March 2011 - Michigan Energy Forum - Joseph A. Malcoun II


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Have you ever considered purchasing an electric vehicle? Want to find out what all the hype is about? Join us for an evening of information and updates on the rollout of electric vehicles in Michigan and the United States.

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March 2011 - Michigan Energy Forum - Joseph A. Malcoun II

  1. 1. EVS and Smart Grid Integrationana M MedinadTE Energy<br />EVS and Smart Grid Integrationana M MedinadTE Energy<br />Michigan Energy Forum: Electric Vehicle 101<br />Ann Arbor Spark<br />Joe Malcoun<br />DTE Energy, Strategy and Corporate Development<br />March 3, 2011<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />MYTH: Electricity comes from coal, so electric vehicles are worse for the environment<br />Electric drive is more efficient than ICE<br /><ul><li>Freedom from petroleum
  3. 3. Electricity is a domestic resource</li></ul>CO2 Emissions*<br />(gm/mile)<br />350<br />Future<br />225<br />ICE<br />Hybrid<br />Nuclear & Renewables<br />Coal<br />Natural Gas<br />Gasoline<br />Electricity<br />* 204 lb/MMBtu CO2 emissions rate (no carbon capture), 9,500 heat rate coal plant, 7,500 heat rate natural gas plant, ICE engine at 26 mpg, Hybrid drivetrain between 30-45 mpg, electric motor at 5 mi/kWh<br />Source: Argonne National Labs GREET Model, DTE Team Analysis<br />
  4. 4. 3<br />MYTH: If we all plug in electric vehicles at night we’ll bring the grid down<br />ILLUSTRATIVE<br />Impact of PEV on Typical Summer Load Profile (Ideal Case)*<br />MW<br />Generation Capacity<br />10% market share**<br />* PHEV is likely to also contribute to increased load during peak hours. Illustrative example of electric utility load – similar to Detroit Edison<br />** Estimated 600,000 cars and light trucks (does not include diesel trucks, buses, etc), 12,500 miles per year, 3.0 mi/kWh average efficiency, 75% electric operation<br />Source: DTE analyses, EPRI/NRDC Report<br />
  5. 5. 4<br />MYTH: Won’t we have to build a whole lot of new power plants?<br />Possible Market Sizing and Resulting Impact on Gasoline Demand*<br />EVs do not create a generation problem, but they may present a distribution challenge.<br />* 300 million cars, 14,000 miles/year average driving, 2.7 mi/kWh average efficiency, 75% electric operation<br />Source: EPA – Transportation and Climate Division, DTE analyses<br />
  6. 6. Uncontrolled charging could lead to localized outages if not properly managed<br />5<br />25 kVATransformer with Uncontrolled PEV Load*<br /><ul><li>Potential problems
  7. 7. Voltage dips (dimming lights, damage to expensive electronics)
  8. 8. Service interruption
  9. 9. Transformer failure
  10. 10. Measures to address these issues
  11. 11. On-vehicle charging control (time/date control)
  12. 12. Utility notified at time of PEV purchase
  13. 13. SmartGrid technology
  14. 14. Battery health greatly increased by charging closer to time of use; supports early morning, off-peak charging</li></ul>Summer Load3 PEV @ 1.4 kW3 PEV @ 3.3 kW<br />Load shape for warm summer day with 3 PEVs in a neighborhood<br />Peak Capacity<br />Design Capacity`<br />*8-12 smaller, older homes per 25 kVA circuit. Most homes without central AC. <br />
  15. 15. DTE Energy is actively involved in helping bring PEVs to the market and enabling a seamless transition to our customers<br />6<br />Through DTE Energy Ventures, we are investing capital in promising startups in the advanced battery and electric drive industries<br />Direct Investment<br />We have been awarded a number of research and demonstration grants from the DOE and MPSC to study the interaction of PEVs and our grid<br />Research and Demonstrations<br />DTE is actively involved in both local and national partnerships with automakers, government agencies, battery companies and other utilities<br />Partnerships and Collaboration<br />Last October, the MPSC approved an experimental EV rate program, making Detroit Edison the first utility in the nation with a dual rate option<br />Detroit Edison PV Rate Program<br />
  16. 16. The MPSC PEV Pilot Grant has allowed us gain real-world experience with PEVs<br />Conversions and Charging Stations<br />Business of Plugging In<br />AAPS PHEV School Bus<br />
  17. 17. Detroit Edison is involved in a number of additional PEV grant programs as well<br />8<br /><ul><li>Demonstrate EV charging at home, public, and workplace charging locations
  18. 18. Use smart meters to collect vehicle charging data at specific locations
  19. 19. Demonstrate charging control techniques
  20. 20. Explore development of residential and commercial charging and equipment tariffs</li></ul>General Motors:<br />Transportation Sector Electrification<br />DOE-FOA-28<br /><ul><li>Demonstrate how smart grid can be leveraged to increase PEV value
  21. 21. Use pre-production PHEV Ford Escape vehicles to establish requirements and develop PHEV/smart grid integration
  22. 22. Gain first-hand knowledge of advanced battery technology w/ grid storage abilities</li></ul>Ford-EPRI:<br />Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program <br /><ul><li>Integrate twenty Community Energy Storage units into a system that includes 500kW of energy storage and 500 kW of PV
  23. 23. Community Energy Storage units will be used to demonstrate peak shaving, voltage support, renewables integration and ancillary services </li></ul>DTE Energy:<br />Smart Grid <br />Demonstration Project<br />DOE-FOA-36<br />
  24. 24. MPSC PEV Preparedness Task Force<br />Objectives<br />Participants<br />Accomplishments<br />Website<br /><br /><ul><li>Building Code modification - streamlines the EVSE installation process
  25. 25. Two charging stations installed at MPSC offices (DTE and LBWL)
  26. 26. Drafted language to leverage existing legislation in support of customer incentives, rate structures, etc.
  27. 27. Developing educational materials and website
  28. 28. Communicate and educate key audiences
  29. 29. Ensure positive customer experience purchasing and using PEVs
  30. 30. Coordinate stakeholders, funds, policies and programs already available or proposed supporting PEV infrastructure
  31. 31. Evaluate rates, infrastructure issues, and possible code changes
  32. 32. Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC)
  33. 33. Michigan Dept. of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth (DELEG)
  34. 34. Automotive manufacturers
  35. 35. Regulated and public utilities
  36. 36. Local Governments
  37. 37. Electric inspectors and contractors
  38. 38. Local and statewide environmental groups</li></li></ul><li>Detroit Edison’s Electric Vehicle Rate Program<br />Electric Vehicle Experimental Rate<br />Customer Education<br />Partnerships<br />GOAL<br /><ul><li>Automakers
  39. 39. EVSE Suppliers
  40. 40. Michigan Public Service Comm.
  41. 41. Local Universities
  42. 42. MI PEV Taskforce
  43. 43. DOE FreedomCar Partnership
  44. 44. Time-of-Use Rate:
  45. 45. $0.077 Off peak
  46. 46. $0.182 On peak*
  47. 47. $40/Month Flat Rate
  48. 48. $2,500 toward charging station installation
  49. 49. Separately metered
  50. 50. Website
  51. 51. PEV Hotline
  52. 52. Point-of-Sale displays
  53. 53. Workshops
  54. 54. Participate on local events
  55. 55. Learn customer preferences and behaviors
  56. 56. Understand charge profile and impact on distribution system
  57. 57. Streamline existing process to facilitate adoption
  58. 58. Understand technology and participate in standards development</li></ul>2009<br />2010<br />* On peak hours from 9:00 AM to 11:00 PM<br />
  59. 59. What we’re probably not going to do…<br />11<br />Very small number of vehicles in the near future<br />Economics don’t make sense for us or consumer<br />Power density is increasing range of vehicles<br />We already sell the electrons…<br />
  60. 60. Who to contact for more information?<br />For more information about our program:<br /><br />Or contact our PEV team at:<br />313-235-7700 (PEV Hotline)<br /><br />My details:<br />Joe Malcoun<br />734-302-8218<br /><br />
  61. 61. Plug-ins have a big fuel cost advantage<br />Fuel Cost Comparison*($/Mile)<br />$12,500 - $17,500 fuel savings over 10 years* <br /> * Gallon of gasoline equivalent price computed comparing ICE mileage of 26 mpg to PEV mileage of 5 mi/kWh at $0.10/kWh, 12,500 miles per year, undiscounted<br />
  62. 62. 14<br />Even When Utilizing Electricity from Coal, an Electric Vehicle Produces Less CO2 than a Traditional Gasoline Vehicle*<br />Electric Car w/ Coal<br />CO2 emissions <br />300 gm / mi<br />Generation -65%<br />Coal has ~1.3X carbon content of gasoline<br />Line losses -4%<br />Electric drive-5%<br />Electric drive ~1.75X more efficient than I/C engine<br />100% Energy<br />26%<br />Useful Energy<br />CO2 emissions<br />400 gm / mi<br />Gasoline Car<br />Internal Combustion -75%<br />Refining-10%<br />100% Energy<br />15%<br />Useful Energy<br />* 205 lb/mmBtu CO2 emissions rate (no carbon capture), 10,500 heat rate coal plant, Gasoline engine at 26 mpg, electric motor at 4 mi/kWh with 10% efficiency loss during charging, 25% Plug-in hybrid operation in gasoline mode<br />Source: Argonne National Labs GREET Model, DTE Team Analysis<br />
  63. 63. The electric drive is more efficient than the internal combustion engine <br />15<br />100%<br />10%<br />75%<br />Gasoline<br />15%<br />ICE<br />Refining<br />Energy input<br />Usable Energy<br /><ul><li>Electric drive vehicles are advantaged from an energy use perspective
  64. 64. Average efficiency of an internal combustion engine is ~18%
  65. 65. Average efficiency of electric drive is ~85%</li></ul>100%<br />65%<br />Electricity From Coal*<br />5%<br />5%<br />25%<br />Line Losses<br />Usable Energy<br />Electric Drive <br />Generation<br />Energy input<br />55%<br />100%<br />Electricity from Natural Gas*<br />5%<br />5%<br />35%<br />Energy input<br />Generation<br />Line Losses<br />Usable Energy<br />Electric Drive <br />* 10,500 heat rate coal plant, 7,500 heat rate natural gas plant, Gasoline engine at 26 mpg, electric motor at 5 mi/kWh<br />Source: DTE Team Analysis<br />