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  • Not specific disorders but what to look for to be able to tell Best part of this class is to learn this process (nothing) What is a physiological disorder? however…

Transcript

  • 1. Pruning
    • Mike Walsh
    • Forestry Programs Manager
    • Forest ReLeaf of Missouri
    • [email_address]
  • 2. Background
    • Mike Walsh
      • B.S. Forestry, Missouri 2005
      • M.S. Forestry, Missouri 2007
      • ISA Certified Arborist 2008 MW-4822A
      • Worked with the MDC, USDAFS, HARC, & MU Forestry Department conducting research in flood tolerance of MO hardwoods, controlled black walnut breeding, nursery production and more.
      • I love trees, learning/teaching about trees, fishing, golfing, watching & listening to Cardinals Baseball, Rams Football?, & Tiger Football (& basketball).
  • 3. Trick Question?
    • If a tree branch is located five feet from the ground, and the tree grows 6” each year, how far from the ground will the branch be in 6 years?
  • 4. Objectives
    • Know why, when and how a tree should be pruned.
    • Understand how trees respond to pruning and the effects of severe pruning on a tree.
    • Understand the relationship of the branch collar and branch size to wound closure and the potential for decay.
    • Describe the procedures and techniques used in pruning. Become familiar with the terms used to describe pruning techniques.
  • 5. Key Terms
    • The Key Terms as listed in the Arborist’s Certification Study Guide will be defined and highlighted throughout the presentation.
  • 6. Key Terms - Chapter 8
    • ANSI 3000 standards
    • Antigibberellins
    • Branch bark ridge
    • Branch collar
    • Branch protection zone
    • Codominant
    • Compartmentalization
    • Crown cleaning
    • Espalier
    • Fronds
    • Heading back
    • Included bark
    • Internodal
    • Lateral
    • Leader
    • Lion tailing
    • Permanent branches
    • Plant growth regulators
    • Pollarding
    • Raising
    • Reduction
    • Restoration
    • Scaffold branches
    • Structural pruning
    • Subordinate
    • Temporary branches
    • Thinning
    • Topping
    • Utility pruning
    • Vista pruning
    • Watersprouts
    • Wound dressing
  • 7. Introduction to pruning
    • Why prune?
      • Who prunes trees in the woods?
      • Open vs. forested grown trees
      • People reasons – people stresses!
        • Health, Safety, & Aesthetics
    • Tree Biology (review)
    • ANSI A300 Standards
  • 8. Open vs. Forested Growth
  • 9. Open vs. Forested Growth
  • 10. Why do we prune? 1) Health
    • To maintain the overall health of the tree
    • Remove broken & diseased branches
    • Rubbing branches / limbs that create wounds
    • Improve taper on branches and limbs
    • Remove codominant stems
    • Attempt to improve overall structure and health of the tree to reduce the risk of failures
  • 11. Why do we prune? 2) Safety
    • Trees in high use areas (playgrounds, e.g.)
    • Removal of broken and dead material (widow makers)
    • Look for poor branch attachments (V-crotches)
    • Excessive leaning (may indicate root problems)
    • Trees in construction areas (10+ year lag time)
    • Interference with line of sight on streets
    • Utility pruning (safety of workers, keep the lights on)
    • Topped trees (will be a hazard down the road)
  • 12. Why do we prune? 3) Aesthetics
    • Improve views (vista pruning)
    • Provide clearance (car, mowers, pedestrians)
      • Pathways & sidewalks to 8’
      • Streets to 15’
    • Reduce shade & wind resistance
      • Lawns, groundcovers, mulch beds with flowers
    • Influence fruit & flower production
  • 13. Broken Branches
  • 14. Rubbing Branches
  • 15. Codominant Stems
  • 16. Safety
  • 17. Poor Branch Attachment
  • 18. Trees in Power Lines
  • 19. Clearance
  • 20. When to prune? (some examples)
    • It depends on the desired results:
      • Maximized growth = early spring
      • Minimize risk of pests and decay = dormant season
      • Minimize effects to flowers and fruit = immediately after flowering
    • Timing of year may not always be an option
      • Storm Damage, e.g.
  • 21. Tree Biology
    • How a tree grows
    • Where growth occurs in a tree
    • ‘Types’ of trees
    • How this affects pruning
  • 22. Tree Biology
    • Primary Growth
    • Secondary Growth
    • Branches and Trunk Attachments
    • Excurrent/Decurrent
  • 23. Primary Growth
    • Twigs
    • Stems
    • Roots
    • Terminal Buds
    • Lateral Buds
  • 24. Primary Growth
    • Growth of stems, twigs, and roots (elongation)
    • Terminal buds have apical dominance
    • Lateral buds near terminal bud stay dormant
  • 25. Secondary Growth
    • Diameter Growth
    • Taper
  • 26. Secondary Growth
    • Growth from cambium for diameter (expansion)
    • Provides taper and strength
    • Reaction wood:
    • formed on stems to counter leaning of the tree
  • 27. Branches & Trunk Attachments
    • Branch collar
    • Included bark
    • Codominant stems
    • Crotches
  • 28. Branch collar
    • Branch Collar: area where a branch joins another branch or trunk created by overlapping xylem tissues
  • 29.  
  • 30. Branch Bark Ridge
  • 31. Codominant Stems – forked branches of nearly the same size in diameter and lacking a normal branch union
    • Frequent site of structural failure due to included bark [bark that becomes embedded in a crotch between branch and trunk or between codominant stems and causes a weak structure]
    • Hmmm…what tree tends to form these?
  • 32. Included Bark
  • 33. Included Bark
  • 34. Crotches &Codominant Stems
  • 35. Excurrent vs. Decurrent
    • Know the form a tree will take
    • Excurrent: tree growth habit with a pyramid shaped crown and dominate central leader
      • Examples: sweetgum, tuliptree, most conifers
    • Decurrent: tree growth habit with a rounded or spreading growth habit in the crown
      • Examples: most hardwoods like oaks, maples, and elms
  • 36. Excurrent vs. Decurrent
  • 37. Excurrent vs. Decurrent
  • 38. Break
  • 39. CODIT
    • Compartmentalization
    • Of
    • Decay
    • In
    • Trees
  • 40. CODIT
    • Wall 1 – Limits vertical spread of decay
    • Wall 2 – Formed from last growth ring and limits spread inward
    • Wall 3 – Composed of ray cells that limit lateral spread of decay
    • Wall 4 – Is the strongest wall and is the new growth ring that forms after injury
  • 41. Seven main types of pruning
    • Structural pruning
    • Pruning to clean
    • Pruning to restore
    • Crown thinning
    • Crown raising
    • Crown reduction
    • Utility pruning
  • 42. Structural Pruning
    • Removal of live branches and stems to influence the growth, rate, spacing, strength of attachments, and ultimately the size of the branch
    • Five steps
  • 43. Structural Pruning
    • Remove broken, dead, dying or damaged branches
    • Select and establish a dominant leader [the primary terminal shoot or trunk of a tree]. Competing stems should be subordinated [pruning to reduce the size and growth of a branch in relation to other branches or leaders
  • 44. Structural Pruning
    • Select and establish the lowest permanent branch [branches that will be left in place, often forming the initial scaffold framework of a tree]
    • Select and establish scaffold branches [the permanent or structural branches of a tree]; 12 -18” spacing depending on the ultimate size of the tree
  • 45. Structural Pruning
    • Select and subordinate temporary branches [branches left in place when training young trees; such branches will be removed later]
    • Why leave them?
      • Proper taper
      • Prevent Sunscald
      • Energy production
    • Try to do this over time
    • 25% rule
  • 46. Pruning to clean
    • Removal of any dead, broken, and diseased branches
    • Any age and almost any time
  • 47. Pruning to restore
    • Select removal of branch, sprouts, and stems from trees that have been topped, headed, lion tailed, or broken in a storm
    • Can take up to several years
    • 1/3 of sprouts removed each year until sprouts have developed into branches
  • 48. Crown thinning
    • Select removal of small live branches to reduce crown density
    • Increases light penetration and air movement
    • Avoid lion tailing: removal of excessive amount of foliage on inner branches and leaves most of foliage at end of canopy = weak branches
    • Never remove more than 25% of the entire crown
      • Water sprouts and sunscald may result
  • 49. Dangers of over-thinning
    • Sunscald
    • Production of watersprouts [an upright, adventitious shoot arising from the trunk or branches of a plant; although incorrect, it is also called “sucker [shoot arising from the roots.”
    • Lion tailing [limbs are thinned from the inside of the crown to a clump of terminal foliage]
  • 50.  
  • 51. Crown raising
    • Select removal of branches to provide vertical clearance
    • On younger trees it can reduce taper like lion tailing
    • On mature trees:
      • Never remove a branch that is ½ the size of the diameter of the trunk
      • Never take away more than 1/3 of the crown
    • Raise limbs by removing small amounts of branches at a time
  • 52. Crown Raising – removing lower limbs from a tree to provide clearance; vista pruning
  • 53. Crown Reduction
    • Select removal of branches to reduce height/spread of tree
    • 25% rule…again!
    • 1/3 rule too
    • Clear vegetation away from buildings
    • Used by utility crews
    • Reduce weight
    • NOT TOPPING!!
  • 54. Now this is topping !
    • or heading back, is the cutting back of a tree to buds, stubs, or laterals not large enough to assume apical dominance
  • 55. Utility Pruning
    • the removal of branches or stems to prevent the loss of service, prevent damage to utility equipment, avoid impairment, and uphold the intended usage of utility facilities
    • May necessitate pruning outside of the scope of landscape pruning guidelines
    • Maintain ANSI A300 standards
  • 56. Pruning cuts
    • Branch removal cuts
      • 3 cut method
    • Reduction cuts
    • Improper pruning cuts
    • Wound dressings
  • 57. Branch removal cuts
    • Removal of a branch at its point of origin on the trunk, stem, or limb
    • Use the 3-cut method
      • 1.) undercut the limb to prevent peeling (>1”)
      • 2.) outside the undercut, begin 2 nd cut from top of branch to remove it and leave a stub
      • 3.) final cut is made just outside the branch collar
    • Take care not to leave torn bark or jagged edges
    • This allows for compartmentalization [natural process of defense in trees by which they wall off decay in the wood ] to occur – NOT HEALING!!
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62. Some more terms…
    • Branch protection zone – tissues inside the trunk or parent branch at the base of a subordinate branch that protect against the spread of decay
    • Laterals [secondary or subordinate branch] don’t compartmentalize as well
    • Compartmentalization ability depends on species, vigor, climate and size of cut.
  • 63. Reduction cuts
    • Removal of stem or branch to a smaller lateral branch that will assume the terminal role
    • Remaining branch should be at least 1/3 the diameter of the stem removed
    • Reducing a lateral should bisect the angle between the branch bark ridge
  • 64.  
  • 65. Pruning Mature Trees
    • Factors to consider: site, time of year, species, size, growth habit, vitality and maturity
    • Younger trees are more tolerant of pruning
    • Consider the size of the cut…or…one big branch and the 25% rule
  • 66. Improper pruning cuts
  • 67. Stub cutting, flush cutting
  • 68. Dressings… not good(?)!
    • Once thought to accelerate wound closure and stop/slow the spread of decay… not anymore
    • May be beneficial in reducing borer attack, oak wilt infection, or sprout formation
  • 69. More on dressings
    • Seal in moisture and decay
    • Can prevent callus tissue from forming
    • May inhibit compartmentalization
    • Has been used to help stop the spread of oak wilt and DED
    • If used: apply a ligt coating of a non-phytotoxic material… something water-based
  • 70. Specialty Pruning
    • Espalier – a combination of cutting and training branches that are oriented in one plane, usually supported on a wall, fence or trellis
      • Used on fruit trees to grow on trellis
    • Pollarding – a training system that involves severe heading the first year, and sprout removal annually or every few years to keep large-growing trees to a modest size or maintain a formal appearance
      • Internodal – cuts are made at specific locations to begin the pollarding process.
      • Trivia: Besides aesthetics, why was pollarding done?
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73. Pruning tools
  • 74. Why not to top?
    • Starvation
    • Shock
    • Insects & diseases
    • Weak limbs
    • Rapid new growth
    • Tree death
    • Ugliness
    • Cost
  • 75. Weak Branch Attachment
  • 76.  
  • 77.  
  • 78. Plant Growth Regulators
    • PGR: compounds, effective in small quantities that affect the growth and development of plants
    • Antigibberelllins: PGRs that inhibit the action of the plant hormone gibberellin
    • Gibberellin: plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction and leaf and fruit senescence
    • Why use PGR? Reduce rotation for utility crews, e.g.
  • 79. Additional Resources
    • ANSI A300. Standard Practices for Tree, Shrub and Other Woody Plant Maintenance, Part 1: Pruning
    • Costello, 2000. Training Young Trees for Structure and Form.
    • Gilman, 1997. An Illustrated Guide to Pruning Trees.
    • ISA, 1995. Tree Pruning Guidelines.
  • 80. The end Questions? Complaints?