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Chapter 2 identification
 

Chapter 2 identification

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    Chapter 2 identification Chapter 2 identification Presentation Transcript

    • Ben Grossman St. Charles County Parks and Rec. Certified Arborist #MW-4418AM Chapter 2. Tree Identification
    • Key Terms
      • Alternate Foliage Lobe Pinnate
      • Angiosperm Genus Monocotyledon Serrate
      • Class Gymnosperm Morphology Species
      • Conifer Identification key Nomenclature Specific epithet
      • Cultivar Kingdom Opposite Taxonomy
      • Dicotyledons Leaf apex Order Variety
      • Division Leaf base Palmate Whorled
      • Family Leaf margin Phylum
    • Plant Classification
      • K ingdom Plantae
      • D ivision or Phylum Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)
      • C lass Magnoliopsida
              • (dicotyledons)
    • Gymnosperms “naked” seeds. Pine, Fir, Cypress, Juniper, Spruce, Ginkgo, Dawn Redwood Seeds are not covered by an ovule .
    • Angiosperms
      • Seeds are surrounded by ovule
      • Deciduous trees, broad-leaved evergreens
      • Monocotyledons
      • One seed leaf
      • Parallel veination
      • Scattered vascular bundles
      • Floral parts in 3’s
      • Dicotyledons
      • Two cotyledons
      • Net veined leaves
      • Vascular bundles in a ring
      • Floral parts in 4’s and 5’s
    •  
    • Angiosperms
      • Seeds are surrounded by ovule
      • Deciduous trees, broad-leaved evergreens
      • Monocotyledons
      • One seed leaf
      • Parallel veination
      • Scattered vascular bundles
      • Floral parts in 3’s
      • Dicotyledons
      • Two cotyledons
      • Net veined leaves
      • Vascular bundles in a ring
      • Floral parts in 4’s and 5’s
    • Monocots vs. Dicots
    • Plant Classification
      • K ingdom Plantae
      • D ivision or Phylum Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)
      • C lass Magnoliopsida
              • (dicotyledons)
      • O rder Sapindales
      • F amily Fagaceae
      • G enus Quercus
      • S pecific epithet palustris
    • Plant Nomenclature
      • Nomenclature is the naming of plants
      • Developed in 1753 by Carolus Linnaeus
      Acer rubrum ‘ Brandywine’ Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘ Shademaster ’
    • American Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, or Muscle wood?
    • What’s in a Name?
      • Genus Quercus
      • Species Quercus rubra L.
      • Quercus spp.
      • Subspecies Quercus ilex ssp. Ballota
      • Variety Quercus garryana var. breweri
      • Forma Cornus florida f. rubra
      • Cultivar Fraxinus uhdei ‘Majestic Beauty’
      • Patented cultivar Betula nigra Heritage®
      • Trademark cultivar Betula nigra Dura-Heat™
      • Hybrid Quercus x schuettei (bur x swamp white)
    • Principles of Identification
      • Morphology : Size, Shape, and Appearance of plant parts. These include trunk form and texture, twigs,
      • leaves, flowers and fruit.
    • Leaf and Bud Arrangement opposite — leaves occurring in pairs at the nodes alternate — leaves arranged singly at intervals along the stems whorled — leaves occurring three or more at a single node
    • Big M.A.D. Cap. Buck
      • Big = Bignoniacea (trumpet creeper, Catalpa )
      • M = Maple ( Acer )
      • A = Ash ( Fraxinus )
      • D = Dogwood ( Cornus )
      • Cap. = Caprifoliaceae (viburnums, honeysuckle)
      • Buck = Buckeye
    • Leaf Arrangement simple pinnately compound palmately compound bi-pinnately compound
    • Leaf Arrangement 2 needles/fascicle 3 needles/fascicle 5 needles/fascicle
    • Leaf Anatomy
    • Leaf Margins entire — a leaf margin that is smooth without teeth or lobes undulate — a leaf margin that is wavy serrate — a leaf margin that has pointed teeth that are directed upward doubly serrate — a serrate leaf margin where the primary teeth support another set of teeth crenate — a leaf margin that has rounded teeth lobed — a segmented leaf having pointed or rounded extensions separated by sinuses that do not extend more than halfway to the midrib sinus — the space or indentation between the lobes of a leaf blade
    • Leaf Base cuneate — wedge-shaped obtuse — rounded cordate — heart-shaped truncate — squared or abruptly cut off oblique — asymmetrical, unequally sided
    • Leaf Apices acute — slightly pointed acuminate — sharply pointed bristle-tipped — sharply pointed tip truncate — squared or abruptly cut off obtuse — rounded
    • Bud Anatomy
    • Pith Characteristics Chambered Spongy Solid Star Angular Round
    • Bark Characteristics
      • Think Texture…
      • Think Texture
    • Fruit Types berry — a simple, fleshy fruit, with seeds embedded in a pulpy mass (persimmon) drupe — a one-seeded, fleshy fruit with the seed inclosed in a stony wall (cherry, sugarberry, holly) capsule — a dry fruit which splits open into two or more parts at maturity (sourwood) legume — a dry fruit with two seams in the outer wall (black locust) nut — a hard-shelled, dry fruit, sometimes with a outer covering or husk (hickory, oak acorn, black walnut) dehiscent — the opening by slits or valves of an outer fruit covering indehiscent — an outer fruit covering that does not open by slits or valves pome — a fleshy fruit, with seeds incased by a papery wall (apple) nutlet — a small nut (riverbirch) samara — a winged, one-cell, one-seeded, dry fruit (elm; double samara — maple) multiple — a fruit formed from several flowers into a single structure having a common axis multiple of capsules -- sweetgum multiple of follicles — magnolia multiple of samaras — yellow-poplar, ash multiple of nutlets — sycamore, birch
    • Tree Growth Forms Excurrent Decurrent
    • Excurrent
    • Quiz Questions / Break
    • Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica
    • White ash Fraxinus americana
    • Bald cypress Taxodium distichum
    • American basswood Tilia americana
    • River birch Betula nigra
    • Ohio Buckeye Aesculus glabra
    • Southern Catalpa Catalpa bignonioides
    • Black cherry Prunus serotina
    • Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides
    • Crabapple Malus spp.
    • Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida
    • American elm Ulmus americana
    • Siberian elm Ulmus pumila
    • Ginkgo, Maidenhair tree Ginkgo biloba
    • Golden raintree Koelreuteria paniculata
    • Hackberry Celtis occidentalis
    • Hawthorn Crataegus spp .
    • Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata
    • Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos
    • Kentucky coffeetree Gymnocladis dioicus
    • Littleleaf Linden Tilia cordata
    • Black locust Robinia psuedoacacia
    • Amur maple Acer ginnala
    • Boxelder Acer negundo
    • Norway maple Acer platenoides
    • Red maple Acer rubrum
    • Silver maple Acer saccharinum
    • Sugar Maple Acer saccharum
    • Mulberry Morus spp.
    • Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa
    • Northern red oak Quercus rubra
    • Pin oak Quercus palustris
    • Post oak Quercus stellata
    • Shumard oak Quercus shumardii
    • Swamp white oak Quercus bicolor
    • White oak Quercus alba
    • Osage orange Maclura pomifera
    • Callery pear Pyrus calleryana
    • Pecan Carya illinoensis
    • Persimmon Diospyros virginiana
    • Austrian Pine Pinus nigra
    • Loblolly pine Pinus taeda
    • Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris
    • Shortleaf pine Pinus echinata
    • Eastern white pine Pinus strobus
    • White poplar Populus alba
    • Eastern redbud Cercis canadensis
    • Eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana
    • Colorado Spruce Picea pungens
    • Norway spruce Picea abies
    • Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua
    • Black walnut Juglans nigra
    • Black willow Salix nigra
    • Western soapberry Sapindus drummondi