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  • Spatial Contiguity Principle:
  • Multimedia

    1. 1. MULTIMEDIAAn overview
    2. 2. Definition?A multimedia instructional message is a communication usingwords and pictures that is intended to promote learning.For example, a multimedia instructional message in a bookcould include printed text and illustrations, whereas amultimedia instructional message on a computer could includenarration and animation. Richard Mayer (2003) p.21 Multimedia Learning
    3. 3. MULTIMEDIA DESIGN7 principles of multimedia design
    4. 4. 7 principle of multimedia design Multimedia principle: Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. Spatial Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. Temporal Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. Coherence Principle: Students learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included. Modality Principle: Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text. Redundancy Principle: Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on-screen text. Individual Differences Principle: Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners than for high-knowledge learners and for high-spatial learners rather than low-spatial learners.
    5. 5. VISUAL DESIGNPerceptions and colour
    6. 6. Perceptions
    7. 7. Colour Fashion Colours go in and out of fashion. Bright colours are used to demand attention and make a statement. Designers of luxury items want their products to appear reputable and durable, and be seen to outlast the fashion of the day; gaudy colours such as bright pinks and yellows are unlikely.
    8. 8. Colour The environment Australians live in a hot, dry environment so often use cool colours (such as pastel tints) in their buildings to make their physical environment seem cooler. In a European environment that is predominantly cold you tend to see warm, bright primary colours, creating a cheerful, cosy illusion.
    9. 9. Colour Culture Culture and history shape colour choice. If you visit Asia you will find temples painted in bright, primary colours. A European church is more likely to have more sombre colours.
    11. 11. Contrast Contrast can be the most important visual aspect of a page. The principle is to avoid elements on the page that are merely similar – if they are not the same – then make them VERY different.Purpose: To create interest Aid in the organisation of information Supports visual hierarchy  Eg. use of colour
    12. 12. Repetition Repeat visual elements throughout – colour, shape, etc. Develops organisation and strengthens the unity.Purpose: To unify and add interest For consistency  Eg. navigation, colour identifiers, layout – anything your learner may visually recognize. Avoid repeating the element so much that it becomes annoying and distracts from the message
    13. 13. Alignment Nothing should be placed on your page randomly. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page. This creates a clean, sophisticated look.Purpose: To unify and organize your page design Be conscious of where you place your elements – always try to find something that aligns themAvoid: More than 1 type of text alignment on the same page Don’t always centre align
    14. 14. Proximity Items relating to each other should be group close together. Items in close proximity become one visual unit rather than several separate, unrelated units.Purpose: Reduces clutter and confusing your reader Organizes information – reduces cognitive load Logical information is more likely to be remembered
    15. 15. Resources media+Learning ecture4.pdf multimedia/index.html _reduce_CL.pdf
    16. 16. References and acknowledgements Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, Roxana 2003, Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning in Educational Psychologist, 38 (1), pp43-52. Clark, Ruth Colvin & Mayer, Richard, 2002, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, Pfeiffer, USA. Gotz, V. 1998, Color & Type for the Screen, Rotovision SA, Switzerland Kristof, Ray & Satran, A 1995, Interactivity by Design – Creating & Communicating with New Media, Adobe Press, USA Lynch, Patrick J. & Horton, Sarah 1999, Web Style Guide – Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites, Yale University Press. Williams, Robin 1994, The Non-designer’s Design Book, Peachpit Press, USA This presentation is adapted from the 2009 E-learning Design Activity Guide compiled by Anne Bartlett-Bragg.
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