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Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
Treebiology
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Treebiology

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  • 1. Tree Biology By Dr. Ed Gilman and Scott Jones University of Florida
  • 2. An Outline:
    • What is tree biology?
    • What makes a plant a tree?
    • Secondary Growth!
    • Summary.
    • What does it all mean?
  • 3. What is tree biology? The study of the Life Processes of a tree. That includes a study of the GROWTH, STRUCTURE, EVOLUTION, etc. of a tree.
  • 4. Life processes – some examples : photosynthesis – a tree’s gotta eat! support mycorrhizal interactions
  • 5. What makes a plant a tree?
    • Like other plants:
    • Trees are autotrophs - meaning they produce their own food.
    • Tree cells have rigid cell walls, a large central vacuole, and chloroplasts.
    The difference is Secondary Growth !
  • 6. Secondary Growth means Wood! Trees and shrubs grow radially as well as vertically. (The difference between trees and shrubs is size.)
  • 7. Our secondary growth model: A typical hardwood tree in cross section (transverse surface). What can you identify?
  • 8. The Bark: The bark is everything outside the vascular cambium. As you can see, there is a lot going on in the bark.
  • 9. The Bark: periderm: Periderms form the outer bark. They are subdivided further.
  • 10. The Bark: periderm: phellogen (cork cambium) : The phellogen is the region of cell division that forms the periderm tissues. Phellogen development influences bark appearance.
  • 11. The Bark: periderm: phellem (cork) : Phellem replaces the epidermis as the tree increases in girth. Photosynthesis can take place in some trees both through the phellem and in fissures.
  • 12. The Bark: periderm: phelloderm: Phelloderm is active parenchyma tissue. Parenchyma cells can be used for storage, photosynthesis, defense, and even cell division!
  • 13. The Bark: phloem: Phloem tissue makes up the inner bark . However, it is vascular tissue formed from the vascular cambium.
  • 14. The Bark: phloem: sieve tube elements: Sieve tube elements actively transport photosynthates down the stem. Conifers have sieve cells instead.
  • 15. The Bark: phloem: companion cells: Companion cells provide sieve tube elements with needed metabolites. Conifers have albuminous cells instead.
  • 16. The cambium: The cambium is the primary meristem producing radial growth. It forms the phloem & xylem.
  • 17. The Xylem (wood): The xylem includes everything inside the vascular cambium.
  • 18. The Xylem: a growth increment (ring): The rings seen in many trees represent one growth increment. Growth rings provide the texture seen in wood.
  • 19. The Xylem: tracheids: Tracheids are cells used for conducting water & minerals. Conifers only have tracheids and are thus considered softwooded species.
  • 20. The Xylem: vessel elements: Hardwood species have vessel elements in addition to trachieds. Notice their location in the growth rings of this tree
  • 21. The Xylem: fibers: Fibers are cells with heavily lignified walls making them stiff. Many fibers in sapwood are alive at maturity and can be used for storage.
  • 22. The Xylem: axial parenchyma: Axial parenchyma is living tissue! Remember that parenchyma cells can be used for storage and cell division.
  • 23. The Xylem: rays (multiserrate & uniserrate): Rays are radial parenchyma cells. Parenchyma cells give rise to adventitious tissues.
  • 24. The Xylem: a natural compartment: Notice that a natural compartment is formed with living tissue at its borders. How does this support the CODIT model?
  • 25. The Symplast: The symplast is the living portion of the tree. It is all connected via plasmodesmata (tiny passages in the cell walls.)
  • 26. The Apoplast: The apoplast is the nonliving portion of the tree. The outer bark is included in the apoplast as well
  • 27. What about heartwood?
    • Heartwood is xylem that has been chemically altered because of its age.
    • Not all discolored wood is considered heartwood!
    • Not all trees form heartwood.
    • Heartwood is part of the apoplast.
  • 28. Summary
    • Periderm (Bark)
      • Phellogen
      • Phellem (cork)
      • Phelloderm
    • Phloem (Bark)
      • Sieve tube elements [sieve cells]
      • Companion cells [albuminous cells]
  • 29. Summary
    • Vascular Cambium
    • Xylem (wood)
      • Trachieds
      • Vessel elements (hardwoods only)
      • Fibers
      • Axial parenchyma
      • Rays
  • 30. Summary
    • Symplast – the living
    • Apoplast – the dead
    • Growth increment – rings
    • Natural compartment – CODIT
  • 31. What does it all mean?
    • Trees can live longer than other plants.
    • They can get bigger than other plants.
    • They can respond to damage, disease, insects, and environmental conditions successfully.
    • Trees are a long term investment.

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