Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Isa pruning
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Isa pruning

2,322
views

Published on

Published in: Education

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,322
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
80
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Not specific disorders but what to look for to be able to tell Best part of this class is to learn this process (nothing) What is a physiological disorder? however…
  • Transcript

    • 1. Pruning
      • Mike Walsh
      • Forestry Programs Manager
      • Forest ReLeaf of Missouri
      • [email_address]
    • 2. Background
      • Mike Walsh
        • B.S. Forestry, Missouri 2005
        • M.S. Forestry, Missouri 2007
        • ISA Certified Arborist 2008 MW-4822A
        • Worked with the MDC, USDAFS, HARC, & MU Forestry Department conducting research in flood tolerance of MO hardwoods, controlled black walnut breeding, nursery production and more.
        • I love trees, learning/teaching about trees, fishing, golfing, watching & listening to Cardinals Baseball, Rams Football?, & Tiger Football (& basketball).
    • 3. Trick Question?
      • If a tree branch is located five feet from the ground, and the tree grows 6” each year, how far from the ground will the branch be in 6 years?
    • 4. Objectives
      • Know why, when and how a tree should be pruned.
      • Understand how trees respond to pruning and the effects of severe pruning on a tree.
      • Understand the relationship of the branch collar and branch size to wound closure and the potential for decay.
      • Describe the procedures and techniques used in pruning. Become familiar with the terms used to describe pruning techniques.
    • 5. Key Terms
      • The Key Terms as listed in the Arborist’s Certification Study Guide will be defined and highlighted throughout the presentation.
    • 6. Key Terms - Chapter 8
      • ANSI 3000 standards
      • Antigibberellins
      • Branch bark ridge
      • Branch collar
      • Branch protection zone
      • Codominant
      • Compartmentalization
      • Crown cleaning
      • Espalier
      • Fronds
      • Heading back
      • Included bark
      • Internodal
      • Lateral
      • Leader
      • Lion tailing
      • Permanent branches
      • Plant growth regulators
      • Pollarding
      • Raising
      • Reduction
      • Restoration
      • Scaffold branches
      • Structural pruning
      • Subordinate
      • Temporary branches
      • Thinning
      • Topping
      • Utility pruning
      • Vista pruning
      • Watersprouts
      • Wound dressing
    • 7. Introduction to pruning
      • Why prune?
        • Who prunes trees in the woods?
        • Open vs. forested grown trees
        • People reasons – people stresses!
          • Health, Safety, & Aesthetics
      • Tree Biology (review)
      • ANSI A300 Standards
    • 8. Open vs. Forested Growth
    • 9. Open vs. Forested Growth
    • 10. Why do we prune? 1) Health
      • To maintain the overall health of the tree
      • Remove broken & diseased branches
      • Rubbing branches / limbs that create wounds
      • Improve taper on branches and limbs
      • Remove codominant stems
      • Attempt to improve overall structure and health of the tree to reduce the risk of failures
    • 11. Why do we prune? 2) Safety
      • Trees in high use areas (playgrounds, e.g.)
      • Removal of broken and dead material (widow makers)
      • Look for poor branch attachments (V-crotches)
      • Excessive leaning (may indicate root problems)
      • Trees in construction areas (10+ year lag time)
      • Interference with line of sight on streets
      • Utility pruning (safety of workers, keep the lights on)
      • Topped trees (will be a hazard down the road)
    • 12. Why do we prune? 3) Aesthetics
      • Improve views (vista pruning)
      • Provide clearance (car, mowers, pedestrians)
        • Pathways & sidewalks to 8’
        • Streets to 15’
      • Reduce shade & wind resistance
        • Lawns, groundcovers, mulch beds with flowers
      • Influence fruit & flower production
    • 13. Broken Branches
    • 14. Rubbing Branches
    • 15. Codominant Stems
    • 16. Safety
    • 17. Poor Branch Attachment
    • 18. Trees in Power Lines
    • 19. Clearance
    • 20. When to prune? (some examples)
      • It depends on the desired results:
        • Maximized growth = early spring
        • Minimize risk of pests and decay = dormant season
        • Minimize effects to flowers and fruit = immediately after flowering
      • Timing of year may not always be an option
        • Storm Damage, e.g.
    • 21. Tree Biology
      • How a tree grows
      • Where growth occurs in a tree
      • ‘Types’ of trees
      • How this affects pruning
    • 22. Tree Biology
      • Primary Growth
      • Secondary Growth
      • Branches and Trunk Attachments
      • Excurrent/Decurrent
    • 23. Primary Growth
      • Twigs
      • Stems
      • Roots
      • Terminal Buds
      • Lateral Buds
    • 24. Primary Growth
      • Growth of stems, twigs, and roots (elongation)
      • Terminal buds have apical dominance
      • Lateral buds near terminal bud stay dormant
    • 25. Secondary Growth
      • Diameter Growth
      • Taper
    • 26. Secondary Growth
      • Growth from cambium for diameter (expansion)
      • Provides taper and strength
      • Reaction wood:
      • formed on stems to counter leaning of the tree
    • 27. Branches & Trunk Attachments
      • Branch collar
      • Included bark
      • Codominant stems
      • Crotches
    • 28. Branch collar
      • Branch Collar: area where a branch joins another branch or trunk created by overlapping xylem tissues
    • 29.  
    • 30. Branch Bark Ridge
    • 31. Codominant Stems – forked branches of nearly the same size in diameter and lacking a normal branch union
      • Frequent site of structural failure due to included bark [bark that becomes embedded in a crotch between branch and trunk or between codominant stems and causes a weak structure]
      • Hmmm…what tree tends to form these?
    • 32. Included Bark
    • 33. Included Bark
    • 34. Crotches &Codominant Stems
    • 35. Excurrent vs. Decurrent
      • Know the form a tree will take
      • Excurrent: tree growth habit with a pyramid shaped crown and dominate central leader
        • Examples: sweetgum, tuliptree, most conifers
      • Decurrent: tree growth habit with a rounded or spreading growth habit in the crown
        • Examples: most hardwoods like oaks, maples, and elms
    • 36. Excurrent vs. Decurrent
    • 37. Excurrent vs. Decurrent
    • 38. Break
    • 39. CODIT
      • Compartmentalization
      • Of
      • Decay
      • In
      • Trees
    • 40. CODIT
      • Wall 1 – Limits vertical spread of decay
      • Wall 2 – Formed from last growth ring and limits spread inward
      • Wall 3 – Composed of ray cells that limit lateral spread of decay
      • Wall 4 – Is the strongest wall and is the new growth ring that forms after injury
    • 41. Seven main types of pruning
      • Structural pruning
      • Pruning to clean
      • Pruning to restore
      • Crown thinning
      • Crown raising
      • Crown reduction
      • Utility pruning
    • 42. Structural Pruning
      • Removal of live branches and stems to influence the growth, rate, spacing, strength of attachments, and ultimately the size of the branch
      • Five steps
    • 43. Structural Pruning
      • Remove broken, dead, dying or damaged branches
      • Select and establish a dominant leader [the primary terminal shoot or trunk of a tree]. Competing stems should be subordinated [pruning to reduce the size and growth of a branch in relation to other branches or leaders
    • 44. Structural Pruning
      • Select and establish the lowest permanent branch [branches that will be left in place, often forming the initial scaffold framework of a tree]
      • Select and establish scaffold branches [the permanent or structural branches of a tree]; 12 -18” spacing depending on the ultimate size of the tree
    • 45. Structural Pruning
      • Select and subordinate temporary branches [branches left in place when training young trees; such branches will be removed later]
      • Why leave them?
        • Proper taper
        • Prevent Sunscald
        • Energy production
      • Try to do this over time
      • 25% rule
    • 46. Pruning to clean
      • Removal of any dead, broken, and diseased branches
      • Any age and almost any time
    • 47. Pruning to restore
      • Select removal of branch, sprouts, and stems from trees that have been topped, headed, lion tailed, or broken in a storm
      • Can take up to several years
      • 1/3 of sprouts removed each year until sprouts have developed into branches
    • 48. Crown thinning
      • Select removal of small live branches to reduce crown density
      • Increases light penetration and air movement
      • Avoid lion tailing: removal of excessive amount of foliage on inner branches and leaves most of foliage at end of canopy = weak branches
      • Never remove more than 25% of the entire crown
        • Water sprouts and sunscald may result
    • 49. Dangers of over-thinning
      • Sunscald
      • Production of watersprouts [an upright, adventitious shoot arising from the trunk or branches of a plant; although incorrect, it is also called “sucker [shoot arising from the roots.”
      • Lion tailing [limbs are thinned from the inside of the crown to a clump of terminal foliage]
    • 50.  
    • 51. Crown raising
      • Select removal of branches to provide vertical clearance
      • On younger trees it can reduce taper like lion tailing
      • On mature trees:
        • Never remove a branch that is ½ the size of the diameter of the trunk
        • Never take away more than 1/3 of the crown
      • Raise limbs by removing small amounts of branches at a time
    • 52. Crown Raising – removing lower limbs from a tree to provide clearance; vista pruning
    • 53. Crown Reduction
      • Select removal of branches to reduce height/spread of tree
      • 25% rule…again!
      • 1/3 rule too
      • Clear vegetation away from buildings
      • Used by utility crews
      • Reduce weight
      • NOT TOPPING!!
    • 54. Now this is topping !
      • or heading back, is the cutting back of a tree to buds, stubs, or laterals not large enough to assume apical dominance
    • 55. Utility Pruning
      • the removal of branches or stems to prevent the loss of service, prevent damage to utility equipment, avoid impairment, and uphold the intended usage of utility facilities
      • May necessitate pruning outside of the scope of landscape pruning guidelines
      • Maintain ANSI A300 standards
    • 56. Pruning cuts
      • Branch removal cuts
        • 3 cut method
      • Reduction cuts
      • Improper pruning cuts
      • Wound dressings
    • 57. Branch removal cuts
      • Removal of a branch at its point of origin on the trunk, stem, or limb
      • Use the 3-cut method
        • 1.) undercut the limb to prevent peeling (>1”)
        • 2.) outside the undercut, begin 2 nd cut from top of branch to remove it and leave a stub
        • 3.) final cut is made just outside the branch collar
      • Take care not to leave torn bark or jagged edges
      • This allows for compartmentalization [natural process of defense in trees by which they wall off decay in the wood ] to occur – NOT HEALING!!
    • 58.  
    • 59.  
    • 60.  
    • 61.  
    • 62. Some more terms…
      • Branch protection zone – tissues inside the trunk or parent branch at the base of a subordinate branch that protect against the spread of decay
      • Laterals [secondary or subordinate branch] don’t compartmentalize as well
      • Compartmentalization ability depends on species, vigor, climate and size of cut.
    • 63. Reduction cuts
      • Removal of stem or branch to a smaller lateral branch that will assume the terminal role
      • Remaining branch should be at least 1/3 the diameter of the stem removed
      • Reducing a lateral should bisect the angle between the branch bark ridge
    • 64.  
    • 65. Pruning Mature Trees
      • Factors to consider: site, time of year, species, size, growth habit, vitality and maturity
      • Younger trees are more tolerant of pruning
      • Consider the size of the cut…or…one big branch and the 25% rule
    • 66. Improper pruning cuts
    • 67. Stub cutting, flush cutting
    • 68. Dressings… not good(?)!
      • Once thought to accelerate wound closure and stop/slow the spread of decay… not anymore
      • May be beneficial in reducing borer attack, oak wilt infection, or sprout formation
    • 69. More on dressings
      • Seal in moisture and decay
      • Can prevent callus tissue from forming
      • May inhibit compartmentalization
      • Has been used to help stop the spread of oak wilt and DED
      • If used: apply a ligt coating of a non-phytotoxic material… something water-based
    • 70. Specialty Pruning
      • Espalier – a combination of cutting and training branches that are oriented in one plane, usually supported on a wall, fence or trellis
        • Used on fruit trees to grow on trellis
      • Pollarding – a training system that involves severe heading the first year, and sprout removal annually or every few years to keep large-growing trees to a modest size or maintain a formal appearance
        • Internodal – cuts are made at specific locations to begin the pollarding process.
        • Trivia: Besides aesthetics, why was pollarding done?
    • 71.  
    • 72.  
    • 73. Pruning tools
    • 74. Why not to top?
      • Starvation
      • Shock
      • Insects & diseases
      • Weak limbs
      • Rapid new growth
      • Tree death
      • Ugliness
      • Cost
    • 75. Weak Branch Attachment
    • 76.  
    • 77.  
    • 78. Plant Growth Regulators
      • PGR: compounds, effective in small quantities that affect the growth and development of plants
      • Antigibberelllins: PGRs that inhibit the action of the plant hormone gibberellin
      • Gibberellin: plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction and leaf and fruit senescence
      • Why use PGR? Reduce rotation for utility crews, e.g.
    • 79. Additional Resources
      • ANSI A300. Standard Practices for Tree, Shrub and Other Woody Plant Maintenance, Part 1: Pruning
      • Costello, 2000. Training Young Trees for Structure and Form.
      • Gilman, 1997. An Illustrated Guide to Pruning Trees.
      • ISA, 1995. Tree Pruning Guidelines.
    • 80. The end Questions? Complaints?