Microelectronics & Integrated Circuits
• It is defined as that area of technology associated with and applied to the
realization of electronic systems made of extremely small electronic parts
• The term microelectronics is normally associated with integrated circuits
• As the name suggest ue related to the study and
manufacturing(fabrication) of very small electronic design & components.
These device are made of semiconductor materials.Microelectronics
include active(transistors & diodes) and passive(R,L,C) components.
• It is an electronic assembly built in such a way that all the components in
the ckt are fabricated on a single container called the chip.(For
interconnection metallization is used)
• Silicon is generally used for IC fabrication.
• Temperature range Si-150◦C,Ge-100◦C,low leakage current,abundance.
a) Based on application :
• Linear ICS : These are discrete circuits which need external components like
resistor and capacitor for satisfactory performance apart from the input.They
work on analog signals rather than digital signals.eg-op-
• Digital ICS : They require only digital input and not any other component for
operation.eg-all ics likelogic gates,adders,comparaters etc.
b) Based on fabrication techniques :
• Monolithic ICS : All the active and passive components of a circuit can be
fabricated on a single piece of slicon.(Metallization is used for interconnection).
In this ic fabrication process is complex as this is used for fabrication of large
value of components.It involves many different fabrication techniques such as
oxidation,ion implantation,deposition of new material etc.eg-uchip,computer
• Hybrid ICS : Separate components parts are attached to a ceramic substrate and
interconnected by means of either metallization pattern or wire bonds.
The only difference between monolithic & hybrid is their manufacturing
(fabrication) and construction.
Based on technology :
a) BJT – BIPOLAR
MOSFET – NMOS (N-Channel MOS)
PMOS (P-Channel MOS)
CMOS (Complimentary MOS)
Based on device count :
Nomenclature Active Device Typical function
SSI 1-100 gates,opamps
MSI 100-1000 Registers,filters etc
LSI 1000-100000 Up,a/d
VLSI 10*5 to 10*6 Memories,computers,signal processors
ULSI 10*6 Ultra large scale integration(used in japan)
IC Production Process
For fabrication of any ICS i.e. monolithic or hybrid various process are :
a) NMOS Process
b) CMOS Process
c) Bipolar Process
Processing Steps :
1) Crystal preparation : The substrate of ICS is generaliy a single crystal of silicon of
high purity which is lightly doped with impurities of n-type for a p-type
material and vice versa.
2) Masking(pattern generation) : Masks are produced by phtolithographic process.
In this process photoresist is applied to entire surface of wafer.Its physical
characterstics can be changed by exposure to light.In some methods laser beam
or E-beam may be used for developing the mask on the surface of wafer.2 types
of photoresist are there negative and positive photoresist.
3) Deposition : Films of various materials must be applied to the wafer during
processing,eg insulators,resistive films,conductive films,n and p type
semiconductor materials,dopants.For deposition we use CVD(chemical vapour
deposition) or PVD(physical vapour deposition).
4) Etching : Now by etching we remove the unwanted material from the substrate
by using photoresist and masks with the help of UV light.
1) Diffusion : It refers to controlled forced migration of impurities into the
substrate of adjacent material.Diffusion will occur between any silicon that has
different densities of impurity with impurity tending to diffuse from high conc.
area to low conc. area.Deposition and implantattion are different diffusion
2) Oxidation : For producing SiO2 layer oxidation process is carried out so that
oxide is grown on the surface of substrate.This serves as a very good
insulator.Oxidation process consumes silicon.2 common approaches are
oxidation and dry oxidation.
3) Epitaxy (carried out only in bipolar process) : This involves growing a single
crystal film on the silicon surface.This is done by CVD.
4) Conductors and resistors : For interconnection of components on an IC
aluminium or other metals are generally used.
5) Packaging & testing : After processing,the ICS are tested and packaged.
Advantages of ICS over discrete components
• Fabrication process is simple.
• Low power consumption.
• Production will be in bulk quantity so that cost is getting reduced.
• More no of components will be fabricated in a single chip of IC.So size will be
• Heat dissipation is reduced.
• More reliable.
• Space is less.
• Weight is less.
• Cost of production of electronic ckts due to batch production is reduced.
• Inductors and transformers cannot be fabricated.
• Capacitors with values more than 30pf cannot be fabricated on chip.
• Cannot withstand rough handling and excessive heat.(If we increase the
current, heat dissipation will be increased).
Bipolar and MOS Technology
1) Bipolar device : The basic active device used is BJT. The speed is very high with
2) MOS Device :
• NMOS : primarily used in many applications, as mobility of p-type material is
poorer than n-type.Also it has excellent density and good performance.
• PMOS : It is dual of NMOS. The basic active device is the p-channel MOSFET.
• CMOS : Complementary MOS : It comprises both PMOS & NMOS.CMOS offers
improvement in power dissipation and performance when compared with
• BiCMOS : It is a combination of bipolar CMOS transistors Therefore in BiCMOS
technology we can have the advantages of both bipolar & CMOS technology.This
seems to be effective in speeding up VLSI ckts.
1) Bipolar device : The basic active device are NPN,PNP and BJT,UJT.
• Unipolar junction transistor(UJT) : Current conduction is due to only one type of
charge carriers i.e.majority charge carriers.
• Bipolar junction transistors : Current conduction is due to both the type of charge
carriers i.e. holes & electrons are majority and minority charge carriers.
NPN & PNP Transistors
Transistor can raise the strength of a weak signal hence it is used for amplification.It
consist of 2 PN junctionwith junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-
type semiconductor layers a pair of opposite types.
MOSFET,gate is isolated from channel so –ve and +ve VGS can be applied.In
MOSFET gate is insulated from its conducting channel by an ultra thin metal oxide
insulating film (SiO2).Hence it is called as IGFET.
a) Depletion Enhancement MOSFET
b) Enhancement only MOSFET
Enhancement only MOSFET : It operates only in enhancement mode and has
no deplition mode.It has no channel between drain and source.
• When Vgs=0 or Vgs<Vt then Id=0 i.e. drain current is 0.
• When Vds is applied or Vgs>Vt then Id flows i.e. drain current starts flowinf and
it is equal to
K=design or conductivity parameter.
Transfer characterstics :
Fabrication of Active Elements
(Transistors & diodes)
Fabrication of transistor :
Fabrication of Passive Elements
(Resistor ,Capacitors & Inductors)
1. Silicon wafer (substrate) preparation
2. Epitaxial growth
6. Ion implantation
7. Isolation technique
9. Assembly processing & packaging
• A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements
electrical resistance as a circuit element.
• The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the
resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm’s law (I=V/R)
• I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential
difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance
of the conductor in units of ohms.
• Capacitor is a basic storage device to store electrical charges and release it as it is
required by the circuit. In a simple form it is made of two conductive plates
(Electrodes) and an insulating media (Dielectrics) which separate the electrodes.
• The charges (Q) on the capacitor plates depend on the voltage (V)and the
capacitance value (C) and is as follows:
GROW 4000 A OXIDE ON N-TYPE SILICON
PATTERN AND ETCH OXIDE<THEN ION
IMPLANT 50 KeV BORON TO FROM P+
GROW THIN OXIDE (2000 A)
PATTERN AND ETCH OXIDE TO FROM
DEPOSIT 5000A ALUMINUM
PATTERN AND ETCH ALUMINUM
• An inductor (also choke, coil or reactor) is a passive two terminal electrical
component that stores energy in its magnetic field. For comparison,
a capacitor stores energy in an electric field, and a resistor does not store
energy but rather dissipates energy as heat.
• Any conductor has inductance. An inductor is typically made of a wire or other
conductor wound into a coil, to increase the magnetic field.
Uncertainties in IC Fabrication
• The precision of transistors and passive components fabricated using IC
technology is surprisingly, poor.
Sources of variations:
• Ion impant dose varies from point to point over the wafer and from wafer to
• Thicknesses of layers after annealing vary due to temperature variations across
• Widths of regions vary systematically due to imperfect wafer flatness (leading
to focus problems) and randomly due to raggedness in the photoresist edges
Once the IC has been produced, it requires a housing that will protect it from
damage. This damage could result from moisture, dirt, heat, radiation, or other
sources. The housing protects the device and aids in its handling and connection into
the system in which the IC is used.The three most common types of packages are
TRANSISTOR-OUTLINE (TO) PACKAGE, FLAT PACK, DUAL INLINE PACKAGE (DIP).
DUAL INLINE PACKAGE : The dual inline package (DIP) was designed primarily to
overcome the difficulties associated with handling and inserting packages into
mounting boards. DIPs are easily inserted by hand or machine and require no
spreaders, spacers, insulators, or lead-forming tools. Standard hand tools and
soldering irons can be used to field-service the devices. Plastic DIPs are finding wide
use in commercial applications, and a number of military systems are incorporating
Transitor-Outline Package :
The transistor-outline (TO) package was developed from early experience with
transistors. It was a reliable package that only required increasing the number of
leads to make it useful for ICs. Leads normally number between 2 and 12, with 10
being the most common for IC applications. Once the IC has been attached to the
header, bonding wires are used to attach the IC to the leads. The cover provides the
necessary protection for the device. You can easily see that the handling of an IC
without packaging would be difficult for a technician.
Many types of IC flat packs are being produced in various sizes and materials.
These packages are available in square, rectangular, oval, and circular
configurations with 10 to 60 external leads. They may be made of metal,
ceramic, epoxy, glass, or combinations of those materials.
SSI,MSI,LSI & VLSI
• SSI : Small Scale Integration
• MSI : Medium Scale Integration
• LSI : Large Scale Integration
• VLSI : Very Large Scale Integration
Very Large Scale Integration
• design/manufacturing of extremely small, complex circuitry using modified
• integrated circuit (IC) may contain millions of transistors, each a few mm in
• applications wide ranging: most electronic logic devices.
Origins of VLSI
• Much development motivated by WWII need for improved electronics,
especially for radar
• 1940 - Russell Ohl (Bell Laboratories) - first pn junction
• 1948 - Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain (Bell Laboratories) - first transistor
• 1956 Nobel Physics Prize
• Late 1950s - purification of Si advances to acceptable levels for use in electronics
• 1958 - Seymour Cray (Control Data Corporation) - first transistorized computer -
• 1959 - Jack St. Claire Kilby (Texas Instruments) - first integrated circuit - 10
components on 9 mm2
• 1959 - Robert Norton Noyce (founder, Fairchild Semiconductor) - improved
• 1968 - Noyce, Gordon E. Moore found Intel.
• 1971 - Ted Hoff (Intel) - first microprocessor (4004) - 2300 transistors on 9 mm2
• Since then - continued improvement in technology has allowed for increased
performance as predicted by Moore’s Law.
Three Dimensional VLSI
• The fabrication of a single integrated circuit whose functional parts (transistors,
etc) extend in three dimensions.
• The vertical orientation of several bare integrated circuits in a single package.
Advantages of VLSI :
• Low power dissipation.
• Area consumption is less.
• Power consumption is less.
• High speed of operation.