The impact of_new_media_(1)

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The impact of_new_media_(1)

  1. 1. The Impact of New MediaThe Impact of New Media A Level Media StudiesA Level Media Studies
  2. 2. Key QuestionsKey Questions  Has new media democratised the production of media textsHas new media democratised the production of media texts by shifting the control of media content away from largeby shifting the control of media content away from large media institutions?media institutions?  Has new media changed the way media texts areHas new media changed the way media texts are consumed and what are the social implications for this?consumed and what are the social implications for this?  Has new media technology provided new cross-cultural,Has new media technology provided new cross-cultural, global media texts that communicate across national andglobal media texts that communicate across national and social boundaries?social boundaries?  How active or interactive are consumers of new media andHow active or interactive are consumers of new media and how significant is this in terms of power?how significant is this in terms of power?  How has new/digital media impacted on traditional mediaHow has new/digital media impacted on traditional media productions and consumption?productions and consumption?  To what extent does new media escape some of theTo what extent does new media escape some of the constraints of censorship that traditional media encounters?constraints of censorship that traditional media encounters?  How is new media interacting with, using and changingHow is new media interacting with, using and changing traditional media platforms?traditional media platforms?
  3. 3. The Digital Revolution Video and DVD Portable camcorders Home computer & games consoles Cable, satellite & digital TV Mobile phones & their convergence with other media photography & video The world wide web Email MP3 podcasts webcams blogs Social networking
  4. 4. New/Digital MediaNew/Digital Media UTOPIANUTOPIAN  Del Sola Polle (1977)Del Sola Polle (1977)  Suggests new media willSuggests new media will facilitate a positive mediafacilitate a positive media worldworld  A wider range of mediaA wider range of media texts can be produced thattexts can be produced that meet the needs of manymeet the needs of many more groups in society.more groups in society.  Provides individual citizensProvides individual citizens with the capacity towith the capacity to produce/publicise textsproduce/publicise texts themselves.themselves.  This facilitates the growthThis facilitates the growth of different mediaof different media representations.representations. DYSTOPIANDYSTOPIAN  Habermas (1991)Habermas (1991)  Argues that media textsArgues that media texts should provide a space forshould provide a space for citizens to debate andcitizens to debate and criticise governmentcriticise government actions & form publicactions & form public opinion.opinion.  Suggests new mediaSuggests new media outlets produce similaroutlets produce similar sorts of representationssorts of representations that focus primarily onthat focus primarily on celebrity and trivia.celebrity and trivia.
  5. 5.  Has new mediaHas new media democratised thedemocratised the production of mediaproduction of media texts by shifting thetexts by shifting the control of media contentcontrol of media content away from large mediaaway from large media institutions?institutions?
  6. 6. Alternative Media FormsAlternative Media Forms  New media technologies facilitate small-scaleNew media technologies facilitate small-scale media productions.media productions.  This provides for alternative views that challengeThis provides for alternative views that challenge dominant ideologies/values of society.dominant ideologies/values of society. The Royal Commission on the Press (1977) definedThe Royal Commission on the Press (1977) defined alternative media as:alternative media as:  Dealing with the opinion of small minoritiesDealing with the opinion of small minorities  Expressing attitudes hostile to widely held beliefsExpressing attitudes hostile to widely held beliefs  Espousing views or dealing with subjects notEspousing views or dealing with subjects not given regular coverage by publications generallygiven regular coverage by publications generally available at newsagents.available at newsagents.
  7. 7. Look at the homepages of the three websites below. In what ways do they provide an alternative media space for those wanting to challenge dominant ideologies in contemporary society?
  8. 8. Alternative media formsAlternative media forms  Some critical perspectives suggest that alternative mediaSome critical perspectives suggest that alternative media are run in a more egalitarian & democratic way.are run in a more egalitarian & democratic way.  They reduce the cost of media production.They reduce the cost of media production.  New media texts can challenge the consumerist norms of aNew media texts can challenge the consumerist norms of a capitalist society.capitalist society.  They may create ideological disruption & disturbance inThey may create ideological disruption & disturbance in relation to values and ideas about areas such asrelation to values and ideas about areas such as gender/sexuality, religion etc.gender/sexuality, religion etc.  Alternative websites provide ‘citizen journalism’ – allowingAlternative websites provide ‘citizen journalism’ – allowing ordinary people to give their own alternative versions ofordinary people to give their own alternative versions of dominant news stories.dominant news stories.  In doing so, they politicise the repression of events &In doing so, they politicise the repression of events & information produced in mainstream news, drawinginformation produced in mainstream news, drawing attention to its selectivity.attention to its selectivity.  However, ‘citizen journalists’ are not necessarily restrainedHowever, ‘citizen journalists’ are not necessarily restrained by professional or institutional codes of conduct.by professional or institutional codes of conduct.
  9. 9. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/aug/http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/aug/ 27/bbc-mark-thompson-murdoch-27/bbc-mark-thompson-murdoch- mactaggartmactaggart  Rupert Murdoch and BSkyBRupert Murdoch and BSkyB  ““BSkyB is too powerful and threatens to "dwarf" the BBC and itsBSkyB is too powerful and threatens to "dwarf" the BBC and its competitors.”competitors.”  ““News Corp, in effect controlled by the Murdoch family, nowNews Corp, in effect controlled by the Murdoch family, now enjoys unprecedented industry power in the UK. News Corp ownsenjoys unprecedented industry power in the UK. News Corp owns 39% of Sky and is in the process of buying the part of the39% of Sky and is in the process of buying the part of the broadcaster it does not already own.”broadcaster it does not already own.”  "a concentration of cross-media ownership that would not be"a concentration of cross-media ownership that would not be allowed in the United States or Australia".allowed in the United States or Australia".  http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/aug/13/rupert-murdoch-http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/aug/13/rupert-murdoch- us-digital-newspaperus-digital-newspaper  Murdoch sees the iPad as a potential lifesaver in terms ofMurdoch sees the iPad as a potential lifesaver in terms of its reach among the young and its ability to attractits reach among the young and its ability to attract subscriptions.subscriptions.
  10. 10. HomeworkHomework  Has new media changed the way media texts are consumed?  What are the social implications for this?
  11. 11. Web 2.0Web 2.0  A second generation of web basedA second generation of web based material which facilitates mobilematerial which facilitates mobile broadband and wireless connections.broadband and wireless connections.  Web based communities such as socialWeb based communities such as social networking sites and wikis.networking sites and wikis.  These facilitate collaboration andThese facilitate collaboration and sharing of user generated content.sharing of user generated content.  Posting comments on websites,Posting comments on websites, uploading videos, photos and musicuploading videos, photos and music and commenting on others’and commenting on others’ contributions.contributions.
  12. 12. Web 2.0Web 2.0  Web 2.0’s emphasis was on...Web 2.0’s emphasis was on...  InteractivityInteractivity  User participationUser participation  Dynamic contentDynamic content – content that is not fixed but– content that is not fixed but shifting, changing and constantly reconstructed.shifting, changing and constantly reconstructed.  FreedomFreedom – for audiences and individuals to– for audiences and individuals to produce, consume & engage with a wide range ofproduce, consume & engage with a wide range of new texts.new texts.  To allow audiences toTo allow audiences to produceproduce their owntheir own content.content.  MySpace, Friends Reunited, Facebook, YouTubeMySpace, Friends Reunited, Facebook, YouTube
  13. 13.  ConvergenceConvergence  Interconnectivity of media platformsInterconnectivity of media platforms  Greater levels of interactivityGreater levels of interactivity  Opening boundaries betweenOpening boundaries between producers and consumersproducers and consumers  Social networkingSocial networking  3D TV3D TV
  14. 14. HomeworkHomework  Has new media technology provided new cross- cultural, global media texts that communicate across national and social boundaries?
  15. 15. GlobalisationGlobalisation An important factor in the age of communicationAn important factor in the age of communication when the global sales of film, TV and mediawhen the global sales of film, TV and media products, along with the internet, bring people inproducts, along with the internet, bring people in developing countries into direct contact withdeveloping countries into direct contact with Western media products.Western media products. Distribution is facilitated by satellite and theDistribution is facilitated by satellite and the internet, enabling communications to travel frominternet, enabling communications to travel from one side of the globe to the other instantaneously.one side of the globe to the other instantaneously. It enables events that are taking place in distantIt enables events that are taking place in distant countries to be presented to us on our TVs and thecountries to be presented to us on our TVs and the internet live (9/11 coverage)internet live (9/11 coverage)
  16. 16. GlobalisationGlobalisation  According to Giddens (2003) we liveAccording to Giddens (2003) we live in a ‘runaway world’ where cultures,in a ‘runaway world’ where cultures, economies and politics appear toeconomies and politics appear to merge across national boundaries.merge across national boundaries.  Significantly, TV consumptionSignificantly, TV consumption merges, so that TV programmesmerges, so that TV programmes such as Friends, Sex and the City,such as Friends, Sex and the City, Grey’s Anatomy etc and channelsGrey’s Anatomy etc and channels such as MTV and CNN are watchedsuch as MTV and CNN are watched all over the world.all over the world.
  17. 17. Cultural Imperialism  The USA dominates world media with 85% of the global film market and 68% of the television market.  A cultural-imperialism perspective argues therefore that American values and ideologies are imposed upon the rest of the world through media texts.  Putnam (1997) suggests that the US government prioritised media for support as an important export industry that promotes both US values and US goods.  In 2007, Apple computers were not just advertised in trailers preceding films but also through product placement in films such as ‘The Bourne Ultimatum’, ‘Night at the Museum’ and ‘Transformers’.
  18. 18. Challenge to cultural imperialism… The success of the Indian film & TV industries that have taken advantage of the Asian Diaspora India’s biggest media conglomerate – Zee TV (now available on 4 continents)
  19. 19. HomeworkHomework  How active or interactive areHow active or interactive are consumers of new media andconsumers of new media and how significant is this in termshow significant is this in terms of power?of power?  How has new/digital mediaHow has new/digital media impacted on traditional mediaimpacted on traditional media productions and consumption?productions and consumption?
  20. 20.  How active or interactive areHow active or interactive are consumers of new media andconsumers of new media and how significant is this inhow significant is this in terms of power?terms of power?
  21. 21. Social Networking - Facebook  Launched 2004  Has taken social networking to another level.  Turned it into an interactive platform  Allows its page creators to interact with other online users..  But also, play games, raise funds, organise events, post videos etc etc.  In America – myhomeworkNOW.com accounts are being linked with facebook accounts.  Students will be able to see school announcements, alerts, and classroom assignments directly through their facebook account.
  22. 22. Homework!  Make a list of all the facebook tools and applications available to you.  How interactive is your facebook experience?
  23. 23.  How has new/digital mediaHow has new/digital media impacted on traditional mediaimpacted on traditional media productions andproductions and consumption?consumption?
  24. 24. Technological Determinist argument  Technology influences and dictates the nature of society.  The impact of new/digital media is so profound that is has changed the historical, social, economical and political context of the society in which it was produced.  Castells (1999) emphasises that the contemporary internet society is focused around networks and flows of information that disregard the constraints of time and space.  Eg. Social network sites provide a network over which information flows between groups of friends.  The information flows without friends actually meeting.  The social networking website provides an imagined community of participants who are not restrained by time and space.  Similarly, players in an online internet game are not restricted to players who live near them, but can play with people in other countries, unregulated by time restraints.
  25. 25. On the other hand…  Technological determinist arguments are often challenged.  MacKay (2001) stresses the importance of the way in which technology is utilised & incorporated into society.  Eg. The way in which the personal computer and internet have been incorporated into home and family life.  Although internet and social networking phenomenon offer global interaction, they often have a strong local focus.  MySpace still has regional networks  However…
  26. 26. Facebook  Mark Zuckerberg, 2009  “the site is growing beyond regional networks and networks will no longer be part of the privacy settings.”  “As Facebook has grown, some of these regional networks now have millions of members and we've concluded that this is no longer the best way for you to control your privacy.”  “The plan we've come up with is to remove regional networks completely and create a simpler model for privacy control where you can set content to be available to only your friends, friends of your friends, or everyone.”  “We're adding something that many of you have asked for — the ability to control who sees each individual piece of content you create or upload. In addition, we'll also be fulfilling a request made by many of you to make the privacy settings page simpler by combining some settings.”
  27. 27. The BBC iplayer  An internet radio television service  Went live December 2007, updated 2008 and again in 2010  The next generation iplayer (Sept 2010) brings integrationThe next generation iplayer (Sept 2010) brings integration with various social networking sites to the TV on-demandwith various social networking sites to the TV on-demand service.service.  Deals with Facebook, Twitter, and Bebo are already in place,Deals with Facebook, Twitter, and Bebo are already in place, with more likely to follow.with more likely to follow.  iPlayer users will be asked to integrate their accounts withiPlayer users will be asked to integrate their accounts with the BBC Online site.the BBC Online site.  Then every time they sign in and use the iPlayer, they willThen every time they sign in and use the iPlayer, they will also be connected to the social networks they use.also be connected to the social networks they use.  This will enable the BBC to see what they and their friendsThis will enable the BBC to see what they and their friends are watching or listening to.are watching or listening to.
  28. 28. 3View Virgin media Fetch TV BT Vision Freesat Freeview Wii Playstation 3 X-box 360 Mobile phones
  29. 29. Iplayer controversyIplayer controversy  The BBC iplayer and its website are funded byThe BBC iplayer and its website are funded by money obtained from TV owner’s licence feesmoney obtained from TV owner’s licence fees  Some argue that this gives them an unfairSome argue that this gives them an unfair advantage over commercial producers of onlineadvantage over commercial producers of online material who have to seek advertising to fundmaterial who have to seek advertising to fund themselves.themselves.  The BBC – “web content must be free fromThe BBC – “web content must be free from advertising in order to be consistent with ouradvertising in order to be consistent with our public service remit.”public service remit.”  Others argue it is unfair that television users areOthers argue it is unfair that television users are paying for content that web-users can access forpaying for content that web-users can access for free.free.
  30. 30. HomeworkHomework  To what extent does newTo what extent does new media escape some of themedia escape some of the constraints of censorship thatconstraints of censorship that traditional media encounters?traditional media encounters?  How is new media interactingHow is new media interacting with, using and changingwith, using and changing traditional media platforms?traditional media platforms?
  31. 31.  To what extent does newTo what extent does new media escape some of themedia escape some of the constraints of censorship thatconstraints of censorship that traditional media encounters?traditional media encounters?
  32. 32. Censorship  GossipReport on the internet  Changing media landscape – what was once private is now in the public sphere of the internet  Facebook  MySpace  Privacy & censorship  The above three sites operate different levels of control
  33. 33.  How is new media interactingHow is new media interacting with, using and changingwith, using and changing traditional media platforms?traditional media platforms?
  34. 34. Mobile Phones

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