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Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
Bus.communication
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Bus.communication

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  • 1. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
  • 2. <ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS THE ART OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION, IDEAS AND ATTITUDES FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER.COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF MEANINGFUL INTERACTION AMONG HUMAN BEINGS. </li></ul><ul><li>ITS ESSENCES : </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>OCCURS BETWEEN PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>INVOLVES CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>MEANS TO INFLUENCE OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPRESSION OF THOUGHTS AND </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONS THROUGH WORDS & ACTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>TOOLS FOR CONTROLLING AND MOTIVATING PEOPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS A SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PROCESS. </li></ul>What is Communication?
  • 3. A Definition <ul><li>Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or information. </li></ul>
  • 4. What are the most common ways we communicate? Spoken Word Written Word Visual Images Body Language
  • 5. Types of Communication <ul><li>Downwards Communication : Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, to assign duties, give instructions, to inform to offer feed back, approval to highlight problems etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Upwards Communications : It is non directive in nature from down below, to give feedback, to inform about progress/problems, seeking approvals. </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral or Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Communication : Among colleagues, peers at same level for information </li></ul><ul><li>level for information sharing for coordination, to save time. </li></ul><ul><li>In modern business environment communication extends beyond written or spoken </li></ul><ul><li>words to listened word. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual dimension added by T.V., computers has given to new meaning to </li></ul><ul><li>communication. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Network : Virtually vertical as per chain go command within the </li></ul><ul><li> hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Network : Free to move in any direction may skip formal chain of </li></ul><ul><li> command. Likely to satisfy social and emotional needs </li></ul><ul><li>and also can facilitate task accomplishment. </li></ul>
  • 6. The Communication Process SENDER (encodes) RECEIVER (decodes) Barrier Barrier Medium Feedback/Response
  • 7. The Communication Process Basic Model 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 1. Sender has idea 4. Receiver decodes message 6. Possible additional feedback to receiver 5. Feedback travels to sender
  • 8. How to Improve Existing Level of COMMUNICATION? <ul><li>IMPROVE LANGUAGE. </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE PRONUNCIATIOON. </li></ul><ul><li>WORK ON VOICE MODULATION. </li></ul><ul><li>WORK ON BODY LANGUAGE. </li></ul><ul><li>READ MORE </li></ul><ul><li>LISTEN MORE </li></ul><ul><li>AVOID READING OR WATCHING OR LISTENING UNWANTED LITERATURE, GOSSIP, MEDIA PRESENTATION ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>INTERACT WITH QUALITATIVE PEOPLE. </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE ON YOU TOPIC OF DISCUSSION, </li></ul><ul><li>PRACTICE MEDITATION & GOOD THOUGHTS. </li></ul><ul><li>THINK AND SPEAK. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT SPEAK TOO FAST. </li></ul><ul><li>USE SIMPLE VOCABULARY. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT SPEAK ONLY TO IMPRESS SOMEONE. </li></ul><ul><li>LOOK PRESENTABLE AND CONFIDENT. </li></ul>
  • 9. Forms of Communication Flowing Through Formal Channels Written Executive memos, letters Annual report Company newsletter Bulletin board postings Orientation manual Electronic E-mail Voicemail Instant Messaging Intranet Videoconferencing Oral Telephone Face-to-face conversation Company meetings Team meetings
  • 10. Communication Flowing Through Formal Channels Downward Management directives Job plans, policies Company goals Mission statements Horizontal Task coordination Information sharing Problem solving Conflict resolution Upward Employee feedback Progress reports Reports of customer interaction, feedback Suggestions for improvement Anonymous hotline
  • 11. Purposes for Business Communication <ul><li>Provide factual information </li></ul><ul><li>Inform readers about or provide information </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify and condense information </li></ul><ul><li>State precise responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade and make recommendations </li></ul>
  • 12. Types of Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less structured, harder to classify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More spontaneous, less control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More structured, easier to study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious purpose, more control </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Genres of Communication <ul><li>Written Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Communication </li></ul>
  • 14. Written Communication <ul><li>Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Reports/White Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Other written documents </li></ul>
  • 15. Oral Communication <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Conference calls </li></ul><ul><li>Phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Video or audio recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms of oral communication </li></ul>
  • 16. Mixed Communication <ul><li>Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint presentations (spoken and written communication) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance reviews </li></ul>
  • 17. Internal Communication <ul><li>Official structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal chain of command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up, down, across formal power lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unofficial lines of power </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. External Communication <ul><li>Formal contacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal contacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  • 20. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS THE MESSAGE INTENDED TO BE SENT – MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY IF PEOPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- STIMULATE OTHERS TO TAKE ACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO THINK IN NEW WAYS. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. SEVEN “C’s” OF COMMUNICATION <ul><li>COMPLETENESS – CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCISENESS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDERATION </li></ul><ul><li>CONCRETENESS </li></ul><ul><li>CLARITY </li></ul><ul><li>COURTESY </li></ul><ul><li>CORRECTNESS </li></ul>
  • 22. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
  • 23. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>The most basic form of communication is non-verbal. The term non-verbal means “without word”. Thus non-verbal communication is communication without words. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal communication means communication that occurs without words. </li></ul>
  • 24. DEFINITION <ul><li>Acc to Raymond and John </li></ul><ul><li>“ All communication that involves neither written nor spoken words but occurs without use of words are termed as non-verbal communication .” </li></ul>
  • 25. FUNCTIONS <ul><li>To provide information, either consciously or unconsciously. </li></ul><ul><li>To regulate the flow of conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>To express emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>To qualify, complement, contradict or expand verbal messages. </li></ul><ul><li>To control or influence others. </li></ul><ul><li>To facilitate specific tasks. </li></ul>
  • 26. Types of non-verbal communication <ul><li>KINESICS OR BODY LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>PROXEMICS OR SPACE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>PARA LANGUAGE </li></ul>
  • 27. KINESICS OR BODY LANGUAGE <ul><li>Body language is a prominent and an important medium of non-verbal communication. Body language expresses internal feelings very clearly. Body language is also known as KINESICS. Kinesics is the study of body movements and gestures. </li></ul>
  • 28. TYPES OF BODY LANGUAGE <ul><li>POSTURES </li></ul><ul><li>GESTURES </li></ul><ul><li>FACIAL EXPRESSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>EYE CONTACT </li></ul><ul><li>BODILY CONTACT </li></ul><ul><li>APPEARANCE </li></ul><ul><li>SILENCE </li></ul>
  • 29. FUNCTIONS OF BODY LANGUAGE <ul><li>They can provide information about feelings and intentions. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used to regulate interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used to express intimacy. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used to establish dominance or control. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used to facilitate goal attainment. </li></ul>
  • 30. SIGNIFICANCE OF BODY LANGUAGE <ul><li>Reveals the working of Emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals the Status. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces Verbal Communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain Verbal Conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals a Person’s Attitudes and Traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals the Truth. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Application. </li></ul>
  • 31. PROXEMICS <ul><li>The term ‘Proxemics’ was first used in the field of communication by eminent researcher Edward T. Hall. he derived the term Proxemics from proximity. In the words of Barker and Gaut, “The study of spatial factors between the sender and receiver of the message is called Proxemics.” </li></ul>
  • 32. TYPES OF PROXEMICS <ul><li>SPACE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>TIME LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>SURROUNDINGS </li></ul>
  • 33. PARA LANGUAGE <ul><li>The term para language is combination of two words-”para”’ means like and “language” means mode of communication. Thus, para language literally means “like language”. </li></ul><ul><li>In the words of Prof. Barker and Gaut , “A language alongside of language and includes vocal characteristics such as pitch, range, resonance, tempo and quality and various vocal sounds such as grunts, groans and clearing the throat.” </li></ul>
  • 34. VERBAL COMMUNICATION
  • 35. VERBAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>ORAL COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>WRITTEN COMMUNICATION </li></ul>
  • 36. ORAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Oral communication is that channel of communication in which message is transmitted in spoken form. The term ‘oral’ means ‘anything pertaining to the mouth’. There are two components of Oral communication : </li></ul><ul><li>Words and </li></ul><ul><li>The manner in which words are pronounced. </li></ul>
  • 37. ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Quickness in Exchange of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Source </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Source </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation Possible </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Efficiency </li></ul>
  • 38. DISADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Unfit for lengthy Message </li></ul><ul><li>Unfit for Policy Matters </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Written Proof </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive Method </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Both the Parties Necessary </li></ul>
  • 39. FORMS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Face-to-Face Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings and Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Telephonic Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Cultural Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul>
  • 40. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Written communication is that communication in which information is exchanged in the written or printed form. It is the most formal of all types of communication. The written form of business communication facilitates a business firm to keep a record of the communication. </li></ul>
  • 41. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Suitable for Lengthy Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Written Proof </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Message </li></ul><ul><li>Less Expensive Method </li></ul><ul><li>Time Saving </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Both the Parties not Necessary </li></ul><ul><li>True and Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Communication at Different Places </li></ul>
  • 42. DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Unfit for Uneducated Persons </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Secrecy </li></ul><ul><li>Wastage of time </li></ul><ul><li>No quick information about Feedback </li></ul>
  • 43. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
  • 44. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>1. SEMANTICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of words </li></ul></ul>
  • 45. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>2. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When to use certain channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral alone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple reprimand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settle simple dispute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written alone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t need immediate feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need record </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 46. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>2. USE OF CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both channels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commendation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serious reprimand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important policy change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 47. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>3. PHYSICAL DISTRACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>4. NOISE, PHYSICAL, </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>5. STATUS DIFFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>6. EFFECTS OF EMOTIONS </li></ul>
  • 48. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>7. PERCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See and hear what we expect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore if conflicts with “what we know.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul></ul>
  • 49. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>8. FILTERING, SCREENING </li></ul><ul><li> NEGATIVE INFORMTAION </li></ul><ul><li>9. EVALUATING THE SOURCE </li></ul><ul><li>10.ABSENCE OF FEEDBACK, POOR FEEDBACK </li></ul>
  • 50. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION <ul><li>11. INFORMATION, DATA </li></ul><ul><li>OVERLOAD </li></ul><ul><li>12. POOR LISTENING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LISTEN TO RESPOND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND </li></ul></ul>
  • 51. TO OVERCOME BARRIERS: <ul><li>Learn to use feedback well. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to receiver’s point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to UNDERSTAND! </li></ul><ul><li>Use direct, simple language, or at least use language appropriate to the receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Use proper channel(s). Learn to use channels well. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to use supportive communication, not defensive communication . </li></ul>
  • 52. LISTENING
  • 53. What is Listening? <ul><li>listening (ILA, 1996): the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages; to hear something with thoughtful attention </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication is 2-way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depends on speaking and listening </li></ul></ul>
  • 54. Listening vs. Hearing <ul><li>Hearing - physical process; natural; passive </li></ul><ul><li>Listening - physical & mental process; active; learned process; a skill </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is hard! </li></ul><ul><li>You must choose to participate in the process of listening. </li></ul>
  • 55. Why Be A Good Listener? <ul><li>Needs of the Customer… </li></ul><ul><li>To be recognized and remembered </li></ul><ul><li>To feel valued </li></ul><ul><li>To feel appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>To feel respected </li></ul><ul><li>To feel understood </li></ul><ul><li>To feel comfortable about a want or need </li></ul>
  • 56. <ul><li>Listening is the most powerful form of acknowledgment …a way of saying, “You are important.” </li></ul>
  • 57. <ul><li>Listening builds stronger relationships …creates a desire to cooperate among people because they feel accepted and acknowledged. </li></ul>
  • 58. <ul><li>Listening promotes being heard …”Seek first to understand, then be understood.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Stephen Covey </li></ul>
  • 59. <ul><li>Listening creates acceptance and openness …conveys the message that “I am not judging you.” </li></ul>
  • 60. <ul><li>Listening leads to learning …openness encourages personal growth and learning </li></ul>
  • 61. <ul><li>Listening reduces stress and tension …minimizes confusion and misunderstanding, eliminating related stress and tension </li></ul>
  • 62. <ul><li>Listening is CRITICAL in conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>… much conflict comes from the need to be heard. Successful resolution depends on being a non-anxious presence . </li></ul>
  • 63. Barriers to Listening <ul><li>Equate With Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Uninteresting Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker’s Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>External Distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally Preparing Response </li></ul><ul><li>Listening for Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Language/Culture Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Faking Attention </li></ul>
  • 64. Bad Listening Habits <ul><li>Criticizing the subject or the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Getting over-stimulated </li></ul><ul><li>Listening only for facts </li></ul><ul><li>Not taking notes OR outlining everything </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerating or creating distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Letting emotional words block message </li></ul><ul><li>Wasting time difference between speed of speech and speed of thought </li></ul>
  • 65. When Are You Listening? <ul><li>Non-Verbal Encouragers </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Encouragers </li></ul>
  • 66. Active Listening <ul><li>… Allows you to make sure you hear the words and understand the meaning behind the words </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: go beyond listening to understanding </li></ul>
  • 67. Active Listening Requires… <ul><li>Definite Intent to Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the Speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal and Non-Verbal Encouragers </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback Loop to Insure Accuracy </li></ul>
  • 68. Active Listening (4 Steps) <ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect-Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul>
  • 69. Step 1: Listen <ul><li>To Feelings As Well As Words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words – Emotions -- Implications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on Speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t plan, speak, or get distracted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Is Speaker Talking About? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic? Speaker? Listener? Others? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look At Speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Use Verbal & Non-Verbal Encouragers </li></ul>
  • 70. Step 2: Question <ul><li>3 Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates you are listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me more? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you feel? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then what happened? </li></ul></ul>
  • 71. Step 3: Reflect-Paraphrase <ul><li>Reflect What Is Said (In your words) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Reframe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture the essence of the communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove negative framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move toward problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  • 72. Step 4: Agree <ul><li>Get Speaker’s Consent to Your Reframing </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker Has Been Heard and Knows It! </li></ul><ul><li>Solution Is Near! </li></ul>
  • 73. Activity <ul><li>Speaker – talk for 2 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Listener – listen using the skills we’ve discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Observer – observe the application of the skills and take notes </li></ul>
  • 74. INTERVIEW
  • 75. INTERVIEW <ul><li>In the words of Stewart and Cash , “Interview is a process of didactic communication with pre-determined and serious purpose designed to interchange behavior and involving the asking and answering the questions.” </li></ul>
  • 76. ATTENDING INTERVIEW <ul><li>In regard to people being interviewed for a job, a national survey of employment interviewers listed the following qualities in order of their relative importance: (1) appearance (2) manner of ideas, (3) personality, (4) speech and voice, (5) manners and (6) skills. </li></ul>
  • 77. APPEARING FOR INTERVIEWS <ul><li>PLANNING AHEAD </li></ul><ul><li>STUDY THE COMPANY </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARE YOURSELF </li></ul><ul><li>Dress properly </li></ul><ul><li>Take all the Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Be on Time </li></ul><ul><li>Appearing for the Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Walk Right In! </li></ul><ul><li>Being Interviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Do not overstay your Allotted Time </li></ul><ul><li>Reason for Leaving </li></ul><ul><li>On Leaving, Sincerely Thanks the Interviewer for His or Her Time </li></ul>
  • 78. CONDUCTING INTERVIEW <ul><li>Decision about the Suitable Location </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for the Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Commencing the Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Using questions for control </li></ul><ul><li>Listening by the Interviewers </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>Note-Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Closing the Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Making Judgments and Analyzing Results </li></ul>

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