Soil management
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Soil management Presentation Transcript

  • 1. James Wagner
  • 2. What Will Be Covered? Chapter 3: Soil Science Chapter 4: Water Management Chapter 5: Tree Nutrition and Fertilization
  • 3. Soil Substrate of Rock, Sand, Silt and Clay Organic Matter Water & Air
  • 4. Soil Soil is a balanced ecosystem inhabited by:  Insects  Earthworms  Nematodes  Bacteria  Fungi  Other Microbes http://ecomerge.blogspot.com/2010_06_0 1_archive.html
  • 5. SoilSoil provides plants with: Root support Nutrients Water Gas exchange (O2 & CO2)
  • 6. SoilSoil ecology can differ due to: Underlying geology Geographic location Climate What types of plants grow there
  • 7. Physical Properties Soils are the result of the weathering of parent material over a long period of time. Geology influences soil. Weathered rock–Sediment from waterways.
  • 8. Physical Properties An ideal soil consists of:  50% pore space (water & air)  50% solid (45% mineral and 5% organic matter) Bryan Kotwica, Bugwood.org
  • 9. Physical PropertiesSoil ProfileWeathering events over time, such as: Leaching Temperature fluctuations Chemical reactions Biological activity Accumulation of different elements and materialsCause the soil to develop horizontal layers called horizons
  • 10. Physical PropertiesSoil ProfileSoil horizons are: O-Decomposing organic matter (great amount of biological activity) A-Rich in organic matter and biological activity. Fine roots of trees B-Accumulates leached nutrients (few to no fine roots) C-Partially weathered parent material http://soils.usda.gov/education/resources/le ssons/profile/
  • 11. Physical PropertiesSoil Texture is the fineness or coarseness of a soil determined by relative amounts of minerals. Sand>Silt>Clay Coarse  FineLoam- “Ideal” mineral mix of sand silt and clay.
  • 12. Physical Properties Soil Structure is the arrangement, shape and size of clumps of soil particles, called aggregates.  Determined by physical soil properties, chemical changes and biological activity  Modified by root growth, temperature fluctuations, burrowing insects and animal activity.  Organic matter improves soil structure and increases pore space.
  • 13. Physical Properties Soil structure helps determine the amount of macropores (air movement or gas exchange) and micropores (water retention) a soil contains because pore space occurs within and between aggregates. Soil Texture influences pore space due to particle size. Sandy soils tend to have more macropores and less micropores than soils with more clay. Bulk Density measures the mass of the soil per unit of dried soil volume. Bulk density can be used as an indicator of pore space and soil compaction. Greater bulk density=more micropores than macropores Different soil textures have different ranges of bulk density
  • 14. Physical Properties Soil Compaction is the disruption and destruction of soil aggregates. It can be caused by foot and vehicle traffic, high levels of sodium in the soil and watering.
  • 15. Physical PropertiesSoil compaction Reduces water infiltration and availability Root growth Gas exchange Biological activity
  • 16. Chemical PropertiesSoil pH Measure of soil acidity or alkalinity Many effects on soil ecology and soil chemistry Greatly affects the availability of soil mineral nutrients to plants Difficult to alter due to soil buffering capacity
  • 17. Chemical Properties  Soil particles have varying negative charges which attract soil mineral nutrients that exist as ions in the soil solution. Positively charged ions are called cations.  Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) measures the soil’s ability to hold on to cations.  Soils high in clay and/or organic matter have higher CECs.  Soil texture, soil structure and CEC should be considered when determining fertilizer needs. Bryan Kotwica, Bugwood.org
  • 18. Chemical Properties Saline soils occur when a soil have excess levels of soluble salts which can be toxic to plants Sodic soils have excess levels of sodium which raises the soil pH and destroys the soil structure.
  • 19. Biological Activity Animals, insects, bacteria, fungi and other organisms help cycle nutrients through the soil and help decompose organic matter. The rhizosphere is a microzone of intense biological activity surrounding actively elongating roots. This environment can be very different from the surrounding soil. Mycorrhizae-certain fungi can form beneficial symbiotic relationships with tree roots Actinomycetes are soil-dwelling bacteria that play a critical role in the decomposition of organic matter Certain atmospheric nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria form beneficial relationships with certain tree roots
  • 20. Soil Moisture and Plant Growth  Soil pore space helps determine the water holding capacity of a soil. A greater amount of micropores means a higher water holding capacity.  Well-aggregated soil structure aids aeration and drainage.  Tree roots need adequateAndrew Koeser, International Society of Arboriculture, Bugwood.org gas exchange as well as adequate water to thrive.
  • 21. Urban Soils Urban soils are often altered in such a way as to inhibit tree growth and development.  Highly compacted soils  Little to no organic matter  Little biological activity  Suffer greater temperature fluctuationsCraul, Urban Soils, 1985  can contain pollutants
  • 22. Urban Soil ImprovementBefore planting: Site contains existing trees: Till compacted soils  Use air excavation to Remove soil and replace break up compacted soil with better soil around root zone (radial Improve drainage trenching) and (French drains, drain incorporate organic tile) matter. Incorporate organic matter
  • 23. Water and Trees Water is vital to trees. Large trees can absorb hundreds of gallons of water from soil in a day. Up to 95% of the water taken up by trees can be lost through transpiration. Water use varies due to tree species, size, soil, air temperature, humidity, light and wind. Inadequate soil moisture can lead to root loss, leaf abscission, twig dieback and tree death. Too much water can result in poor nutrient uptake, poor root development, disease and death.
  • 24. Irrigation Trees generally need less water than turf Proper tree selection and planting may reduce irrigation needs. Irrigation is most important for newly transplanted trees, which can need frequent irrigation
  • 25. Irrigation If irrigation is needed, water trees infrequently and deeply.  Promotes well developed roots  Promotes better soil structure  Reduces development of pathogens
  • 26. Irrigation Shallow, frequent watering can lead to poor root development, soil compaction and disease.
  • 27. Irrigation Systems Sprinklers-When properly used they can be very efficient and economical. Higher potential for water loss due to evaporation. Drip-Delivers water to plant more precisely than sprinklers with less potential for runoff. Drip systems can plug so they need to be monitored. Other systems include soil injection, soaker hose, basin irrigation and temporary, portable drip systems.
  • 28. Water Conservation Drought tolerant landscaping (Xeriscaping) Minimum irrigation-provides just enough water to maintain plant health, growth and appearance. Group plants with the same water requirements together on the same irrigation schedule (hydrozones). Requires an understanding of water budgets, soil and plant water loss, water-holding capacity, application rates, infiltration rate and irrigation system efficiency. Water needs can also be determined using soil probes, tensiometers and electronic moisture sensors.
  • 29. Water ConservationRecycled water used in irrigation can be effective but salinity, phytotoxicity and increases in soil pH are potential problems.
  • 30. Water ConservationThe use of mulch around the base of trees can reduce soil moisture evaporation, as well as: Improve soil structure Improve water infiltration Moderate soil temperature Reduce weed competition Reduce soil compaction and erosion Organic mulches increase soil organic matter as they decompose
  • 31. Water Conservation Soil amendments to increase water hold capacity Limit turf plantings Reduce or eliminate fertilizer applications during drought conditions Antitranspirants-for temporary use only. Long term use can be toxic to some plants
  • 32. Flooding and Drainage For some tree species only a short period of flooding can be harmful as photosynthesis shuts down.Drainage Best to establish proper drainage before planting. Improving the soil structure works best French drains, drain pipe/tiles will remove gravitational water, but do not make up for poor soil structure. With after planting drainage improvements care must be taken not to damage the root system. When irrigating, water application rate should not exceed the infiltration rate of the soil. Soil aeration can relieve some drainage problems caused by soil compaction.
  • 33. Flooding and Drainage Water flow over impervious surfaces (parking lots, roads) can cause flooding and carry pollutants. “Rain gardens” to catch drainage from impervious surfaces can reduce storm water runoff. However plantings must be tolerant of flooding, pollutants and drought conditions.
  • 34. Introduction Trees require certain essential elements to function and grow. An essential element (or nutrient) is a chemical constituent that is involved in the metabolism of the tree or that is necessary for the tree to complete its life cycle. In nature these elements are present, replenished and recycled by the decomposition of organic matter.
  • 35. IntroductionIn urban setting, the soil may be different because of: Removal of soil Removal of fallen leaves or other potential organic matter Lack of beneficial soil-dwelling organisms
  • 36. Tree Requirements Trees take up essential elements dissolved in water through their roots. Each element plays a specific role and cannot be substituted by another element. Essential elements are divided into: Macroelements-needed in larger amounts Microelements-needed in smaller amounts Trees and other plants can only utilize essential nutrients in the form of specific ions.
  • 37. Essential ElementsMacronutrients MicronutrientsO-Oxygen B-BoronH-Hydrogen Cl-ChlorineC-Carbon Cu-CopperN-Nitrogen Fe-IronP-Phosphorus Mn-ManganeseK-Potassium Mo-MolybdenumCa-Calcium Ni-NickelMg-Magnesium Zn-ZincS-Sulfur
  • 38. Essential ElementsC Hopkins Café Managed by My Clever Cousin Mo.C HOPKNS CaFe Mg Ni B Mn Cl Cu Zn Mo
  • 39. Tree Requirements  Growth and development of trees is dependant on the most limiting of nutrients.  Nitrogen is often the most limiting of the macronutrients due to leaching, volatilization and, in urban environments, due to lack of nutrient cycling.  P,K and S are mostly in adequate amounts in soil.
  • 40. Tree Requirements  Fe, Mn and Zn are usually the most limiting micronutrients in urban soils  Micronutrients can be phytotoxic at higher levels
  • 41. Tree Requirements Soil pH is important because nutrients may be present in the soil but not available to the tree or present in toxic amounts.
  • 42. Fertilizer  Available in many forms  Complete fertilizer contains N, P and K.  Fertilizer analysis on the label- composition as a % by weight of total N, available P (P2O5) phosphoric acid and K (K2O) soluble potash  Always in the order of N- http://www.butlerswcd.org/Homeowner/Soils.html P-K
  • 43. Fertilizer Because phosphoric acid contains 44% P and soluble potash contains 83% K, the percent P and K on the label must be multiplied by .44 and .83, respectively to calculate the percent amount of P and K. For example: A 50 lbs. bag of 10-6-4 fertilizer contains 5 lbs. N 3 lbs. P 2 lbs K Complete fertilizers are not always needed
  • 44. Fertilizer May be organic or inorganic Inorganic fertilizers release their elements quickly so they are available to plants quickly They may “burn” the plants and are susceptible to leaching and volatilization. Organic fertilizers are composed of naturally occurring or synthetic carbon-based molecules that must decompose in the soil to release their elements.
  • 45. FertilizerSlow release fertilizers are a preferred choice for fertilizing trees, either with organic fertilizers or coated inorganic fertilizers.
  • 46. FertilizerApplication ratesDepends on age, health, species, form of fertilizer, application method, site conditions and desired goal.
  • 47. FertilizerPrescription fertilization Based on soil tests and foliar analysis Determines the amount and availability of essential nutrients in the soil and how deficient the tree is in specific nutrients.
  • 48. FertilizerTimingTiming of fertilizer applications depend on the tree, fertilizer type, soil conditions and CEC.
  • 49. FertilizerApplication techniquesBeneficial to apply fertilizer beyond the drip line.Surface application Requires less time Doesn’t require sophisticated equipment Can deliver nutrients to upper soil, closer to feeder roots Susceptible to volatilization and runoff
  • 50. FertilizerSubsurface application Drill hole Soil injectionFoliar, implants and injection can be used to correct minor deficiencies, but do not provide long-term impact
  • 51. FertilizerOver application of fertilizer can result in Burning-higher solute content in soil than in root draws water out of the root Runoff and leaching-nutrients can pollute waterways and ground water Fertilizer salts can raise soil pH affecting the availability of nutrients