Introduction to Scientific Writing and CSE Style

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Ann Westrick and the staff of the Learning Commons at BGSU present "Introduction to Scientific Writing and CSE Style"

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Introduction to Scientific Writing and CSE Style

  1. 1. An Introduction to ScientificWriting Including CSE Formattingand Documentation OriginallycreatedbyBlytheCaldwellandAmandaKuhlman. RevisedbyAnnWestrick.
  2. 2. Beconcise. Beclear. Beplain. Beprecise. The style:
  3. 3. Defaulttothirdpersonpassivevoice. Focusonresultsrathertheexperimenter. Avoidabbreviationsandacronyms. Stylistic considerations Instead of saying: “I added Chemical A to Chemical B.” Say: “Chemical A was added to Chemical B.” Don’t refer to a GMO-- talk about Genetically Modified Organisms.
  4. 4. Sentence structure Grammar Transitions Capitalization Punctuation Generally accepted standards of academic writing apply
  5. 5. Define your terms. CansomeoneoutsidemyfieldunderstandthewayIamusing thisword? Ismydefinitionspecifictothecontextofmypaper? Using content specific vocabulary-- consider your audience
  6. 6. CommonElementsinScientificResearchPapers 1. Introduction This sections contains background information ad/or literature review. 2. Methodology or Materials and Methods What you did to conduct the experiment/study?
  7. 7. Common Elements in ScientificResearch Papers 3. Results What did you find after you conducted the experiment/study? Just the facts; no analysis. 4. Discussion What conclusions or inferences can be drawn from these results?
  8. 8. Nature Journalof Science Evolution Cell Key journals in the field of biology:
  9. 9. CouncilofScienceEditors Style Guide regulates style, formatting, citations
  10. 10. Selected CSE Resources • Council of Science Editors (Online) www.councilofscienceditors.org • Ohio State University Libraries’ Online CSE guides http://library.osu.edu/help/research-strategies/cite-references/cse/ • McKneese State University’s Online CSE Guides http://library.mcneese.edu/citestyl/csestyle.htm • Writing @ Colorado State Universityhttp://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/docume ntation/cbe_citation/intextrules.cfm • Research and Documentation Online (5th Ed.) http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch11_s1-0003.html
  11. 11. Threesystems: Author-date(year) NumberingSequence Citation-Author Citing Sources in Your Paper
  12. 12. SimilartoAPAstyle Author’slastnameandyearofpublicationincludedincitation (Nocommaseparatingthetwo) Ex.(Smith2013) Referencelistalphabetized byauthors’lastnames CSE: Author-date in-text citations
  13. 13. Relies on superscripted numbers (a raised numeral located at the end of a clause or sentence identifying the content as outside source material) The superscripted number flags the reader's attention to a correspondingly numbered entry on a References list located at the end of a book or document. Beginning with 1, each number follows in sequential order from page to page. There is no space between the word and the numeral. Ex. The data1 found after several months study . . . CSE In-text numbering
  14. 14. In-textsuperscriptednumbersappearafterthepunctuationandquotationmarksat theendofacitedclauseorsentence. Sourcemateriallocatedinthefirstpartofasentenceseparatedbyanemdash(two hyphens)iscitedwiththenumberplacedbeforethedashbegins. SuperscriptednumberscanbecreatedinMicrosoft®Word. CSE: In-Text Numbering (cont.)
  15. 15. CSE: In-TextNumbering (cont.) • When you cite a source that was previously mentioned, use the number that was already assigned to the source. • When you refer to numerous sources, separate the numerals by using commas. Ex. The studies12, 14 represented by the table shown... • When referring to a source cited in another source, say "cited in” Ex. The data15(cited in 4) was collected over several…
  16. 16. Containsallthebibliographicinformationneededtofindoutmoreabouteachcited sourcewithinthetext. EventhoughReferencesisthemostcommonlyusedtitleCitedReferencesor LiteratureCitedareacceptabletitlesaswell. Selective:doesnotincludeafullaccountingofsourcesrelatedtoorconsulted beforeyoubeganwritingyourdocument,butonlythoseactuallycited. Sourcesthatdirectlyinformedyourthinkingbutarenotcitedmaybeincludedin anAdditionalReadingspageorBibliography. (ThesepageshavedifferentformattingrulesfromtheReferencesPage.) Ifusingthenumberingsequencesystem,arrangeentriesnumerically,following theirinitialin-textorderofappearance CSE: Reference List
  17. 17. TechnicalReport In-text (Fordet.al.2004) Format: Author. Year. Article Title. Place of Publication: Publisher. General Technical Report Number. Number. Bibliography: Ford PL, Fagerlund RA, Duszynski DW, Polechla PJ. 2004. Fleas and lice of mammals in New Mexico. Fort Collins (CO): USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. General Technical Report No. RMRS-GTR-123.
  18. 18. Journal Article (paper or pdf) In-text: (Liao et al. 2003) Format: Author. Year of Publication. Article Title. Journal Title Volume Number (Issue Number): page numbers References: Liao, J, Beal, D, Lauder, G, Triantafyllou, M. 2003. The Kármán gait: Novel body kinematics of rainbow trout swimming in a vortex street. Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 1059-1073. doi: 10.1242/​jeb.00209 Note: In practice, most articles are cited in this format, whether viewed in paper or electronic format. Include a DOI (digital object identifier) number when available for electronically-retrieved resources
  19. 19. Journal Article from an Electronic Journal Center (OhioLINK) In-Text: (Parmentier et al. 2004) Format: Author. Year of Publication. Article Title. Online Journal [Internet] [cited Year Month Date]; Volume Number(Issue): Page Numbers. Available from: Website References: Parmentier H, Golding S, Ashworth M, Rowlands G. 2004. Community pharmacy treatment of minor ailments in refugees. J Clin Pharm Ther [Internet] [cited 2007 Jul 24]; 29(5):465-469. Available from: http://journals.ohiolink.edu/ejc/pdf.cgi/Parmentier_H.pdf?issn=02694727&issue=v 29i0005&article=465_cptomair
  20. 20. Electronic Journal from a Publisher’s Website In-Text: (Leng et al. 2004) Format: Author. Year. Article Title. Online Journal [Internet]. [cited Year Month Date]; Journal Volume(Issue):Page Numbers. Available from: Website References: Leng F, Amado L, McMacken R. 2004. Coupling DNA supercoiling to transcription in defined protein systems. J Biol Chem [Internet]. [cited 2007 July 24]; 279(46):47564-47571. Available from: http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/279/46/47564
  21. 21. Webpage In-Text: (Animal Welfare Information Center 2005, then AWIC 2005) References Format: Author. Title [medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [Date of update/Date of citation]. Availability. Example: Animal Welfare Information Center [Internet]. Beltsville (MD): National Agricultural Library (US); [updated 2005 April 14; cited 2005 April 15]. Available from: http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/ Note: Websites are rarely cited in scientific papers, and Wikipedia is never an acceptable source to be cited. However, the reference section of Wikipedia can be a good place to find sources
  22. 22. Conference Proceedings In-Text: (Dubois 2004) References Format: (Author. Year of Publication. Title of Paper. In:) Editor of proceedings. Year (if not listed earlier). Title of publication or conference. Name of conference; dates of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Total number of pages. (pages cited if single paper) Example: Rossler OE. 2004. Nonlinear dynamics, artificial cognition and galactic export. In: Dubois DM, editor. Computing anticipatory systems. CASYS 2003 – Sixth International Conference; 2003 August 11-16; Liege, Belgium. Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics. p 47-67.
  23. 23. Selected CSE Resources • Council of Science Editors (Online) www.councilofscienceditors.org • Ohio State University Libraries’ Online CSE guides http://library.osu.edu/help/research-strategies/cite-references/cse/ • McKneese State University’s Online CSE Guides http://library.mcneese.edu/citestyl/csestyle.htm • Writing @ Colorado State Universityhttp://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/docume ntation/cbe_citation/intextrules.cfm • Research and Documentation Online (5th Ed.) http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch11_s1-0003.html

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