An Introduction to ScientificWriting
Including CSE Formattingand Documentation
Instead of saying:
“I added Chemical A to
Say: “Chemical A was
added to Chemical B.”
Don’t refer to a GMO-- talk about Genetically Modified Organisms.
Generally accepted standards of
academic writing apply
Define your terms.
Using content specific vocabulary--
consider your audience
This sections contains
ad/or literature review.
2. Methodology or
What you did to conduct the
Common Elements in ScientificResearch Papers
What did you find after
you conducted the
Just the facts; no
What conclusions or
inferences can be
drawn from these
Key journals in the
field of biology:
Relies on superscripted numbers
(a raised numeral located at the end of a clause or sentence identifying the content as outside source
The superscripted number flags the reader's attention to a
correspondingly numbered entry on a References list located at the
end of a book or document.
Beginning with 1, each number follows in sequential order from page to page.
There is no space between the word and the numeral.
Ex. The data1 found after several months study . . .
CSE In-text numbering
CSE: In-TextNumbering (cont.)
• When you cite a source that was previously mentioned, use
the number that was already assigned to the source.
• When you refer to numerous sources, separate the
numerals by using commas.
Ex. The studies12, 14 represented by the table shown...
• When referring to a source cited in another source, say
Ex. The data15(cited in 4) was collected over several…
Author. Year. Article Title. Place of Publication: Publisher. General Technical Report
Ford PL, Fagerlund RA, Duszynski DW, Polechla PJ. 2004. Fleas and lice of mammals
in New Mexico. Fort Collins (CO): USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research
Station. General Technical Report No. RMRS-GTR-123.
(paper or pdf)
In-text: (Liao et al. 2003)
Format: Author. Year of Publication. Article Title. Journal Title Volume Number (Issue
Number): page numbers
Liao, J, Beal, D, Lauder, G, Triantafyllou, M. 2003. The Kármán gait: Novel body
kinematics of rainbow trout swimming in a vortex street. Journal of Experimental
Biology 206: 1059-1073. doi: 10.1242/jeb.00209
Note: In practice, most articles are cited in this format, whether viewed in paper or
electronic format. Include a DOI (digital object identifier) number when available for
Journal Article from an
Electronic Journal Center
(Parmentier et al. 2004)
Author. Year of Publication. Article Title. Online Journal [Internet] [cited Year
Month Date]; Volume Number(Issue): Page Numbers. Available from: Website
Parmentier H, Golding S, Ashworth M, Rowlands G. 2004. Community pharmacy
treatment of minor ailments in refugees. J Clin Pharm Ther [Internet] [cited 2007
Jul 24]; 29(5):465-469. Available from:
Electronic Journal from a
(Leng et al. 2004)
Author. Year. Article Title. Online Journal [Internet]. [cited Year Month Date];
Journal Volume(Issue):Page Numbers. Available from: Website
Leng F, Amado L, McMacken R. 2004. Coupling DNA supercoiling to transcription
in defined protein systems. J Biol Chem [Internet]. [cited 2007 July 24];
279(46):47564-47571. Available from:
(Animal Welfare Information Center 2005, then AWIC 2005)
Author. Title [medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication
[Date of update/Date of citation]. Availability.
Animal Welfare Information Center [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National
Agricultural Library (US); [updated 2005 April 14; cited 2005 April 15].
Available from: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/
Note: Websites are rarely cited in scientific papers, and Wikipedia is never an
acceptable source to be cited. However, the reference section of Wikipedia can be
a good place to find sources
(Author. Year of Publication. Title of Paper. In:) Editor of proceedings. Year
(if not listed earlier). Title of publication or conference. Name of
conference; dates of conference; place of conference. Place of publication:
publisher. Total number of pages. (pages cited if single paper)
Rossler OE. 2004. Nonlinear dynamics, artificial cognition and galactic
export. In: Dubois DM, editor. Computing anticipatory systems. CASYS
2003 – Sixth International Conference; 2003 August 11-16; Liege, Belgium.
Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics. p 47-67.
Selected CSE Resources
• Council of Science Editors (Online)
• Ohio State University Libraries’ Online CSE guides
• McKneese State University’s Online CSE Guides
• Writing @ Colorado State
• Research and Documentation Online (5th Ed.)