Tree/Soil  Relations &  Water Management
Scott Killpack Agronomy/Natural Resources
Introduction The relationship between tree root systems and the soils in which they grow has a greater influence on tree h...
Introduction Understanding soil is vital to arboriculture because soil is, quite literally, the foundation within which a ...
Soil  Genesis
How it  All  Started
<ul><li>Factors of Soil Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Material </li>...
<ul><li>Significant Missouri Parent Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Alluvial  - river, stream deposits </li></ul>
<ul><li>Alluvial  -  river, stream deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial Till   -  deposits associated with the advance and r...
<ul><li>North America Glacial Periods </li></ul><ul><li>Nebraskan  -   1.5 million to 900,000 B.C . </li></ul><ul><li>Kans...
<ul><li>Alluvial -  river, stream deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial Till   -  deposits associated with the advance and re...
<ul><li>Distribution of Loess in the Midwest </li></ul>deposition occurred around 14,000 to 10,000 B.C.
<ul><li>Loess  Thickness in Missouri </li></ul>West East glacial till Missouri River Mississippi River prevailing wind loess
<ul><li>Alluvial -  river, stream deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial Till   -  deposits associated with the advance and re...
<ul><li>Factors of Soil Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Material </li>...
<ul><li>The Soil Profile - The Master Horizons </li></ul>A top most mineral horizon - varying levels of organic matter - ....
<ul><li>The Soil Profile - The Master Horizons </li></ul>Present in some soils Might find O horizon in heavy undisturbed f...
Physical Properties
<ul><li>Four Major Components of Soils </li></ul>Air 20 - 30% Mineral 45% Water 20 - 30% Organic 3-5% An ideal soil is 50%...
<ul><li>Relative Size of Sand, Silt and Clay </li></ul>Silt 0.05 0.002 mm Clay < 0.002 mm Sand 2.0 - 0.05 mm
<ul><li>Approximate Surface Area </li></ul><ul><li>Course Sand –  Half Dollar </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Clay –  Basketball Co...
<ul><li>Sand, Silt and Clay Chemical Makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Sand & Silt  -  dominated by quartz - other primary minerals...
External surfaces Diagram of a Silicate Clay Crystal K + Ca +2 Mg +2 Ca +2 Internal surfaces Surfaces have negative charge
silica  tetrahedron alumina octahedron Silicate Clay Structure oxygen aluminum silicon
 
Negatively Charged Colloids Attract Positively Charged Ions Cations K + Ca +2 Na + Ca +2 H + Mg +2 - - - - - - - - - Soil ...
<ul><li>Soil Textural Class Names </li></ul>Classes based on relative proportions of sand, silt and clay Moderately Fine s...
<ul><li>Sand Silt and Clay Content of Selected Soil Textural Classes </li></ul>sand silt clay loamy sand sandy loam loam s...
Soil Textural Triangle
Soil Textural Determination 35 % sand 45 % silt 20 % clay
Pore Space
<ul><li>Four Major Components of Soils </li></ul>Air 20 - 30% Mineral 45% Water 20 - 30% Organic 3%
<ul><li>Total Pore Space - Two Types </li></ul><ul><li>Macro  - allow the ready movement of air and percolating water. </l...
Soil Pore Space -  Graphical Visualization
<ul><li>Total Pore Space </li></ul>macro pore micro pore
Relative Porosity Between Coarse and Fine Textured Soils Coarse Fine 35 - 50% 40 - 60% Micro Macro
<ul><li>Influence of Tillage on Pore Size </li></ul>Virgin Tilled Micro Macro 34% 26% 35% 17%
Soil Structure
<ul><li>Soil Structure </li></ul>The combination of soil particles and pore space
<ul><li>Types of Soil Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Plate-like </li></ul><ul><li>Columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Blocky  (cube li...
<ul><li>Soil Structure/Aggregation Factors </li></ul><ul><li>freezing and thawing </li></ul><ul><li>wetting and drying </l...
<ul><li>Influence of Cropping Practices on Water Stable Aggregates </li></ul>continuous corn corn in rotation meadow in ro...
<ul><li>Bulk Density </li></ul>The mass of a given volume of dry soil -  a combination of the mineral, organic matter, and...
1.20 - 1.55 g/cm3  (75 - 97 lbs/cu ft) 1.30 - 1.70 g/cm3  (81 to 106 lbs/cu ft) Surface Sub-surface Bulk Density
<ul><li>Influence of Cropping  </li></ul><ul><li>on Bulk Density </li></ul>loam, PA silt loam, IA silt loam, OH 1.07 0.93 ...
Urban Soils  <ul><li>Altered  profile </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced  organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Soil structure degraded ...
<ul><li>Acre-Furrow Slice </li></ul><ul><li>weighs about 2 million pounds. The depth of normal plowing or about 6.5 inches...
Organic Matter
<ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>primary sources   -   vegetative tops, seeds and roots of plants </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Humus   -   essentially the stable fraction of organic matter that remains after ...
<ul><li>Composition of Organic Matter </li></ul>water 75% dry matter 25%
<ul><li>Composition of Organic Matter </li></ul>water 75% dry matter 25% carbohydrates 60% lignins 25% protein 10% other 5...
<ul><li>Composition of Organic Matter </li></ul>water 75% dry matter 25% carbon 44% oxygen 40% other 8% hydrogen 8% carboh...
<ul><li>Organic Matter in  Missouri Soils  </li></ul>height of bars = to % of soil samples north bootheel < 1.0 1.0 to 1.9...
<ul><li>Organic Matter - Importance   </li></ul><ul><li>improves soil structure  </li></ul><ul><li>provides plant nutrient...
<ul><li>Organic Matter  </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that Affect Levels   </li></ul><ul><li>temperature </li></ul><ul><li>moi...
<ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Energy in Decomposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The potential energy from...
<ul><li>Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios </li></ul>The relative composition of carbon and nitrogen within plant material
<ul><li>Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios </li></ul>Important in controlling: <ul><li>available nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>total orga...
<ul><li>Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios </li></ul>animal manure legume residue wheat straw corn stalks sawdust soil 15:1 20:1 80:1 ...
<ul><li>Impact of Residues with High C/N Ratios on Soil Nitrate </li></ul>activity of  organisms nitrate level  of soil Re...
Soil  Water
<ul><li>Soil Water Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation  -   when the entire pore volume of soil (both macro and micro) is f...
<ul><li>Soil Water Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Available Water   -   water held in the soil that is between field capacity and...
<ul><li>Soil Water Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration   -   the movement of water into the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>perco...
<ul><li>General Relationship Between Soil Moisture and Soil Texture </li></ul>0 10 20 30 40 sand sandy loam loam silt loam...
<ul><li>Types of Soil Water Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Flow -   movement due to the influence of gravity and the...
Soil Water Fundamentals The polarity of the water molecule results in the adsorption to negatively charged clay particles ...
<ul><li>adsorption -   the attractive forces of water to the channels through which it moves </li></ul><ul><li>cohesion - ...
<ul><li>loamy </li></ul><ul><li>sand </li></ul>silt loam
<ul><li>loamy </li></ul><ul><li>sand </li></ul>silt loam
<ul><li>loamy </li></ul><ul><li>sand </li></ul>silt loam water moves into the loamy sand only after the silt loam becomes ...
<ul><li>clay </li></ul>silt loam
<ul><li>clay </li></ul>silt loam perched water table upon reaching the silt loam-clay interface water immediately moves in...
<ul><li>Osmotic Movement   -   movement that is influenced by differences in soil water &quot;salt&quot; concentrations. M...
<ul><li>Available Water With Soil Depth </li></ul>Inches/foot of soil Soil Depth inches 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ...
<ul><li>clay loam </li></ul><ul><li>Armstrong </li></ul>silt loam Cotter loamy sand Sarpy silty clay Levasy Available Wate...
<ul><li>Time for a Break! </li></ul>
Soil  Biology
<ul><li>large  -   gophers, moles, mice . . . </li></ul><ul><li>small  -   ants, beetles, grubs, slugs, snails earthworms ...
<ul><li>Soil Organisms - Flora </li></ul><ul><li>algae -   are chlorophyll-bearing organisms and thrive in wet or moist so...
<ul><li>Soil Organisms - Flora </li></ul>Bacteria  -  one of the simplest, smallest and most important  forms of soil micr...
<ul><li>Benefits of Soil Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>decomposition of organic matter -    Natures  &quot;Recycle Crew” </l...
<ul><li>Relative Mass Soil Flora </li></ul>height of bars are in lbs/acre-furrow slice actinomycetes fungi algae bacteria ...
<ul><li>Relative Mass of Soil Fauna </li></ul>Protozoa Nematodes Earthworms Others height of bars are in lbs/acre-furrow s...
Mycorrhizae – “Fungus Roots”  <ul><li>Fungi infected  roots </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Inc...
Rhizosphere  <ul><li>Zone surrounding roots where intense biological/chemical processes  take place </li></ul>
Soil Chemistry
<ul><li>Cation Exchange </li></ul>The  &quot;exchange&quot;   between a cation in the soil solution and another cation on ...
Negatively Charged Colloids Attract Positively Charged Ions Cations K + Ca +2 Na + Ca +2 H + Mg +2 - - - - - - - - - soil ...
<ul><li>Common Soil Cations </li></ul>Na + K + Ca 2+ Mg 2+ Al 3+ H + NH + Fe 3+
Negatively Charged Ions Are Called Anions Chemical Ionic Nutrient symbol form Chloride Cl Cl - Nitrate N NO 3 - Sulfate S ...
<ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>The total of exchangeable cations that a soil can adsorb or hold. </li>...
<ul><li>Relationship Between Soil Texture and  </li></ul><ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity  </li></ul>sand sandy loam loam ...
Clay and Organic Matter have Greatest Influence on CEC Clay - 10 to 150 meq/100g OM – 200 to 400 meq/100g
<ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity of  </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Soils   </li></ul>height of bars = to % of soil samples no...
<ul><li>Base Saturation Percentage </li></ul><ul><li>The extent of the soil exchange sites that are occupied by the cation...
<ul><li>Percent Base Saturation of  </li></ul><ul><li>Different Soils   </li></ul>humid semi-arid arid 65 90 100 height of...
<ul><li>Typical Proportions of Base Cations In Midwest Soils   </li></ul>height of bars = % Calcium Magnesium Potassium So...
<ul><li>Average Levels of Base Cations for Upland Missouri Soils   </li></ul>height of bars = lbs/acre Calcium Magnesium P...
Soils and pH  Two cations largely responsible for acidity <ul><li>hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>aluminum </li></ul>
Understanding pH <ul><li>results on a “log” scale </li></ul>6 vs 7 = factor of  10 5 vs 7 = factor of  100
<ul><li>3 </li></ul>4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 very strong strong very strong mod- erate mod- erate slight slight strong Neutral Al...
pH and Plant Nutrition <ul><li>low pH can increase toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>high pH can reduce availability </li></ul><u...
pH & Nutrient Availability
pH Preferences of Some Common Plants  Alkaline loving  >7.0 Pin Oak, Magnolia Pine, Juniper Holly,  Birch Sweet Gum,  Spru...
Alter Soil pH <ul><li>determine need by soil test </li></ul><ul><li>Lime to raise pH </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur to lower pH ...
pH Can be Difficult to Alter <ul><li>Roots occupy large soil volume </li></ul><ul><li>High clay or organic matter </li></u...
Plant Water Needs <ul><li>Varies with species and size </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by soil & climate factors </li></ul>Wh...
The Leaf
Leaf Stomata apple corn black oak sunflower None 39,000 None 55,000 250,000 64,000 375,000 100,000 Number of stomata per s...
Irrigation Principles <ul><li>Vary by age and species </li></ul><ul><li>Transplants - more frequent  (especially within th...
Irrigation Principles <ul><li>Match output with infiltration rates (soil type/texture) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep off of lower...
Irrigation Principles <ul><li>Mulches - various advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Use of antitranspirants (can be phytotoxic </...
Irrigation Methods <ul><li>Sprinkler </li></ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Soaker hoses </li></ul><ul><li>Pr...
Irrigation Methods Minimum irrigation <ul><li>plants with similar water requirements </li></ul><ul><li>efficient watering ...
Irrigation Methods Recycled water <ul><li>Excess salts (phytotoxicity) </li></ul><ul><li>Likely pH increase </li></ul><ul>...
Drainage <ul><li>Consider grade/slope (avoid low spots) </li></ul><ul><li>Drain tiles (approx 3 ft. deep) </li></ul><ul><l...
Let’s review some test questions
<ul><li>Time for a Break! </li></ul>
Plant Nutrients
Major Nutrients <ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul>
Secondary Nutrients <ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul>
Micro Nutrients <ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>N is the nutrient most required for proper plant growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>We have no reliable soil...
Nitrogen and Plants <ul><li>amino acids - proteins </li></ul><ul><li>chlorophyll - photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>nutrie...
Immobilization Mineralization Nitrogen in the Soil Organic Nitrogen Pool (proteins, etc.) Inorganic Nitrogen Pool (ammoniu...
<ul><li>commercial fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>legumes </li></ul><ul><li>plant residues </li></ul><ul><li>organic matter...
Nitrogen - Uptake by Plants Nitrate -- NO 3 - Ammonium -- NH 4 +
 
Nitrogen Loss from Soils <ul><li>leaching </li></ul><ul><li>denitrification </li></ul><ul><li>volatilization </li></ul><ul...
Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources ammonium nitrate 34 ammonium sulfate 21 calcium nitrate 15 potassium nitrate 13 urea 46 Fertil...
Phosphorus and Plants <ul><li>photosynthesis and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>energy storage and transfer </li></ul><ul><...
Phosphorus Sources in the Soil <ul><li>organic matter - humus </li></ul><ul><li>plant materials </li></ul><ul><li>manures ...
Phosphorus - Uptake by Plants phosphate -- H 2 PO 4 -
 
Phosphorus Fertilizer Sources single superphosphate 20 triple superphosphate 46 monoammonium phosphate (MAP) 48-55 diammon...
Potassium and Plants <ul><li>does not form organic compounds in the plant </li></ul><ul><li>vital to photosynthesis and pr...
Potassium and Plants <ul><li>improves water use efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>reduces lodging </li></ul><ul><li>improves fr...
Potassium - Uptake by Plants potassium -- K + can be influenced by CEC
 
Potassium Fertilizer Sources potassium chloride 60 potassium sulfate 50 potassium nitrate 44 Fertilizer Material % K 2 O
Fertilization
Fertilizing many products available 32-3-5 Miracle Grow 29-3-4 Scott’s 18-24-6 Pennington 29-3-4 K-Gro
Which Brand? <ul><li>Performance good regardless of product brand name! </li></ul>
Fertilizing <ul><li>check the ag CO-OP  </li></ul>46-0-0 CO-OP nitrogen 0-46-0 CO-OP phosphate 0-0-60 CO-OP potassium
Fertilizer numbers <ul><li>numbers = percent by weight  </li></ul>nitrogen only blend = 23 lbs/bag = 14.5-1.5-2 lbs/bag 46...
Applying the Correct Amount <ul><li>need 2 pounds nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft. </li></ul>18-24-6 Pennington 32-3-5 Miracle Gr...
Applying the Correct  Amount 18-24-6 Pennington
Applying the Correct  Amount <ul><li>need 2 pounds of actual nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>2 divided by 0.18 </li></ul><ul><l...
Soil Testing: Procedure <ul><li>Using a soil probe or small shovel, sample to a 6 inch depth </li></ul><ul><li>Take approx...
<ul><li>Submit at Extension office - $9.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed at UMC lab </li></ul><ul><li>About 5-7 working days ...
Review Soil Test Reports
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Basic soils arborist version - 2010

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  • 12/29/10 Nitrogen can also be converted from inorganic to organic forms by microorganisms, a process called immobilization. It is the reverse of mineralization. Immobilization occurs when crop residues high in carbon (C) and low in N content are incorporated into the soil.
  • 12/29/10 All N sources ... commercial, legumes, crop residues, soil organic matter, and animal manures ... are readily converted to NO 3 -N. All are subject to leaching if they are not utilized by the growing crop or retained in the ammonium- N form.
  • 12/29/10 All N sources ... commercial, legumes, crop residues, soil organic matter, and animal manures ... are readily converted to NO 3 -N. All are subject to leaching if they are not utilized by the growing crop or retained in the ammonium- N form.
  • 12/29/10 Nitrogen produces a green color in plant leaves due to the concentration of chlorophyll. A deficiency of N causes a yellowing (chlorosis) of leaves because of declining chlorophyll. Symptoms first appear on older leaves, then as the deficiency becomes more severe, yellowing begins to appear on younger leaves. This is a typical N deficiency on corn. Grain sorghum develops identical N deficiency symptoms.
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  • 12/29/10 All N sources ... commercial, legumes, crop residues, soil organic matter, and animal manures ... are readily converted to NO 3 -N. All are subject to leaching if they are not utilized by the growing crop or retained in the ammonium- N form.
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  • 12/29/10 All N sources ... commercial, legumes, crop residues, soil organic matter, and animal manures ... are readily converted to NO 3 -N. All are subject to leaching if they are not utilized by the growing crop or retained in the ammonium- N form.
  • 12/29/10 One of the most common K hunger signs is scorching or firing along leaf margins. The symptom first appears on older leaves of most plants, especially grass-type crops. These K deficiency symptoms on corn are a classic example. Potassium deficiency shows up in many other ways as well.
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  • Basic soils arborist version - 2010

    1. 1. Tree/Soil Relations & Water Management
    2. 2. Scott Killpack Agronomy/Natural Resources
    3. 3. Introduction The relationship between tree root systems and the soils in which they grow has a greater influence on tree health than any other single factor.
    4. 4. Introduction Understanding soil is vital to arboriculture because soil is, quite literally, the foundation within which a tree grows.
    5. 5. Soil Genesis
    6. 6. How it All Started
    7. 7. <ul><li>Factors of Soil Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Material </li></ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Significant Missouri Parent Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Alluvial - river, stream deposits </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Alluvial - river, stream deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial Till - deposits associated with the advance and retreat of glacial ice flows </li></ul>Significant Missouri Parent Materials
    10. 10. <ul><li>North America Glacial Periods </li></ul><ul><li>Nebraskan - 1.5 million to 900,000 B.C . </li></ul><ul><li>Kansan - 700,000 to 600,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Illionian - 325,000 to 225,000 B.C . </li></ul><ul><li>Wisconsin - 100,000 to 10,000 B.C. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Alluvial - river, stream deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial Till - deposits associated with the advance and retreat of glacial ice flows </li></ul><ul><li>Loess - wind blown materials comprised primarily of silt with some fine sand and clay </li></ul>Significant Missouri Parent Materials
    12. 12. <ul><li>Distribution of Loess in the Midwest </li></ul>deposition occurred around 14,000 to 10,000 B.C.
    13. 13. <ul><li>Loess Thickness in Missouri </li></ul>West East glacial till Missouri River Mississippi River prevailing wind loess
    14. 14. <ul><li>Alluvial - river, stream deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial Till - deposits associated with the advance and retreat of glacial ice flows </li></ul><ul><li>Loess - wind blown materials comprised primarily of silt with some fine sand and clay </li></ul><ul><li>Residuum - mostly limestone </li></ul>Significant Missouri Parent Materials
    15. 15. <ul><li>Factors of Soil Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Material </li></ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>The Soil Profile - The Master Horizons </li></ul>A top most mineral horizon - varying levels of organic matter - .5 to 4% in Missouri zone of maximum leaching/weathering - clay along with iron & aluminum oxides - light in color E zone of maximum accumulation - clay along with iron & aluminum oxides B <ul><li>zone where the soil forming processes that are active in the A, E, & B horizons are essentially non-existent </li></ul>C
    17. 17. <ul><li>The Soil Profile - The Master Horizons </li></ul>Present in some soils Might find O horizon in heavy undisturbed forest or undisturbed prairie. O highly decayed organic material, not much mineral (sand, silt or clay)
    18. 18. Physical Properties
    19. 19. <ul><li>Four Major Components of Soils </li></ul>Air 20 - 30% Mineral 45% Water 20 - 30% Organic 3-5% An ideal soil is 50% solids 50% pore space
    20. 20. <ul><li>Relative Size of Sand, Silt and Clay </li></ul>Silt 0.05 0.002 mm Clay < 0.002 mm Sand 2.0 - 0.05 mm
    21. 21. <ul><li>Approximate Surface Area </li></ul><ul><li>Course Sand – Half Dollar </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Clay – Basketball Court </li></ul>1 gram samples (= 0.035 ounces)
    22. 22. <ul><li>Sand, Silt and Clay Chemical Makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Sand & Silt - dominated by quartz - other primary minerals include iron and aluminum silicates. </li></ul><ul><li>Clay - occur in crystalline or plate like structures - layers can contain aluminum, magnesium or silicon, surrounded by hydrogen or hydroxy - results in surface being negatively charged </li></ul>
    23. 23. External surfaces Diagram of a Silicate Clay Crystal K + Ca +2 Mg +2 Ca +2 Internal surfaces Surfaces have negative charge
    24. 24. silica tetrahedron alumina octahedron Silicate Clay Structure oxygen aluminum silicon
    25. 26. Negatively Charged Colloids Attract Positively Charged Ions Cations K + Ca +2 Na + Ca +2 H + Mg +2 - - - - - - - - - Soil Colloid
    26. 27. <ul><li>Soil Textural Class Names </li></ul>Classes based on relative proportions of sand, silt and clay Moderately Fine sandy clay loam, clay loam & silty clay loam Fine sandy clay, silty clay & clay Coarse sand and loamy sand Moderately Coarse Sandy Loam Medium silt, loam and silt loam
    27. 28. <ul><li>Sand Silt and Clay Content of Selected Soil Textural Classes </li></ul>sand silt clay loamy sand sandy loam loam silt loam clay loam clay 85 65 45 20 28 25 10 25 40 60 37 30 5 10 15 20 35 45
    28. 29. Soil Textural Triangle
    29. 30. Soil Textural Determination 35 % sand 45 % silt 20 % clay
    30. 31. Pore Space
    31. 32. <ul><li>Four Major Components of Soils </li></ul>Air 20 - 30% Mineral 45% Water 20 - 30% Organic 3%
    32. 33. <ul><li>Total Pore Space - Two Types </li></ul><ul><li>Macro - allow the ready movement of air and percolating water. </li></ul><ul><li>Micro - does not generally provide much air movement under moist soil conditions. </li></ul>
    33. 34. Soil Pore Space - Graphical Visualization
    34. 35. <ul><li>Total Pore Space </li></ul>macro pore micro pore
    35. 36. Relative Porosity Between Coarse and Fine Textured Soils Coarse Fine 35 - 50% 40 - 60% Micro Macro
    36. 37. <ul><li>Influence of Tillage on Pore Size </li></ul>Virgin Tilled Micro Macro 34% 26% 35% 17%
    37. 38. Soil Structure
    38. 39. <ul><li>Soil Structure </li></ul>The combination of soil particles and pore space
    39. 40. <ul><li>Types of Soil Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Plate-like </li></ul><ul><li>Columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Blocky (cube like and subangular) </li></ul><ul><li>Granular </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>Soil Structure/Aggregation Factors </li></ul><ul><li>freezing and thawing </li></ul><ul><li>wetting and drying </li></ul><ul><li>Root growth </li></ul><ul><li>soil organisms </li></ul><ul><li>organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>adsorbed cations </li></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>Influence of Cropping Practices on Water Stable Aggregates </li></ul>continuous corn corn in rotation meadow in rotation continuous bluegrass 9% 23% 42% 57%
    42. 43. <ul><li>Bulk Density </li></ul>The mass of a given volume of dry soil - a combination of the mineral, organic matter, and pore space. What happens when soil volume is compressed?
    43. 44. 1.20 - 1.55 g/cm3 (75 - 97 lbs/cu ft) 1.30 - 1.70 g/cm3 (81 to 106 lbs/cu ft) Surface Sub-surface Bulk Density
    44. 45. <ul><li>Influence of Cropping </li></ul><ul><li>on Bulk Density </li></ul>loam, PA silt loam, IA silt loam, OH 1.07 0.93 1.05 1.25 1.13 1.31 uncropped cropped
    45. 46. Urban Soils <ul><li>Altered profile </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Soil structure degraded </li></ul><ul><li>High bulk density or compaction </li></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><li>Acre-Furrow Slice </li></ul><ul><li>weighs about 2 million pounds. The depth of normal plowing or about 6.5 inches. </li></ul>How is it determined? (avg. B.D.- 1.36) x (wt. of cu ft of water - 62.4 lbs) x (volume of an acre 6.5 in. deep - 23,522 cu ft)
    47. 48. Organic Matter
    48. 49. <ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>primary sources - vegetative tops, seeds and roots of plants </li></ul><ul><li>secondary sources - animal wastes and animal tissues </li></ul>
    49. 50. <ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Humus - essentially the stable fraction of organic matter that remains after thorough decomposition . </li></ul>
    50. 51. <ul><li>Composition of Organic Matter </li></ul>water 75% dry matter 25%
    51. 52. <ul><li>Composition of Organic Matter </li></ul>water 75% dry matter 25% carbohydrates 60% lignins 25% protein 10% other 5% Type of Compounds
    52. 53. <ul><li>Composition of Organic Matter </li></ul>water 75% dry matter 25% carbon 44% oxygen 40% other 8% hydrogen 8% carbohydrates 60% lignins 25% protein 10% other 5% Elemental Composition Type of Compounds nitrogen phosphorus potassium sulfur calcium magnesium
    53. 54. <ul><li>Organic Matter in Missouri Soils </li></ul>height of bars = to % of soil samples north bootheel < 1.0 1.0 to 1.9 2.0 to 2.9 3.0 to 3.9 > 3.9 4 40 42 12 3 12 55 26 6 2
    54. 55. <ul><li>Organic Matter - Importance </li></ul><ul><li>improves soil structure </li></ul><ul><li>provides plant nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>improves cation exchange capacity </li></ul>
    55. 56. <ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that Affect Levels </li></ul><ul><li>temperature </li></ul><ul><li>moisture </li></ul><ul><li>landscape position </li></ul><ul><li>Land management </li></ul>
    56. 57. <ul><li>Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Energy in Decomposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The potential energy from an acre-furrow slice with 4% organic matter is equivalent to the heat value in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 tons of coal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200 barrels of oil </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 58. <ul><li>Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios </li></ul>The relative composition of carbon and nitrogen within plant material
    58. 59. <ul><li>Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios </li></ul>Important in controlling: <ul><li>available nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>total organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>rate of decay </li></ul>
    59. 60. <ul><li>Carbon:Nitrogen Ratios </li></ul>animal manure legume residue wheat straw corn stalks sawdust soil 15:1 20:1 80:1 55:1 200:1 10:1
    60. 61. <ul><li>Impact of Residues with High C/N Ratios on Soil Nitrate </li></ul>activity of organisms nitrate level of soil Residues with high C/N ratio added here Residues with low C/N ratio remain
    61. 62. Soil Water
    62. 63. <ul><li>Soil Water Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation - when the entire pore volume of soil (both macro and micro) is filled with water. </li></ul><ul><li>Field Capacity - when water has moved out of the macro pores - gravitational water - leaving essentially the micro pores filled with water. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilting Point - water remaining in micro pores that is held too tightly to be absorbed by plant roots. </li></ul>
    63. 64. <ul><li>Soil Water Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Available Water - water held in the soil that is between field capacity and wilting point </li></ul><ul><li>Unavailable Water - water held in the soil at or beyond the wilting point </li></ul>
    64. 65. <ul><li>Soil Water Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration - the movement of water into the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>percolation – water movement within the soil profile. </li></ul>
    65. 66. <ul><li>General Relationship Between Soil Moisture and Soil Texture </li></ul>0 10 20 30 40 sand sandy loam loam silt loam clay loam clay Field Capacity Available Water Wilting Point Unavailable Water
    66. 67. <ul><li>Types of Soil Water Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Flow - movement due to the influence of gravity and the size of soil macro pores. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated Flow - movement due to the attractive forces between soil solids and water (called the matric potential). This includes the forces of capillary and adsorption . </li></ul>
    67. 68. Soil Water Fundamentals The polarity of the water molecule results in the adsorption to negatively charged clay particles positive negative oxygen atom hydrogen atoms
    68. 69. <ul><li>adsorption - the attractive forces of water to the channels through which it moves </li></ul><ul><li>cohesion - the attraction of water molecules for each other (surface tension) </li></ul>Soil Water Capillary Fundamentals
    69. 70. <ul><li>loamy </li></ul><ul><li>sand </li></ul>silt loam
    70. 71. <ul><li>loamy </li></ul><ul><li>sand </li></ul>silt loam
    71. 72. <ul><li>loamy </li></ul><ul><li>sand </li></ul>silt loam water moves into the loamy sand only after the silt loam becomes saturated
    72. 73. <ul><li>clay </li></ul>silt loam
    73. 74. <ul><li>clay </li></ul>silt loam perched water table upon reaching the silt loam-clay interface water immediately moves into the clay layer due to the high attractive forces associated with clay-type soils
    74. 75. <ul><li>Osmotic Movement - movement that is influenced by differences in soil water &quot;salt&quot; concentrations. Most significant in uptake of water by plant roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Vapor Movement - movement due to differences in vapor pressure. Simply, water vapor moves from where it is moist or warm to where it is dry or cool. </li></ul>Types of Soil Water Movement
    75. 76. <ul><li>Available Water With Soil Depth </li></ul>Inches/foot of soil Soil Depth inches 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Mexico Lindley menfro
    76. 77. <ul><li>clay loam </li></ul><ul><li>Armstrong </li></ul>silt loam Cotter loamy sand Sarpy silty clay Levasy Available Water for Several Selected Soils 2.4 - 2.6 2.8 - 3.1 0.6 - 1.0 1.4 - 2.4 Bars = inches of water/ft of soil
    77. 78. <ul><li>Time for a Break! </li></ul>
    78. 79. Soil Biology
    79. 80. <ul><li>large - gophers, moles, mice . . . </li></ul><ul><li>small - ants, beetles, grubs, slugs, snails earthworms . . . </li></ul><ul><li>micro - nematodes, protozoa and rotifers </li></ul>Soil Organisms - Fauna
    80. 81. <ul><li>Soil Organisms - Flora </li></ul><ul><li>algae - are chlorophyll-bearing organisms and thrive in wet or moist soils - important groups include green and blue-green </li></ul><ul><li>fungi - includes molds and mushrooms - some have a symbiotic association with the roots of plants (mycorrhizae ) </li></ul><ul><li>actinomycetes - are filamentous, but are unicellular like bacteria. </li></ul>
    81. 82. <ul><li>Soil Organisms - Flora </li></ul>Bacteria - one of the simplest, smallest and most important forms of soil microbial life <ul><li>obtain their energy from organic matter (heterotrophs) or from inorganic substances such as ammonium, sulfur and iron (autotrophs) </li></ul>
    82. 83. <ul><li>Benefits of Soil Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>decomposition of organic matter - Natures &quot;Recycle Crew” </li></ul><ul><li>transformation of plant unavailable organic nitrogen to plant available inorganic nitrogen – “nutrient cycling” </li></ul>
    83. 84. <ul><li>Relative Mass Soil Flora </li></ul>height of bars are in lbs/acre-furrow slice actinomycetes fungi algae bacteria 2,200 4,500 275 2,200
    84. 85. <ul><li>Relative Mass of Soil Fauna </li></ul>Protozoa Nematodes Earthworms Others height of bars are in lbs/acre-furrow slice 15 - 150 10 - 100 100 - 1000 15 - 150
    85. 86. Mycorrhizae – “Fungus Roots” <ul><li>Fungi infected roots </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Increase water nutrient update </li></ul><ul><li>> 2,500 different fungi </li></ul>
    86. 87. Rhizosphere <ul><li>Zone surrounding roots where intense biological/chemical processes take place </li></ul>
    87. 88. Soil Chemistry
    88. 89. <ul><li>Cation Exchange </li></ul>The &quot;exchange&quot; between a cation in the soil solution and another cation on the surface of negatively charged material such as clay or organic matter.
    89. 90. Negatively Charged Colloids Attract Positively Charged Ions Cations K + Ca +2 Na + Ca +2 H + Mg +2 - - - - - - - - - soil colloid H + H + K + Ca +2 NH 4 + soil solution soil solution soil solution Fe +2 - - - Al +3 H + H +
    90. 91. <ul><li>Common Soil Cations </li></ul>Na + K + Ca 2+ Mg 2+ Al 3+ H + NH + Fe 3+
    91. 92. Negatively Charged Ions Are Called Anions Chemical Ionic Nutrient symbol form Chloride Cl Cl - Nitrate N NO 3 - Sulfate S SO 4 - 2 Borate B BO 4 - 3 Phosphate P H 2 PO 4 -
    92. 93. <ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>The total of exchangeable cations that a soil can adsorb or hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called &quot;total exchange capacity&quot; or &quot;base exchange capacity” </li></ul><ul><li>expressed in centimoles per kilogram of soil - specific quantity of electrical charges </li></ul>
    93. 94. <ul><li>Relationship Between Soil Texture and </li></ul><ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity </li></ul>sand sandy loam loam silt loam clay loam 3 6 14 18 27 height of bars = millieq./100g of soil
    94. 95. Clay and Organic Matter have Greatest Influence on CEC Clay - 10 to 150 meq/100g OM – 200 to 400 meq/100g
    95. 96. <ul><li>Cation Exchange Capacity of </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Soils </li></ul>height of bars = to % of soil samples north bootheel < 5 5 to 10 10 to 18 18 to 24 > 24 0 16 70 12 2 11 36 29 14 10
    96. 97. <ul><li>Base Saturation Percentage </li></ul><ul><li>The extent of the soil exchange sites that are occupied by the cations calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. </li></ul><ul><li>specifically excludes hydrogen and aluminum. </li></ul><ul><li>expressed as a percentage of the total cation exchange capacity (CEC). </li></ul>
    97. 98. <ul><li>Percent Base Saturation of </li></ul><ul><li>Different Soils </li></ul>humid semi-arid arid 65 90 100 height of bars = %
    98. 99. <ul><li>Typical Proportions of Base Cations In Midwest Soils </li></ul>height of bars = % Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium 43 18 6 3
    99. 100. <ul><li>Average Levels of Base Cations for Upland Missouri Soils </li></ul>height of bars = lbs/acre Calcium Magnesium Potassium 3,500 210 320
    100. 101. Soils and pH Two cations largely responsible for acidity <ul><li>hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>aluminum </li></ul>
    101. 102. Understanding pH <ul><li>results on a “log” scale </li></ul>6 vs 7 = factor of 10 5 vs 7 = factor of 100
    102. 103. <ul><li>3 </li></ul>4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 very strong strong very strong mod- erate mod- erate slight slight strong Neutral Alkalinity Acidity pH Scale common range for Missouri soils
    103. 104. pH and Plant Nutrition <ul><li>low pH can increase toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>high pH can reduce availability </li></ul><ul><li>influence soil organisms </li></ul>
    104. 105. pH & Nutrient Availability
    105. 106. pH Preferences of Some Common Plants Alkaline loving >7.0 Pin Oak, Magnolia Pine, Juniper Holly, Birch Sweet Gum, Spruce Ash, Beech Dogwood, Maple Spruce, Yew Cedar, Elm Juniper, Poplar Redbud, Willow Tuliptree Poplar, Willow Black Walnut Junipers, Redbud Elm, Maple Hickory Medium Range 6.0 - 7.0 Acid Loving <6.0
    106. 107. Alter Soil pH <ul><li>determine need by soil test </li></ul><ul><li>Lime to raise pH </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur to lower pH </li></ul>
    107. 108. pH Can be Difficult to Alter <ul><li>Roots occupy large soil volume </li></ul><ul><li>High clay or organic matter </li></ul>Resistance to change - buffering capacity
    108. 109. Plant Water Needs <ul><li>Varies with species and size </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by soil & climate factors </li></ul>What part of the plant plays a role in water loss or transpiration rate? Leaf stomatas
    109. 110. The Leaf
    110. 111. Leaf Stomata apple corn black oak sunflower None 39,000 None 55,000 250,000 64,000 375,000 100,000 Number of stomata per square inch plant upper lower
    111. 112. Irrigation Principles <ul><li>Vary by age and species </li></ul><ul><li>Transplants - more frequent (especially within the root ball) </li></ul><ul><li>Mature - less frequent </li></ul><ul><li>Infrequent, deep soakings best </li></ul>
    112. 113. Irrigation Principles <ul><li>Match output with infiltration rates (soil type/texture) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep off of lower trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-dawn - early morning (lower ET or evapotranspiration ) </li></ul>
    113. 114. Irrigation Principles <ul><li>Mulches - various advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Use of antitranspirants (can be phytotoxic </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage - surface and subsurface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade and slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tile drains </li></ul></ul>
    114. 115. Irrigation Methods <ul><li>Sprinkler </li></ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Soaker hoses </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure injection </li></ul><ul><li>Basin irrigation </li></ul>
    115. 116. Irrigation Methods Minimum irrigation <ul><li>plants with similar water requirements </li></ul><ul><li>efficient watering system (drip methods) </li></ul><ul><li>monitor soil moisture (tensiometers) </li></ul><ul><li>mulches </li></ul>
    116. 117. Irrigation Methods Recycled water <ul><li>Excess salts (phytotoxicity) </li></ul><ul><li>Likely pH increase </li></ul><ul><li>Increase nitrogen, phosphorus & sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Clogged irrigation emitters </li></ul>
    117. 118. Drainage <ul><li>Consider grade/slope (avoid low spots) </li></ul><ul><li>Drain tiles (approx 3 ft. deep) </li></ul><ul><li>Amending soil with organic material </li></ul>
    118. 119. Let’s review some test questions
    119. 120. <ul><li>Time for a Break! </li></ul>
    120. 121. Plant Nutrients
    121. 122. Major Nutrients <ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul>
    122. 123. Secondary Nutrients <ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul>
    123. 124. Micro Nutrients <ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul><ul><li>Molybdenum </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul>
    124. 125. <ul><li>N is the nutrient most required for proper plant growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>We have no reliable soil test for determining N availability and N requirement over the year because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most soil N is present in organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (nitrate) moves in soil solution </li></ul></ul>Nitrogen (N)
    125. 126. Nitrogen and Plants <ul><li>amino acids - proteins </li></ul><ul><li>chlorophyll - photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>nutrient uptake </li></ul>
    126. 127. Immobilization Mineralization Nitrogen in the Soil Organic Nitrogen Pool (proteins, etc.) Inorganic Nitrogen Pool (ammonium and nitrate)
    127. 128. <ul><li>commercial fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>legumes </li></ul><ul><li>plant residues </li></ul><ul><li>organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>animal manures </li></ul>Nitrogen - Potential Sources
    128. 129. Nitrogen - Uptake by Plants Nitrate -- NO 3 - Ammonium -- NH 4 +
    129. 131. Nitrogen Loss from Soils <ul><li>leaching </li></ul><ul><li>denitrification </li></ul><ul><li>volatilization </li></ul><ul><li>plant removal </li></ul>
    130. 132. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources ammonium nitrate 34 ammonium sulfate 21 calcium nitrate 15 potassium nitrate 13 urea 46 Fertilizer Material % Nitrogen
    131. 133. Phosphorus and Plants <ul><li>photosynthesis and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>energy storage and transfer </li></ul><ul><li>cell division and enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>early root formation and growth </li></ul><ul><li>vital to seed formation </li></ul>
    132. 134. Phosphorus Sources in the Soil <ul><li>organic matter - humus </li></ul><ul><li>plant materials </li></ul><ul><li>manures </li></ul><ul><li>mineral </li></ul>
    133. 135. Phosphorus - Uptake by Plants phosphate -- H 2 PO 4 -
    134. 137. Phosphorus Fertilizer Sources single superphosphate 20 triple superphosphate 46 monoammonium phosphate (MAP) 48-55 diammonium phosphate (DAP) 46 Ammonium polyphosphates 34-37 Fertilizer Material % P 2 O 5
    135. 138. Potassium and Plants <ul><li>does not form organic compounds in the plant </li></ul><ul><li>vital to photosynthesis and protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>improves plant tolerance to heat, cold & drought </li></ul>
    136. 139. Potassium and Plants <ul><li>improves water use efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>reduces lodging </li></ul><ul><li>improves fruit quality </li></ul><ul><li>improves winter hardiness </li></ul>
    137. 140. Potassium - Uptake by Plants potassium -- K + can be influenced by CEC
    138. 142. Potassium Fertilizer Sources potassium chloride 60 potassium sulfate 50 potassium nitrate 44 Fertilizer Material % K 2 O
    139. 143. Fertilization
    140. 144. Fertilizing many products available 32-3-5 Miracle Grow 29-3-4 Scott’s 18-24-6 Pennington 29-3-4 K-Gro
    141. 145. Which Brand? <ul><li>Performance good regardless of product brand name! </li></ul>
    142. 146. Fertilizing <ul><li>check the ag CO-OP </li></ul>46-0-0 CO-OP nitrogen 0-46-0 CO-OP phosphate 0-0-60 CO-OP potassium
    143. 147. Fertilizer numbers <ul><li>numbers = percent by weight </li></ul>nitrogen only blend = 23 lbs/bag = 14.5-1.5-2 lbs/bag 46-0-0 CO-OP 50 lbs 29-3-4 Scott’s 50 lbs
    144. 148. Applying the Correct Amount <ul><li>need 2 pounds nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft. </li></ul>18-24-6 Pennington 32-3-5 Miracle Grow 29-3-4 Scott’s
    145. 149. Applying the Correct Amount 18-24-6 Pennington
    146. 150. Applying the Correct Amount <ul><li>need 2 pounds of actual nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>2 divided by 0.18 </li></ul><ul><li>= 11 pounds of actual fertilizer product </li></ul>18-24-6 Pennington
    147. 151. Soil Testing: Procedure <ul><li>Using a soil probe or small shovel, sample to a 6 inch depth </li></ul><ul><li>Take approximately 10 to 15 samples randomly from each lawn area </li></ul><ul><li>sample problem areas separately </li></ul><ul><li>Remove thatch and live plant material </li></ul>
    148. 152. <ul><li>Submit at Extension office - $9.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed at UMC lab </li></ul><ul><li>About 5-7 working days </li></ul><ul><li>Reports return via Email </li></ul>Soil Testing: Procedure
    149. 153. Review Soil Test Reports
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