Electric Drive Vehicles Overview Clean Energy Coalition & Ann Arbor Clean Cities
Clean Energy Coalition Mobility Moving the transportation sector forward by assisting our clients and partners reduce thei...
Clean Cities <ul><li>A  U.S. Department of Energy program with the mission to advance the environmental, economic, and ene...
Clean Cities Coalition Map
Electric Drive Vehicles <ul><li>Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) </li></ul><ul><li>Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)...
Basics: Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Powered by Engine and Electric Motor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal combustion en...
Basics: Plug-in Hybrids <ul><li>Fuel-Efficient System Design </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel   PHEVs  connect the engine and th...
Basics: All-Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Driving Range </li></ul><ul><li>EVs can travel 100-220 miles per charge, depending o...
Basics: Batteries <ul><ul><li>Energy storage systems (batteries) are essential for HEVs, PHEVs and EVs </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Benefits: Hybrid Electric Vehicles Fuel Economy : Better than similar conventional vehicles Low Emissions : Lower than sim...
Benefits: Plug-in Hybrids <ul><li>Fuel Economy : Better than HEVs and similar conventional vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Low ...
Benefits: All-Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Fuel Economy : Does not use liquid fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Low Emissions : Zero ta...
Use: Charging <ul><ul><li>Level 1 = 120V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 = 208-240V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 ...
Use: Charging at Home <ul><li>Most owners will charge vehicles at home, making Level 1 and Level 2 the primary options </l...
Use: Charging in Public <ul><li>Public charging stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make EVs and PHEVs more convenient </li></u...
Preparing Ann Arbor for EV’s <ul><li>Public charging stations in Ann Arbor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Lot </li></ul></u...
For More Information <ul><li>Lisa Warshaw , project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Ann Arbor Clean Cities Coordinator </li></ul...
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March 2011 - Michigan Energy Forum - Lisa Warshaw

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Have you ever considered purchasing an electric vehicle? Want to find out what all the hype is about? Join us for an evening of information and updates on the rollout of electric vehicles in Michigan and the United States.

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  • Covering: Clean Energy Coalition U.S. DOE national Clean Cities program EV 101 Ann Arbor specifics of EV preparedness
  • What is the CEC? Rolled out of Ann Arbor Clean Cities, the CEC is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization based in Ypsilanti As we look at the state of play when it comes to clean technologies, we see that there are more options than ever to help people, businesses and government to save money at the pump, reduce our dependence on oil and improve air quality. But it’s easier to be a follower than a leader unless there’s a catalyst for change. You can think of the CEC as that catalyst. We help create more conservation leaders, and we do that by building public and private alliances and securing resources for them to be a driving force in market transformation. With a project portfolio of $55M, the Clean Energy Coalition is working across multiple sectors to bridge needs and advance change.
  • The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) was passed by congress to reduce our nation&apos;s dependence on petroleum and was the impetus for creating the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities activities are implemented by a national network of Clean Cities coalitions . Coalitions are voluntary, locally-based government/industry partnerships that identify resources needed to implement projects.
  • Clean Cities coalitions represent approximately 75% of the country&apos;s total population &amp; can be seen in green on the map. 87 active coalitions in 45 states In 2009, coalitions reported a total of 8,400 stakeholders. Clean Cities coalitions are growing: 2,000 stakeholders were added in 2009. In total, Clean Cities coalitions have been instrumental in the deployment of over 775,000 alternative fueled vehicles and the utilization of 6,600 alternative refueling stations.
  • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs)—also called electric drive vehicles collectively—use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs.
  • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are powered by an internal combustion engine (using alternative or conventional fuel) and an electric motor, which uses energy stored in the batteries. The extra power provided by the electric motor allows for a smaller engine, resulting in better fuel economy without sacrificing performance. HEVs do not need to be plugged in. They use regenerative braking and an internal combustion engine to charge the battery. The vehicle captures energy normally lost during braking by using the electric motor as a generator and storing the captured energy in the battery. The energy from the battery provides extra power during acceleration.
  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are powered by conventional or alternative fuels as well as electric power stored in a battery. Using electricity from the grid to run the vehicle some of the time costs less and reduces petroleum consumption compared with conventional vehicles. PHEVs might also reduce emissions, depending on the electricity source. A PHEV has an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, which uses energy stored in batteries. PHEVs have larger battery packs than HEVs. This makes it possible to drive using only electricity for some distance (about 10 to 40 miles), commonly referred to as the &amp;quot;all-electric range&amp;quot; of the vehicle. PHEV batteries can be charged by an outside electric power source, by the internal combustion engine, or through regenerative braking. During braking, the electric motor acts as a generator, charging the battery. PHEV fuel consumption depends on the distance driven between battery charges. For example, if the vehicle is never plugged in to charge, fuel economy will be about the same as a similarly sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven less than its all-electric range and plugged in, it is possible to use only electric power. There are two main designs for combining the power from the electric motor and the engine: parallel and series. These options exist among HEVs also. GM refers to the volt as an extended range electric vehicle. In an EREV, the electric motor drives the wheels 100% of the time, depleting the battery charge first (Even up to 100mpg), then operating with an on-board generator to create electricity for the electric drive motor for as far as you wish to drive.
  • An all-electric vehicle (EVs) uses a battery to store the electrical energy that powers the motor. EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. Electricity production may contribute to air pollution, but EVs are considered zero-emission vehicles, because their motors produce no exhaust. Because EVs use no other fuel, they help eliminate petroleum consumption. Heavy-duty vehicles are available now, and more light-duty EVs are beginning to enter the market. EVs are more expensive than similar conventional and hybrid vehicles, but owners can offset costs through fuel savings, tax credits, or incentives. EVs have a shorter range per charge than conventional vehicles have per tank of gas. The custom-order, all-electric Tesla Roadster has a 220-mile range. Less expensive vehicles under development are targeting a 100-mile range. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, 100 miles is sufficient for over 90% of all household vehicle trips in the United States.
  • Energy storage systems, usually batteries, are essential for electric drive vehicles. Most near-term PHEVs and EVs will use lithium-ion batteries. They have a high power-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency, good high-temperature performance, and low self-discharge. Some components of these batteries can be recycled. Nickel-metal hydride batteries have been successful in EVs and are widely used in HEVs. Challenges with these batteries are high cost, high self-discharge and heat generation at high temperatures, and hydrogen loss. Lead-acid batteries can be designed to be high power and are inexpensive, safe, and reliable. Drawbacks include low specific energy, poor cold-temperature performance, and short calendar and life cycle. Lithium-polymer batteries with high specific energy, initially developed for EVs, also can provide high specific power for HEVs. They could become commercially viable if the cost were lowered and life cycle improved. Ultracapacitors store energy in a polarized liquid between an electrode and an electrolyte. They provide vehicles additional power during acceleration and hill climbing and help recover braking energy. The battery-recycling market is currently small. As the market grows, the recycling infrastructure will likely grow with it. For long-distance travel, where fast charging is not available, battery swapping might be a solution.
  • The 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid gets 40 miles per gallon (mpg) in the city and 45 mpg on the highway compared to the conventional Civic—25 mpg city and 36 mpg highway. This amounts to fuel savings of about 38% in the city and 20% on the highway. Emissions vary by vehicle and type of hybrid power system. HEVs are often used to offset fleet emissions to meet local air-quality improvement strategies and federal requirements. HEVs usually cost $0.05 to $0.07 per mile to operate compared to conventional vehicles, which cost $0.10 to $0.15 per mile to operate. HEVs use less petroleum because they have better fuel economy than conventional vehicles. Some HEVs use renewable and domestically produced alternative fuels instead of gasoline or diesel. HEVs are typically more expensive than similar conventional vehicles before tax credits or other incentives. The average incremental price—the additional price of an HEV over a comparative non-hybrid—was $3,500 for cars and $4,500 for light-duty trucks in 2007. This difference is expected to drop to $1,500 for cars by 2015, according to a study by Argonne National Laboratory.
  • PHEVs get better fuel economy than similar HEVs and conventional vehicles. They can drive at slow and high speeds using only electricity, so they get about 40% better fuel economy than HEVs. Fuel economy above that of HEVs varies based on how often the vehicle is driven on only electricity. PHEVs have lower emissions than HEVs and similar conventional vehicles. Their emissions are projected to be lower than HEV emissions, because they are driven on electricity some of the time. Most categories of emissions are lower for electricity generated from power plants than from engines running on gasoline or diesel. PHEVs are less expensive to operate than HEVs or conventional vehicles. When operating on electricity, a PHEV can be expected to cost $0.02 to $0.04 per mile (based on average U.S. electricity price). When operating on gasoline, the same vehicle will cost $0.05 to $0.07 per mile; conventional vehicles cost $0.10 to $0.15 per mile to operate. PHEVs reduce U.S. reliance on imported petroleum. They use electricity produced from coal, nuclear power, natural gas, and renewable sources. Some PHEVs use renewable and domestically produced alternative fuels instead of gasoline or diesel. PHEVs can fuel up at gas stations or charge at home or public charging stations.
  • EVs use no liquid fuels. Fuel economy of all-electric vehicles is usually expressed as cost per mile. A typical electric vehicle costs $0.02 to $0.04 per mile for fuel (based on average U.S. electricity price). EVs have zero emissions. However, emissions are produced from fuel-burning power plants that supply electricity to the grid. But in most emissions categories, a vehicle running on gasoline or diesel will produce more emissions than will the production of electricity required to power an EV. If electricity is generated from nonpolluting, renewable sources, there are no emissions. EVs are less expensive to operate than gasoline and diesel vehicles. EVs reduce U.S. reliance on imported petroleum. They use electricity produced domestically from coal, nuclear, natural gas, and renewable sources. EVs can charge at home or at public charging stations.
  • Level 1-AC (single phase) Also known as 120 volt charging, typically uses a regular three-prong testing lab certified power cord. Level 1 charging of vehicles available today may take up to 10 hours (depending on the characteristics of the on-board charger) to fully charge a battery. Level 2-AC (single phase) Also known as 240 volt charging, requires a testing lab certified charging station. Some styles of charging stations are permanently mounted to a wall or post of metal or wood (e.g. ClipperCreek, Coulomb Technologies) while others can be temporarily plugged into a conventional 240v outlet (e.g. Leviton). Level 2 charging can fully charge a battery in two to six hours (depending on the characteristics of the on-board charger). Level 3 – AC (single or 3-phase TBD) This is still under development by the SAE
  • For consumers to widely accept using EVs and PHEVs, they need affordable, convenient, and compatible options to charge their electric drive vehicles at home. The Electric Power Research Institute anticipates most EV and PHEV owners will charge their vehicles overnight at home. For this reason, Level 1 (120 volts) and Level 2 (240 volts) charging equipment will be the primary options for homeowners. Currently available Level 2 charging equipment costs about $1,500 to $2,500 (installed) before a 50% federal tax credit (up to $2,000) and potential state incentives. Installation contractors can inform homeowners if their home has adequate electrical capacity for vehicle charging. Most people will prefer Level 2 equipment for faster charging, but older homes might have insufficient electric capacity. Homeowners can add circuits to accommodate the capacity needed for Level 2 charging. EVSE installations must comply with local, state, and national codes and regulations, and installation requires permitting and licensed contractors. Contractors should check with the local planning department before installing equipment. Homeowners should consult EV and PHEV manufacturer guidance for information about the required charging equipment and find out the specifications before purchasing equipment and electric services.
  • For fleet drivers and consumers to charge their EVs and PHEVs in public, charging stations must be deployed and integrated with consideration of daily commutes and typical driving habits. Public charging stations increase the useful range of EVs and reduce the amount of gasoline consumed by PHEVs. General public charging will use Level 2 or DC fast charging to enable faster charging. The public charging infrastructure should consist of charging locations where vehicle owners are highly concentrated, such as shopping centers, city parking lots and garages, airports, hotels, government offices, and other businesses. Widespread public charging infrastructure will help facilitate the penetration of EVs and PHEVs and help address consumer &amp;quot;range anxiety&amp;quot; for vehicles with limited range. Currently, the Clean Energy Coalitions Mobility team is working with the Ann Arbor Downtown Development Authority to put in about twenty level 2 charging stations in the Library lot which is now under construction. These charges will be linked to a solar photovoltavic array – solar panels- which will supply the energy needed to juice the chargers. These chargers are due to be installed and operational by December of this year.
  • Through American Recovery &amp; Reinvestment Act funding, the Clean Energy Coalition is helping fund more than 20 electric vehicle charging stations in our community. In addition to having helped fund six City fleet vehicles that are either hybrid or electric-based trucks in 2010. In order to prepare our community for the onslaught of EV’s, I am currently leading a task force that includes some of Ann Arbor’s largest downtown employers, and transportation professionals to create an electric vehicle plan for the City of Ann Arbor. This task force will look at issues such as permitting to ensure that our community is ready to move forward with EV’s as they gain popularity throughout the country.
  • The Electric Drive Vehicles section of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center contains a wealth of information, including technology basics, emissions, availability, charging, and several other topics. The fueleconomy.gov Web site is a partnership between EPA and the Department of Energy. It also has extensive information on electric drive vehicles, including a list of available, new, and upcoming models. Thanks to audience Q &amp; A
  • March 2011 - Michigan Energy Forum - Lisa Warshaw

    1. 1. Electric Drive Vehicles Overview Clean Energy Coalition & Ann Arbor Clean Cities
    2. 2. Clean Energy Coalition Mobility Moving the transportation sector forward by assisting our clients and partners reduce their use of petroleum and increase the use of clean fuels. Structures Helping home and business owners assess critical needs and craft practical, affordable, and sustainable energy strategies. Communities Working with local governments to create healthy and sustainable communities for people to live, work, and thrive.
    3. 3. Clean Cities <ul><li>A U.S. Department of Energy program with the mission to advance the environmental, economic, and energy security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions to adopt practices that contribute to the reduction of petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Clean Cities Coalitions @ the Clean Energy Coalition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ann Arbor : put more than 7,000 clean-fueled vehicles on the road of Washtenaw County since 2000; displaced more than 1.4M gallons of petroleum in 2009 alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detroit : assumed responsibility in February 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Michigan : aiming to obtain U.S. DOE designation in 2011-12 </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Clean Cities Coalition Map
    5. 5. Electric Drive Vehicles <ul><li>Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) </li></ul><ul><li>Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) </li></ul><ul><li>All-Electric Vehicles (EVs) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Basics: Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Powered by Engine and Electric Motor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal combustion engine uses alternative or conventional fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery charged by regenerative braking and engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power from electric motor allows smaller engine and better fuel economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel-Efficient System Design </li></ul><ul><li>Mild hybrid: Cannot power the vehicle using the electric motor alone </li></ul><ul><li>Full hybrid: More powerful electric motor and larger batteries can drive the vehicle on just electric power for short distances and at low speeds </li></ul>
    7. 7. Basics: Plug-in Hybrids <ul><li>Fuel-Efficient System Design </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel PHEVs connect the engine and the electric motor to the wheels through mechanical coupling </li></ul><ul><li>Series PHEVs use only the electric motor to drive the wheels. The internal combustion engine is used to generate electricity for the motor. </li></ul><ul><li>Powered by an Electric Motor and Engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal combustion engine uses alternative or conventional fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery charged by outside electric power source, engine, or regenerative breaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During urban driving, most power comes from stored electricity. Long trips require the engine </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Basics: All-Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Driving Range </li></ul><ul><li>EVs can travel 100-220 miles per charge, depending on the model </li></ul><ul><li>A 100-mile range is sufficient for more than 90% of all U.S. household vehicle trips </li></ul><ul><li>Powered by an Electric Motor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery stores electrical energy that powers the motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery charged by plugging into outside electric power source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero tailpipe emissions, but air pollution may be produced through electricity generation </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Basics: Batteries <ul><ul><li>Energy storage systems (batteries) are essential for HEVs, PHEVs and EVs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the cost of the battery is crucial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of energy storage systems include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium-ion batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nickel-metal hydride batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lead-acid batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium-polymer batteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultracapacitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The battery recycling market is currently limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery swapping options are being developed </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Benefits: Hybrid Electric Vehicles Fuel Economy : Better than similar conventional vehicles Low Emissions : Lower than similar conventional vehicles Fuel Cost Savings : Less expensive to operate than a conventional vehicle Energy Security : Reduced U.S. reliance on imported petroleum Fueling Flexibility : Fuel from gas stations <ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase cost can be offset by fuel savings, tax credits, and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase prices are expected to drop (relative to conventional vehicles) by 2015 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Benefits: Plug-in Hybrids <ul><li>Fuel Economy : Better than HEVs and similar conventional vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Low Emissions : Lower than HEVs and similar conventional vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cost Savings : Less expensive to operate than an HEV or conventional vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Security : Reduce U.S. reliance on imported petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Fueling Flexibility : Fuel from gas stations or charge at home or in public </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase cost can be offset by fuel savings, tax credits, and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Public charging infrastructure is in development </li></ul><ul><li>Battery recycling and reuse options are in development </li></ul>
    12. 12. Benefits: All-Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Fuel Economy : Does not use liquid fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Low Emissions : Zero tailpipe emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cost Savings : Less expensive to operate than conventional vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Security : Reduces U.S. reliance on imported petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Fueling Flexibility : Can charge at home or public charging stations </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase cost can be offset by fuel savings, tax credits, and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Public charging infrastructure is in development </li></ul><ul><li>Battery recycling and reuse options are in development </li></ul>
    13. 13. Use: Charging <ul><ul><li>Level 1 = 120V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 = 208-240V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 = DC Fast Charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAE-J1772: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed to standardize all electric vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interchangeable connector inlets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EVSE-to-vehicle communications set maximum charge current – pilot signal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with public charging infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Use: Charging at Home <ul><li>Most owners will charge vehicles at home, making Level 1 and Level 2 the primary options </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 charging equipment now costs $1,500 to $2,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Installation requires permitting and licensed contractors </li></ul>
    15. 15. Use: Charging in Public <ul><li>Public charging stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make EVs and PHEVs more convenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase useful range </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public charging infrastructure locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City parking lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office buildings </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Preparing Ann Arbor for EV’s <ul><li>Public charging stations in Ann Arbor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electric Vehicle Preparedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ann Arbor Downtown Development Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Energy Coalition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Ann Arbor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DTE Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecology Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>getDowntown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shepherd Advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Michigan </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. For More Information <ul><li>Lisa Warshaw , project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Ann Arbor Clean Cities Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>888.818.0987 x711 </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Energy Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>www.cec-mi.org </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.cleancities.energy.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.afdc.energy.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug-In Michgian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://pluginmichigan.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug In America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.pluginamerica.org/vehicles </li></ul></ul>

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