Isa plant health care


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  • Photo of a landscaped setting with trees, shrubs, flower beds, building, grass – trees are part of a system or loosely an ecosystem. Compete for resources (water, light, nutrients) Cultural practices for one component may impact health, growth, development of other plants
  • Before any development begins, things a landscape architect should be thinking about when they develop a design - photo of person at drafting table thinking or the thinker - landscape design problems, right of way problems, bad tree placement problems
  • Isa plant health care

    1. 1. Plant Health Care Chapter 11 Ben Grossman
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Plant Health Care (PHC) vs. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Response Process (ARP) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Pest control or treatment options </li></ul>
    3. 3. America’s Love of Chemicals
    4. 4. Biomagnification
    5. 5. America’s Love of Chemicals
    6. 6. Roundup Resistant Varieties
    7. 7. America’s Love of Chemicals
    8. 8. Algal Blooms
    9. 9. Plant Health Care
    10. 10. Golf Course Example
    11. 12. Augusta National
    12. 13. Proactive approach
    13. 14. The Alternative? + =
    14. 15. Vitality and Vigor <ul><li>Vitality – plants ability to deal with stress </li></ul><ul><li>Vigor – plants inherent genetic capacity to resist stress (adaptability to environmental conditions defines plant’s vigor) </li></ul>
    15. 16. Vigor <ul><li>Plants adaptability to various environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold or heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To take advantage of a plants vigor , we need to select species well matched to the environment and resistant to pests. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardiness zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varieties and cultivars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc,… </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Vigor
    17. 18. Vigor or Vitality
    18. 19. Vigor
    19. 20. Vitality <ul><li>Vitality – plants ability to effectively deal with stress </li></ul>
    20. 21. Vitality or Vigor
    21. 22. Vitality – Parking lot Trees <ul><li>Reduced growth </li></ul><ul><li>Close stomata more frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Shed leaves early </li></ul>
    22. 23. Household Ficus Tree
    23. 24. Measure of Plant Vitality <ul><li>Some only measure success of treatments and practices by increased growth in : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total leaf area </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Resource Allocation <ul><li>4 Primary Functions : </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul>
    25. 26. Limited Resources = Stress <ul><li>Many related to soil and environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH, drought, excessive water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive Water </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Limited Resources = Stress <ul><li>Many related to soil and environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH, drought, excessive water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Mild Stress <ul><li>Mild Stress can redirect resource allocation and increase drought or pest resistance </li></ul>Drought Conditioning Jack Pine Seedlings
    28. 29. Plant Defense Mechanisms
    29. 30. Physical Deterrents: Thorns, Spikes and Hairs
    30. 31. Physical Deterrents: Cellulose and Lignins
    31. 32. Chemical Deterrents: Allelochemicals Juglone Sunflowers Tannis and Phenols
    32. 33. Allelochemicals as Pesticides Pyrethrins - Chrysanthemum Nicotine Insecticide Rotenone – Derris Plant
    33. 34. Stress and Allelochemicals <ul><li>Moderate drought stress can increase allelochemical levels </li></ul><ul><li>Sun adapted trees grown in shade have reduced levels of allelochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly growing trees can be less resistant to some insects and disease </li></ul>
    34. 35. Moderate Stress and Growth Response/Resource Allocation <ul><li>Water is limited, stomata ___________? </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged drought, leaves __________? </li></ul><ul><li>Low light levels cause shoots to ______ and leaf adjustment by _____________? </li></ul><ul><li>If nitrogen is deficient, trees _________? </li></ul><ul><li>What if stress is excessive, beyond a trees ability to adapt (beyond vigor and vitality)? </li></ul>
    35. 36. Mortality Spiral <ul><li>Mature Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposed </li></ul><ul><li>Injured </li></ul><ul><li>Declining </li></ul><ul><li>Dead </li></ul>
    36. 37. The Process of Plant Health Care <ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Early detection is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information from the site prior to determining a response </li></ul>
    37. 38. Appropriate Response Process <ul><li>Gather Info </li></ul><ul><li>Access severity and implications </li></ul><ul><li>Determine client expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Determine course of action </li></ul>
    38. 39. Was there any construction near your tree?
    39. 40. Anything that might cause soil compaction?
    40. 41. Any underground utilities installed?
    41. 42. Severity and Implications
    42. 43. Client Expectations
    43. 44. Determine a Course of Action <ul><li>Integrated Pest Management (IPM) – cost benefit analysis, adapted from agricultural crops </li></ul>Point of Diminishing Returns
    44. 45. Integrated Pest Management
    45. 46. Integrated Pest Management
    46. 47. Integrated Pest Management
    47. 48. Integrated Pest Management
    48. 49. Treatment Options
    49. 50. Pest Resurgence & Secondary Pest Outbreak <ul><li>Results of broad spectrum control of insect pests as well a beneficial species </li></ul>
    50. 51. Pest Resurgence Pest (8) Natural Enemy University of Kentucky
    51. 52. Pest Resurgence Pest Natural Enemy University of Kentucky
    52. 53. Pest Resurgence pest pest University of Kentucky
    53. 54. Pest Resurgence Note: 14 pests/leaf University of Kentucky
    54. 55. Secondary Pest Outbreak
    55. 56. Resistant Varieties and Cultural Control <ul><li>Selecting trees or varieties that are resistant to or tolerant of known insects and diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid planting trees in sites in which they are ill suited. </li></ul>
    56. 57. Resistant Varieties <ul><li>Crabapple resistant to apple scab and rust </li></ul><ul><li>Elm varieties resistant to Dutch Elm Disease </li></ul>
    57. 58. Cultural Controls 10 % bleach <ul><li>Clean tools prior to and immediately after pruning </li></ul><ul><li>Clean tool between each cut on infected tissue and some highly susceptible plants </li></ul>
    58. 59. Cultural Controls <ul><li>Prune during the dormant season when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Identify infected plant material and take necessary precautions to limit its spread </li></ul><ul><li>Use of “wound sealer” not recommended unless oak wilt has been identified in the area and growing season pruning is the only option </li></ul>
    59. 60. Cultural Control <ul><li>Right Tree Right Place and Keep Plants Healthy </li></ul>
    60. 61. Chemical Controls <ul><li>Pesticides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungicides – typically applied as protectant to prevent infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticides – kill pests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact vs. Systemic </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Applicators License </li></ul>
    61. 62. Fungicides <ul><li>Fungicides primarily act as a protectant. </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Scab and Cedar Apple Rust </li></ul><ul><li>Anthracnose </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf spot and blight </li></ul>
    62. 63. Insecticides - Contact
    63. 64. Insecticides - Systemic
    64. 65. Alternative Pesticides <ul><li>Insecticidal Soaps </li></ul><ul><li>Horticultural oils </li></ul><ul><li>Botanicals </li></ul><ul><li>Insect Growth Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial Extracts </li></ul>
    65. 66. Insecticidal Soaps <ul><li>Disrupt cell membranes of soft bodied insects and mites </li></ul><ul><li>Effective on: </li></ul>Mealybugs Scale Crawlers Aphids Spider Mites
    66. 67. Horticultural Oils <ul><li>Suffocate or disrupt membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Dormant and summer oil applications </li></ul><ul><li>Effective on scale crawlers, aphids, spider mites as well as: </li></ul>Adelgids Leafhoppers Powdery Mildew
    67. 68. Botanical Pesticides <ul><li>Plant extracts used for insecticidal purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Can be toxic to humans, animals and plants </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul>Pyrethrins Capsaicin Neem oil
    68. 69. Insect Growth Regulators <ul><li>IGR’s interrupt or inhibit the life cycle of a pest </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic compounds that act like hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Used for trapping, monitoring and control </li></ul>Gypsy Moth Japanese Beetle La Cucaracha
    69. 70. Microbial Pesticides <ul><li>Contain insect pathogens derived from extracts of bacterial pathogens of insects </li></ul><ul><li>Most common is Bt – Bacillus thuringiensis </li></ul>Leaf feeding beetles Capterpillars Mosquito
    70. 71. Biological Controls <ul><li>Natural predators vs. introduced </li></ul>
    71. 72. Beneficial Insects
    72. 73. Mechanical Management Pruning infected material Physical barriers
    73. 74. Fall Webworms
    74. 75. Bag Worms
    75. 76. Fire Blight
    76. 77. Challenge Questions <ul><li>Select two species of trees in our area that have different genetic strategies for resource allocation. Compare and contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe some defense mechanisms found in trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how different treatment and control strategies can be implemented to control pest problems on plants. </li></ul>