walls were stained a rich walnut brown.One window faced the house ,where I could often see my mother cooking dinner in the kitchen, and the other window faced the woods behind our yard. When I lay on the floor of the treehouse, I could hear the wind rustling through the trees aroud me, and I could smell the breeze, which changed with each passing season. Eventhough my grandfather is no longer around, I still think of him whn I visit my parents’ house and climb up to sit in my old treehouse. START WITH TOPIC SENTENCE
18. Figure speech non literal terms includes Metaphor, simile, hyperbole, irony etc “It’s hot today” Changed to “It’s as hot as an oven today” “It’s a million degrees today” Irony-opposite the real meaning “It’s cool and pleasant day” Can do more than to compare Alliteration: weird words are wonderful Onomatopeia : uses the object’s sound”splat”