Chapter 2 identification
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Chapter 2 identification Chapter 2 identification Presentation Transcript

  • Ben Grossman St. Charles County Parks and Rec. Certified Arborist #MW-4418AM Chapter 2. Tree Identification
  • Key Terms
    • Alternate Foliage Lobe Pinnate
    • Angiosperm Genus Monocotyledon Serrate
    • Class Gymnosperm Morphology Species
    • Conifer Identification key Nomenclature Specific epithet
    • Cultivar Kingdom Opposite Taxonomy
    • Dicotyledons Leaf apex Order Variety
    • Division Leaf base Palmate Whorled
    • Family Leaf margin Phylum
  • Plant Classification
    • K ingdom Plantae
    • D ivision or Phylum Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)
    • C lass Magnoliopsida
            • (dicotyledons)
  • Gymnosperms “naked” seeds. Pine, Fir, Cypress, Juniper, Spruce, Ginkgo, Dawn Redwood Seeds are not covered by an ovule .
  • Angiosperms
    • Seeds are surrounded by ovule
    • Deciduous trees, broad-leaved evergreens
    • Monocotyledons
    • One seed leaf
    • Parallel veination
    • Scattered vascular bundles
    • Floral parts in 3’s
    • Dicotyledons
    • Two cotyledons
    • Net veined leaves
    • Vascular bundles in a ring
    • Floral parts in 4’s and 5’s
  •  
  • Angiosperms
    • Seeds are surrounded by ovule
    • Deciduous trees, broad-leaved evergreens
    • Monocotyledons
    • One seed leaf
    • Parallel veination
    • Scattered vascular bundles
    • Floral parts in 3’s
    • Dicotyledons
    • Two cotyledons
    • Net veined leaves
    • Vascular bundles in a ring
    • Floral parts in 4’s and 5’s
  • Monocots vs. Dicots
  • Plant Classification
    • K ingdom Plantae
    • D ivision or Phylum Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)
    • C lass Magnoliopsida
            • (dicotyledons)
    • O rder Sapindales
    • F amily Fagaceae
    • G enus Quercus
    • S pecific epithet palustris
  • Plant Nomenclature
    • Nomenclature is the naming of plants
    • Developed in 1753 by Carolus Linnaeus
    Acer rubrum ‘ Brandywine’ Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘ Shademaster ’
  • American Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, or Muscle wood?
  • What’s in a Name?
    • Genus Quercus
    • Species Quercus rubra L.
    • Quercus spp.
    • Subspecies Quercus ilex ssp. Ballota
    • Variety Quercus garryana var. breweri
    • Forma Cornus florida f. rubra
    • Cultivar Fraxinus uhdei ‘Majestic Beauty’
    • Patented cultivar Betula nigra Heritage®
    • Trademark cultivar Betula nigra Dura-Heat™
    • Hybrid Quercus x schuettei (bur x swamp white)
  • Principles of Identification
    • Morphology : Size, Shape, and Appearance of plant parts. These include trunk form and texture, twigs,
    • leaves, flowers and fruit.
  • Leaf and Bud Arrangement opposite — leaves occurring in pairs at the nodes alternate — leaves arranged singly at intervals along the stems whorled — leaves occurring three or more at a single node
  • Big M.A.D. Cap. Buck
    • Big = Bignoniacea (trumpet creeper, Catalpa )
    • M = Maple ( Acer )
    • A = Ash ( Fraxinus )
    • D = Dogwood ( Cornus )
    • Cap. = Caprifoliaceae (viburnums, honeysuckle)
    • Buck = Buckeye
  • Leaf Arrangement simple pinnately compound palmately compound bi-pinnately compound
  • Leaf Arrangement 2 needles/fascicle 3 needles/fascicle 5 needles/fascicle
  • Leaf Anatomy
  • Leaf Margins entire — a leaf margin that is smooth without teeth or lobes undulate — a leaf margin that is wavy serrate — a leaf margin that has pointed teeth that are directed upward doubly serrate — a serrate leaf margin where the primary teeth support another set of teeth crenate — a leaf margin that has rounded teeth lobed — a segmented leaf having pointed or rounded extensions separated by sinuses that do not extend more than halfway to the midrib sinus — the space or indentation between the lobes of a leaf blade
  • Leaf Base cuneate — wedge-shaped obtuse — rounded cordate — heart-shaped truncate — squared or abruptly cut off oblique — asymmetrical, unequally sided
  • Leaf Apices acute — slightly pointed acuminate — sharply pointed bristle-tipped — sharply pointed tip truncate — squared or abruptly cut off obtuse — rounded
  • Bud Anatomy
  • Pith Characteristics Chambered Spongy Solid Star Angular Round
  • Bark Characteristics
    • Think Texture…
    • Think Texture
  • Fruit Types berry — a simple, fleshy fruit, with seeds embedded in a pulpy mass (persimmon) drupe — a one-seeded, fleshy fruit with the seed inclosed in a stony wall (cherry, sugarberry, holly) capsule — a dry fruit which splits open into two or more parts at maturity (sourwood) legume — a dry fruit with two seams in the outer wall (black locust) nut — a hard-shelled, dry fruit, sometimes with a outer covering or husk (hickory, oak acorn, black walnut) dehiscent — the opening by slits or valves of an outer fruit covering indehiscent — an outer fruit covering that does not open by slits or valves pome — a fleshy fruit, with seeds incased by a papery wall (apple) nutlet — a small nut (riverbirch) samara — a winged, one-cell, one-seeded, dry fruit (elm; double samara — maple) multiple — a fruit formed from several flowers into a single structure having a common axis multiple of capsules -- sweetgum multiple of follicles — magnolia multiple of samaras — yellow-poplar, ash multiple of nutlets — sycamore, birch
  • Tree Growth Forms Excurrent Decurrent
  • Excurrent
  • Quiz Questions / Break
  • Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica
  • White ash Fraxinus americana
  • Bald cypress Taxodium distichum
  • American basswood Tilia americana
  • River birch Betula nigra
  • Ohio Buckeye Aesculus glabra
  • Southern Catalpa Catalpa bignonioides
  • Black cherry Prunus serotina
  • Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides
  • Crabapple Malus spp.
  • Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida
  • American elm Ulmus americana
  • Siberian elm Ulmus pumila
  • Ginkgo, Maidenhair tree Ginkgo biloba
  • Golden raintree Koelreuteria paniculata
  • Hackberry Celtis occidentalis
  • Hawthorn Crataegus spp .
  • Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata
  • Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos
  • Kentucky coffeetree Gymnocladis dioicus
  • Littleleaf Linden Tilia cordata
  • Black locust Robinia psuedoacacia
  • Amur maple Acer ginnala
  • Boxelder Acer negundo
  • Norway maple Acer platenoides
  • Red maple Acer rubrum
  • Silver maple Acer saccharinum
  • Sugar Maple Acer saccharum
  • Mulberry Morus spp.
  • Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa
  • Northern red oak Quercus rubra
  • Pin oak Quercus palustris
  • Post oak Quercus stellata
  • Shumard oak Quercus shumardii
  • Swamp white oak Quercus bicolor
  • White oak Quercus alba
  • Osage orange Maclura pomifera
  • Callery pear Pyrus calleryana
  • Pecan Carya illinoensis
  • Persimmon Diospyros virginiana
  • Austrian Pine Pinus nigra
  • Loblolly pine Pinus taeda
  • Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris
  • Shortleaf pine Pinus echinata
  • Eastern white pine Pinus strobus
  • White poplar Populus alba
  • Eastern redbud Cercis canadensis
  • Eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana
  • Colorado Spruce Picea pungens
  • Norway spruce Picea abies
  • Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua
  • Black walnut Juglans nigra
  • Black willow Salix nigra
  • Western soapberry Sapindus drummondi