Urban forestry


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Urban forestry

  1. 1. Arborist Certification preparatory Class Urban ForestryBrett O’BrienPark Natural Resources SupervisorColumbia Parks & Recreation Departmentbjo@gocolumbiamo.com
  2. 2. Benefits and Costs of trees Sociological- trees have an influence on our societal, cultural and individual well being Environmental- Trees have an ecological impact of trees in a community
  3. 3. Sociological Higher property values Improves business in commercial districts Reduces AD/HD symptoms Reduces aggression and violence Builds stronger communities http://lhhl.illinois.edu/research.htm
  4. 4. Environmental Runoff reduction and stormwater control Air pollution reduction Energy savings Carbon sequestration Provide habitat http://na.fs.fed.us/urban/treespayusback/index.shtm
  5. 5. The costs Tree purchasing and planting Pruning Irrigation Removal and disposal Pest, disease prevention and control Sidewalk repair Leaf litter clean-up Legal liability and other administrative aspects
  6. 6. Appraisal and valuation Single tree benefits Community tree benefits
  7. 7. Single tree appraisal and valuation theNinth Edition of the Guide for Plant Appraisal published by the International Society of Arboriculture http://treebenefits.com/calculator/
  8. 8. The CTLA The Council of Tree & Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) is an organization of tree care and landscape associations, including TCIA, the American Nursery and Landscape Association (ANLA), American Society of Consulting Arborists (ASCA), American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA), PLANET, and International Society of Arboriculture (ISA)
  9. 9. basic approaches for plant appraisals: Cost Approach -Replacement costs -Cost of cure -Cost of repair Income Approach -Crop value -Forest appraisal (timber value) Market Approach Benefit based approach http://www.asca-consultants.org/
  10. 10. Replacement costs This method is used when the plants are of a size that can be replaced – The Replacement Cost Method can be used to appraise the value of transplantable landscape trees, shrubs, and vines. The Appraised Value of a landscape plant is based on the cost of planting a plant of the same or comparable species, conditions, and size in the same place. If the appraised plant is to be replaced, the costs of plant removal and cleanup are added to obtain the Appraised Value.
  11. 11. Trunk Formula Method Appraised Value = Basic Value x Condition x Location Basic Value = Replacement Cost + (Basic Price x [TA(A) - TA(R)] x Species) Condition = A rating of the trees structure and health and based on 100 percent Location = the average for the trees Site, Contribution and Placement and based on 100 percent Replacement Cost = the cost to purchase and install the largest locally available and transportable tree in the area. Basic Price = the cost per square inch of trunk area of a replacement tree measured at the height prescribed by the American Nursery Standards. TA(A) = Trunk Area at 4.5 feet above the ground of the appraised tree TA(R) = Trunk Area at 6 inches or 12 inches above the ground of the replacement tree Species = the rating for a particular species and based on 100 percent
  12. 12. Example - 18 inch DBH sawtooth oakCondition=70%Location= 80%Replacement Cost= $300Basic Price= $38TA(A)=254 inches= 18 inch dbh oak*TA(R)= 5 inches= 2.5 inch replacement treeSpecies rating=70%Basic Value = $300 + ($38 x [254 - 5] x .70)$6923 x .70 x .80Appraised Value = $3877*3.14 times Radius squared http://www.illinoisarborist.org/SpeciesRating.htm
  13. 13. Community tree appraisal and valuation i-tree suite of software tools i-tree eco -provides a broad picture of the entire urban forest. i-tree street -focuses on the benefits provided by a municipalitys street trees. i-tree storm-provides a method for a community to assess widespread storm damage after a severe storm http://www.itreetools.org/
  14. 14. Regulatory and legal issues Liabilityissues Insurance issues Ordinances License and permit requirements Tree preservation Planting and tree care standards
  15. 15. Liability issues R.O.W. trees -utility line clearance -municipal responsibility and ownership Public nuisances -dead or hazardous trees -low branches over streets/walks -infectious diseases or insects -impeding line of sight
  16. 16. Insurance issues Proofof insurance A reputable arborist carries personal and property damage insurance ($1million per occurrence, $2million aggregate) and Workers Compensation insurance ($1 Million)
  17. 17. Ordinances Street tree ordinances primarily cover the planting and removal of trees within public rights-of-way Tree protection ordinances are primarily directed at providing protection for native trees or trees with historical significance View ordinances are designed to help resolve conflicts between property owners that result when trees block views or sunlight
  18. 18. License and permit requirementsA variety of local, state, and federal laws. Examples include: business license Pesticide applicator license Land disturbance permits
  19. 19. Tree Preservation Tree preservation orders (TPOs) are established under municipal ordinances and can be for; -single tree -group of trees -all trees within a defined area -woodland areashttp://www.gocolumbiamo.com/Council/Code_of_Ordinances_PDF/index.php
  20. 20. Planting and tree care standards  The American Standards Institute (ANSI) ANSI A300 (Part 6)-2005 Transplanting ANSI Z60.1-2004 American Standard for Nursery Stockhttp://isa-arbor.com/education/onlineResources/cadPlanningSpecifications.aspx
  21. 21. Management Tree selection Insects and diseases Protection Tree inventories
  22. 22. Tree selection municipalities should strive for diversity of tree species throughout their city -An accepted rule recommends no more than 30 % from a single plant family, less than 20 % of the trees should be from the same genus and no more than, 10 % from the same species http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/EP/EP31000.pdf
  23. 23. Insects and diseasesCan have a devastating impact on a community forest A Urban Forest Master Plan can help formulate policies and procedures for managing these threats – identifying – Monitoring – Determining the economic threshold – Selecting the correct treatment – Proper timing of management strategies – Record keeping and evaluation
  24. 24. Protection Urban Forestry Master Plan can set the policies and strategies needed to enhance and protect the urban forests -maintenance -removal and replacement -storm-response/emergency plan -preservation -tree risk management planhttp://www.leesburgva.gov/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=1003
  25. 25. Tree inventories Partial – Downtown trees – Park trees – Historic or other significant tree collection Complete – 100% inventory of all public trees and potential planting sites – GIS/GPS optionhttp://www.gocolumbiamo.com/Maps/NaturalResourcesInventory.php
  26. 26. Leadership in energy and environmental design (LEEDS) Established a set of standards for building and development certification. Measurements based on; – Sustainable sites – Water efficiencies – Energy and atmosphere – Materials and resources – Indoor environmental qualities – Location and linkages – Awareness and education – Innovation in design – Regional priority http://www.usgbc.org/
  27. 27. Sustainable sites Initiative (SITES) was created to promote sustainable land development and management practices that can apply to sites with and without buildings The Initiative developed criteria for sustainable land practices that will enable built landscapes to support natural ecological functions by protecting existing ecosystems and regenerating ecological capacity where it has been lost http://www.sustainablesites.org/
  28. 28. Information and education Audience types topics
  29. 29. Audience Types Whom does a urban forester need to share information with? – City administrators – Other city departments – Utilities, educational institutions, and other outside agencies – Commercial and business enterprises – Non-profit organizations – State and federal agencies – Homeowners and other private citizens
  30. 30. Arbor Day Foundation Tree City USA A tree board or Department A tree care ordinance A community forestry program with an annual budget of at least $2 per capita An Arbor Day observation and proclamation http://www.arborday.org/programs/treeCityUSA/index.cfm
  31. 31. Topics Developing management goals for the community urban forests. -Tree planting and increased forestry canopy cover. -Improved tree planting/protection legislation and policies. -Expanded education and public relations. -Improved organizational structure and funding. -Improved urban forest maintenance. http://www.on-line-seminars.com/
  32. 32. Deep thoughtsIf trees could scream, would we be so cavalier about cutting them down?We might, if they screamed all the time, for no good reason.