Communication barriers


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Communication barriers

  1. 1. BusinessCommunication Damanjit Virk
  2. 2. Communication
  3. 3. What is communication?• What do you think communication is? How would you define it?Take a few moments write down some of your thoughts…
  4. 4. What is communication? w When w Where H w WhatHow w Why w Who
  5. 5. The Process of Communication• Communication is a process that involves the transmission of meaningful information from one party to another through the use of shared symbols.Communication from Latin verb “communicare” = make common , share, participate, impart .It is successful when meaning is understood.It is the basis of all interactions.
  6. 6. 2. Communication• Communication is defined as the interchange of thoughts or opinions through shared symbols; e.g. language, words, phrases, body language etc.• Some synonyms of the word communication are: message, directive, word, contact, commerce, co mmunion, intercommunication, intercourse, conv erse, exchange, interchange, conversing, discussin g, talking, conversation, discussion, talk, advice, in telligence, news, tidings.
  7. 7. 3.Communication The art & technique of using words effectively by participants to impart information or ideas or feelingsthrough common language or means. An active process which involvesencoding, transmitting, and decoding the intended message.
  8. 8. The Process of Communication Facts – bits of information that can be objectively measured. Feelings – an individual’s emotional responses to decisions.
  9. 9. Nature & FeaturesNature: It is a 2 way exchange, inevitable, systemic, social, dynamic, continuous, involves transaction, spiraling process, contextual and skill based.It’s nature conversationalIt has 5 identifiable featuresMeaning based,conventional,appropriate,interactionaland structured (macro and micro).
  10. 10. Seven Communication Myths• We only communicate when we want to communicate• Words mean the same to both the speaker and the listener• We communicate chiefly with words• Nonverbal communication is passive communication• Communication is a one way street• The message we communicate is the message that the listener receives• There is no such thing as too much information
  11. 11. Good communicators….• Know what they want to say• Establish and maintain relationships• Understand others perspective• Active listeners• Understand and clarify messages
  12. 12. Four facets of communication• Three are four facets in all types of communication: – Sender – Receiver – Information – Behavior
  13. 13. Sender-Receiver Model• Sender: – initiates a thought/feeling – Encodes it into words – Transmits it• Receiver: – Decodes the message – Assigns thought/feelings to a response – Encodes a response – Sends a message back
  14. 14. Four facets of communication• In any communication: – The Sender is the person trying to communicate a message – The Receiver is the person at whom the message is directed – A message is sent to convey information – Information is meant to change behavior – Encoding: Changing the message from mental form to symbols into words ,gestures, signs of visual/aural language. – Decoding: Interpreting the symbols or words together with tone, attitude and choice of words.
  15. 15. The Communication Model Communication Noise Channel Sender Receiver (encodes message) (decodes message) Feedback NoiseMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Two-way Communications :Process of sendingand receiving information among people… Feedback makes it complete. Feedback receiver sender IDEA-Encoding Channel RECEIVER SENDER Channel for Decoding- message Encoding of response (perceived meaning and interpretation) 16 July 23, 2003
  17. 17. The Communication Process: Feedback • Feedback allows the sender to clarify the message if its true meaning is not received. Two-way Communications – communication channels that provide for feedback. One-way Communications – communication channels that provide no opportunity for feedback.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. How do we communicate?• Think of the many ways in which you communicate…Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  19. 19. What are the most common ways we communicate?: CHANNELS Written Word19 July 23, 2003
  20. 20. How we communicate• We communicate and build interpersonal relationships through: – Speech – Writing – Listening – Non-verbal language – Music, art, and crafts• (All above are Scope)
  21. 21. Types of Communication VERBAL NON VERBALDialogue Body language GesturesMonologue PosturesDiscussion Facial expression
  22. 22. Classification by numbers• Intrapersonal• Interpersonal• Group• Mass• Meta Communication: Choice of words unintentionally communicates meaning. Eg:”I have never seen you so smartly dressed”• Paralinguistic/ Paralanguage :Tone
  23. 23. TOTAL VERBAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS Writing 9% Speaking 30% Reading 16% Listening 45%
  24. 24. Methods of Communication80% of working day involves communication Used Taught/Addressed Listening 45% Least Speaking 30% Reading 16% Most Writing 9% Listening: 45% of Communication ---------------------- 25% Efficiency
  25. 25. Missed communicationAs the Manager As Purchasing As Marketing Requested it. ordered it. wrote it up.As the Art Dept. As the Supervisor What the Employee designed it. implemented it. really wanted!
  26. 26. 70 % or all our communication efforts are:misunderstood, misinterpreted, reje cted, disliked, distorted, or notheard (in the same language, same culture)!
  27. 27. Why do we Mis- Communicate?• lack of Clarity• Lack of vocabulary toexpress thoughts and feelings• Lack of fluency• Lack of listening ability
  28. 28. Why we communicate- FunctionsWe communicate to: 1. Share our ideas and opinions 2. Provide feedback to others 3. Get information from others 4. Gain power and influence 5. Problem solving 6. Decision making 7. Facilitating change 8. Develop social relationships, group building, gate keeping, industrial relations. 9. Management roles: Motivating, job instructions, performance feedback, controlling, ensuring effectiveness etc. 10. Maintain self-expression and our culture 11. Spreading rumours or grapevine 12. Emote
  29. 29. Methods of Communication80% of working day involves communication Used Taught/Addressed Listening 45% Least Speaking 30% Reading 16% Most Writing 9% Listening: 45% of Communication ---------------------- 25% Efficiency
  30. 30. Evaluation of Communication EffectivenessFidelity-Distortion free quality of a message.Economy-Minimum of energy, time, symbols and cues used encode to maintain fidelity & impact.Congruence-of verbal and NVCInfluence -of sender over receiver, comfort & efficiencyRelationship Building – trust.
  31. 31. Purpose & ScopePurpose Scope includes• Inform Scope is unlimited • Verbal & Non verbal;• Persuade • Interpersonal, Intrapersonal• Educate & Mass;• Train • Human Communication; • Reading, writing, speaking• Motivate and listening.• Integrate • and build interpersonal relationships .• Relate • Music, art, and crafts• Entertain
  32. 32. Why Managers need Communication skills?6 Important Functions of Management: Forecasting, Planning, Organizing, Instructing, Coordinating, Controlling.Managers need to perform 3 inter-related roles:• Interpersonal• Informational• Decisional
  33. 33. Communicating With Employers– Follow-up– Email– Phone/Voice Mail– Cell Phones– Face to Face You can get through life with bad manners, but its easier with good manners. --- Lillian Gish
  34. 34. Choosing your medium• To determine the best medium for your message determine: – What you as the sender need to achieve – What the receiver needs to know. What the receiver wants to know – How detailed, important, and or personal the information in the message is – Which behavior you want to influence and how
  35. 35. All messages do not reach the receiver due to “distortion” Feedback Sender Receiver Distortion36 July 23, 2003
  36. 36. The Communication Process: Feedback • Feedback allows the sender to clarify the message if its true meaning is not received. Two-way Communications – communication channels that provide for feedback. One-way Communications – communication channels that provide no opportunity for feedback.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Two-way Communications :Process of sendingand receiving information to people… Feedback makes it complete. Feedback receiver sender IDEA-Encoding RECEIVER SENDER Channel Decoding- Channel for Encoding of response message (perceived meaning and interpretation) 38 July 23, 2003
  38. 38. Constructive Feedback • Focus your feedback on specific behaviors . • Keep personality traits out of your feedback by focusing on what rather than who. • Investigate whether the employee had control over the results before giving feedback about unsuccessful behaviors. • Feedback should be given as soon as possible. • Ensure privacy when giving feedback about negative behaviors.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. 4 Main Functions of Communication Information Control Communication Emotional expression and Motivation Interdependence
  40. 40. Scope of Communication in ManagementExternal Dimension Internal Dimension• Building relationships with • Formulating corporate external agencies and vision, laying down policy stakeholders. objectives, implementation to• Establish a healthy external achieve goals. organizational climate of • Proper understanding of trust, cooperation, collabora policies in their right spirit. tion, innovation and • Obtaining co operations and commitment. for Communications within and between functional depts.• Advertising, publicity and public relation functions • Public relations create public image and • Job related goodwill. instructions, suggestions , advice and orders.
  41. 41. Communication styles1. Declaration2. Interrogation3. Imperative –Request, Command, Exclamation• Choose –Affirmative or Negative• Specific well Defined, Clear, Explicit, Closed• General, Vague, Ambiguous• Syntax –Humor, surprise, matter of fact, empathy• Use power words –Avoid problem words
  42. 42. Assertive Communication Skills • Assertive communication skills—communicate in ways that meet one’s own needs while at the same time respecting the needs and rights of others • Several less effective styles people tend to use because they are indirect or not mindful of needs:  Passive communication – an individual does not let others know directly what he or she wants or needs.  Aggressive communication – a forceful approach that expresses dominance or anger.  Passive-aggressive communication – avoids giving direct responses but rather tries to “get even” with others.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  43. 43. Skills for Managing Communication Assertive Communication Skills Presentation Skills Listening Skills Nonverbal Communication SkillsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  44. 44. Organisational Structure• Organisational Structure gives rise to directions and flow of Information Two CHANNELS: Formal and InformalIn downward flow effectiveness reduces to 20%
  45. 45. Dimensions or Patterns of Formal Organizational Communications Downward Communication Upward Communication- Participative Performance, market info .financials, grievance, appeals, reports, sugge stions Horizontal Communication Functional managers of same level reporting to same person, have common goals, coordination mandatoryMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  46. 46. Three types of Formal Organizational communication • Upward, Downward, Lateral –Linking-pins –Ombudsperson- Swedish for commissioner to investigate public grievances against officials but now important way of promoting upward communication in American cos like GE, AT&T
  47. 47. Formal Communication.Advantages Disadvantages• Helps Maintain Authority and • Time consuming fix responsibility• Better • No emotional or social coordination, understanding bonds are established. and cooperation.• Bias and preferences do not • Inhibits free flow of effect, no leakage of info. information and hi end may• No overlap, reliable. not know of vital info.• Memos letters etc. facilitate smooth functioning, follow up and compliance.• Maintains respect and Protocol of Org. structure
  48. 48. Downward: Authoritarian Feedback is tough, dilution, filtered, withheld, distorted, time consuming,Written• Instructions• Memoranda Oral• Letters • Instructions• Handbooks • Speeches• Policy statements • Meetings• Procedures • Telephone• Electronic displays • others
  49. 49. Choosing your medium• Depending upon the situation, one method of communication may be better than another. 1. In person: one-to-one 2. In person: meetings, small groups 3. In person: presentations, large groups I. Letter II. Memo III. Note IV. Email V. Voice mail
  50. 50. Choosing your medium?• How would you communicate…? – an organizational change in your unit – the introduction of a new employee – a change in someone’s job duties – a reprimand – notice of a meetingTake a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  51. 51. Ans: Choosing your medium• The best way to communicate… – an organizational change in your unit by memo and small group meetings – the introduction of a new employee by group and one-on-one meetings – a change in someone’s job duties by memo and one-on-one meeting – a reprimand in a one-on-one private meeting – notice of a meeting by memo and email
  52. 52. Managing Organizational Communications Face-to-Face Electronic Communication Communication Written Communication Informal CommunicationMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. Communication Channels Ranked by Information Richness Richest Channel Leanest Channel Physical Interactive Personal static Impersonal static presence (face- channels channels (memos, channels to- (telephone, letters, reports (fliers, bulletins, g face, meetings) electronic media, tailored to eneralized reports) voice mail, e-mail) receiver) Best for non- Best for routine, routine, clear, sim ambiguous, ple messages difficult messagesMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. Grapevine• Phenomenon, informal, spontaneous, happens every where people get together.-Flows down water coolers, hallways, lunch rooms. More prevalent when:• Uncertain times or difficult periods.• Inadequacy or lack confidence, formation of groups.• Formation of coterie or favorite groups by managers, leading to insecurity or isolation.• Exists as Chains:• Straight(A>B>C …By selection),• Gossip (non office for everyone),• Probability (random/indifferent selection of listener for interesting but insignificant matter)• Cluster Chains (A to selected individuals and they to other
  55. 55. GrapevineMerits Demerits• Speedy Transmission- planted • Undependable, not under guise of confidential or creditable, can be top secret or between you and contradictory. me. • Incomplete and distortion of• Feedback on policies and pulse information. of organization. • Premature leakage of• Support other channels of information comm. as a parallel. • Can cast aspersions on• Psychological motives, any kind of stories strength, satisfaction, solidarit about responsible people. y of workers and maintains • Can tarnish the image of the social entity of the company. organization
  56. 56. Informal Communication • Also called the grapevine – informal communication that takes place at the workplace. can be about promotions and other personnel decisions can be about company events (new products, downsizing) must be managed so that negative rumors do not hurt morale • Management by Wandering Around (MBWA) – dropping in unannounced for spontaneous conversations builds levels of trust stops harmful rumorsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  57. 57. Effective Use of Informal comm. by manager• Tactfully well informed• Enhance self worth of employees• Open door policy, healthy upward communication.• Identify leaders and get feedback.• Discourage rumor mongering, small talk and character assassination etc.
  58. 58. FACTOIDThe average employee receives about 190 communications a day by paper, voicemail, email, phone, etc. from a Pitney-Bowes survey(90% time spent by high level, 65% by middle and 25% by supervisors)
  60. 60. Oral Communication 3 Principles used are: accuracy, brevity, clarity
  61. 61. Speaking• Speaking requires. . . – concentration and energy – sharp focus – logical thinking – clear phrasing – crisp delivery
  62. 62. Styles of verbal communicationSuccessful Organizations must learn two distinctly different styles of communication.• Monologue• Dialogue• Skillful Discussion• Arguments – Avoid, rather motivate or discuss• Conversation - Popular• Grapevine• Interview – Critical and complex approach• Communication follows PATTERNS: like wheel, Y, circle, all channel, nets, kite, slash etc. depending on the hierarchy
  63. 63. Skillful discussion Vs DialogueDiscussion Dialogue• The team intends to • Intention is come to closure exploration• Make a decision • Discovery• Reach agreement • Insight• Identify priorities • May reach an• Focuses on task such agreement, but that as agendas, is not the intent of priorities, the communication. assignments.
  64. 64. Features :Oral CommunicationInstantaneous 2 way process, used in daily life, involves 2, conversational nature, cannot be erased but has no record, used for all interactions and relationships.Essentially used for:For groups: Persuasion, Negotiation, Meetings, Lectures/ Speeches, presentations, Seminars, conferences, workshops etc.For Individuals: Interviews, Telephone, Grapevine, Face to face. Only way out during Emergency.
  65. 65. FACE-TO-FACE Most people prefer to get information face- to-face, especially from their immediate supervisor
  66. 66. The Benefits (face-to-face)• Is as important as the written word• Helps to build good working relationships with colleagues.• Economical wrt men and material resources.• Immediate and having more impact.• Used during emergencies.• Opens two-way communication, Tool for persuasion and group communication.• Allows for immediate response to questions, misinterpretations, feedback, evaluation etc.• Takes advantage of voice and body language
  67. 67. The Challenges (face-to-face)• Use in-person communication when you have to share information that will affect the audience• Use for performance evaluations and feedback• Use when the information being communicated needs immediate attention• Be prepared to answer questions directly and immediately
  68. 68. Disadvantages• Face to face spoken communication, however, leaves no record of what has been said, hence not legal.• Gets distorted while in chain of travel.• Possibility of misunderstanding.• Unsuitable for long messages.• Unsuitable for spread pout groups.• Difficulty to assign responsibility and accountability.
  69. 69. The Do’s and Don’ts (face-to-face)• DO -- give people your undivided attention - - listen, really listen, give full attention• DO -- give people honest, direct and comprehensive information• DO -- treat people’s ideas and concerns as critical and serious - EMPOWER THEM
  70. 70. Face-to-Face cont…..• DON’T -- tell people “what”, tell them “why, how, and the larger picture”• DON’T -- make the conversation one- way. Invite responses -- discuss and debate• DON’T -- answer the phone or take a call when someone is in your office
  71. 71. Face-to-Face cont...• DON’T -- wait too long to ask for (or to give) feedback, gather information immediately• DON’T -- hold back bad news. Treat people as intelligent adults, they want to hear the truth
  72. 72. Communication is not overwhen you finish delivering your message
  73. 73. STOPS = Stop before u start talkingT = Think think what u want to speakO = Organize Organize your thoughtsP = Proceed Proceed to talk
  74. 74. TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION•Regulate your pace of talking, Modulate your voice, Use intonation, Maintain eye contact, Use facial expression, Be confident, Be sincere and honest •Consider the objective, think about interest of the receiver, use wit or pleasantries, give full facts, bedescriptive not evaluative. Develop the conversation. •Learn to Listen and not hear, Take short pauses, Think before u talk, Be polite in tone, Avoid disagreement.•Use wide range of vocabulary, Don’t be repetitive, vague. •Understand & respect your audience/the person •Learn to read & understand non verbal language •Keep it short, precise & simple, Summarize
  75. 75. Barriers
  76. 76. All communication methods are important in training but our emphasis will be upon the spoken word... since 70 % or all our communication efforts are: misunderstood, misinterpreted, rejected, dis liked, distorted, or not heard (in the same language, same culture)!
  77. 77. Barriers to communication• What are barriers to communication that exist in any work setting?Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  78. 78. The Communication Process Communication Noise Channel Sender Receiver(encodes message) (decodes message) FeedbackNoise
  79. 79. The Communication Process: Barriers to Effective Communication • Barriers can disrupt the accurate transmission of information. • These barriers take different forms:  Sender barrier:  Encoding barrier  Communication channel barrier  Noise barrier  Receiver barrier:  Decoding barrier  Feedback barrier  Perception barrierMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  80. 80. What causes distortion or the barriers to understanding/listening?• Semantics(expressions/transmis • Physical: Media, Environment – noise sion of meaning), Perceptions • Technological Language, Inflections.• Cross cultural, Geographical • Organisational• Individual: Preconceived • Wordiness notions/expectations, Psycho- • Attention span sociological, Personal Interests• Interpersonal: Emotions, • Physical hearing problem Relationship • Speed of thought 81 July 23, 2003
  81. 81. Barriers to Effective Communication Psycho- sociological• Misinterpretation :Style, choice of • Inarticulateness words, humour, brevity, credibility, • Hidden agendas charisma and language. • Status• Evaluation of sender • Environment, Health• Projection, Stereotyping • Emotions• Arrogance and superiority • Differences in backgrounds• Defensiveness• Unmanaged stress • Poor timing• Corporate culture, Status • Personality conflicts• Selective perception • Assumptions• Halo Effect • Authority relationships• Fears-Reluctance to confront • Filtering – Ridicule, rejection, fear of being wrong
  82. 82. Barriers of Organizational Communications • Communications in organizations can be complex. • Possible organizational barriers to communication includes:  Differences in employee status and power  Diversity, Differences in interests  Culture and climate, Rules and regulations  Complex Organizational structure  Lack of facilities and opportunity  Lack of Cooperation.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  83. 83. Barriers to communication• Some common barriers to Interpersonal communication include: – Unclear process: The receiver and sender may not share the same language, slang, jargon, vocabulary, symbols – Chain of command: There may be too many layers that a message passes through between sender and receiver – Large size of an organization, geographic distance: Large numbers of receivers require good message sending methods – Personal limitations: Physical and mental disabilities, and differences in intelligence and education may interfere with mutual understanding
  84. 84. Barriers to communication• Additional common barriers to interpersonal communication include:• Coming from Superiors: – Human nature: Peoples’ egos, prejudices, and traditions can get in the way, lack of trust, consideration for needs and time for subordinates. – Conflicting feelings, goals, opinions: If people feel on opposite sides of an issue they may not share – Power: The idea that knowledge is power can lead to information hoarding, retaining authority, fear of losing control. – Bypassing or Overloading Information.
  85. 85. Common barriers to interpersonal communicationComing from Subordinates: lack of proper channelLack of InterestLack of trustLack of cooperationPoor relationship with seniorsFear of Penalty
  86. 86. Cross –Cultural/ Geographical Barriers• National character/ personality• Language and Culture• Values and Norms• Social relationships• Concept of Time & Space• Non Verbal Communication• Perception
  87. 87. Physical/ Channel Barriers• Noise• Environment: External Transreceivers, no. of links in the chain, Circumstances.• Physical factors: light, temp, ergonomics, numbers, distance, v oice & visual quality• Defects or Disruptions in the medium
  88. 88. Technical aspect of Barriers1. Communication usually fails (Murphy’s Laws)2. If message can be understood , it be in the most harmful way.3. Filtering: Sending info. not objectively but to be received favorably; more vertical levels of hierarchy filter information4. Meta communication: msg apart from the msg. Exists in people’s minds.5. Noise: Mechanical distraction
  89. 89. Barriers in Communication (that have to do with the COMMUNICATOR)• Unwillingness to say things differently• Unwillingness to relate to others differently• Unwillingness to learn new approaches• Lack of Self-Confidence• Lack of Enthusiasm• Voice quality• Prejudice
  90. 90. Barriers in Communication (that have to do with the COMMUNICATOR)• Disagreement between verbal and non-verbal messages• Negative Self Image• Lack of Feedback• Lack of Motivation and Training• Language and Vocabulary Level• Lack of Self Awareness
  91. 91. Barriers in Communication (that have to do with the RECEIVER)• Selective Perception• Unwillingness to Change• Lack of Interest in the Topic/Subject• Prejudice & Belief System• Rebuttal Instincts• Personal Value System• Here-and-Now internal & external factors
  92. 92. External Barriers in Communication• Environment – The venue – The effect of noise – Temperature in the room• Other People – Status, Education• Time
  93. 93. Overcoming Barriers• Sender should be clear of Ws and Hs.• Receiver should be attentive, listen actively, clarify, question and be empathetic• Together they should listen , share and be alert to avoid the inevitable miscomm.• They must foster relationships between seniors and subordinates.• Purposeful, focused and precise, accurate, clarity• Avoid Jargons and technical language• Give right feedback, build proper channels of comm.• Flat org. structure, division of labour, avoid overload• Minimize Semantic barriers, not use jargons or unfamiliar expressions
  94. 94. Listening…the other side of communicationToo many people see communication as merely speaking.Messages must be received as well as sent.A good question to ask yourself is, are you really listening orsimply waiting for your turn to talk?If you are thinking about your reply before the other person hasfinished, then you are not listening! 95 July 23, 2003
  95. 95. The power of listeningThe philosopher Epictetus stressed thepower of listening in this quote:“Nature gave us one tongue and two earsso we could hear twice as much as wespeak.”
  96. 96. Listen actively• Prepare to listen by focusing on the speaker• Select a mode: Careful, attentive, skimming• Concentrate and match your thought with ROS• Control and eliminate distractions so that you can focus on the message. Don’t do anything else (writing, reading, email) but listen: anticipate, focus, review.• Establish appropriate eye contact to show interest, interpret symbols and signs. Listen for sign posts.• See listening as an opportunity to get information, share another’s views, and broaden your own knowledge
  97. 97. Listen actively• Create a need to listen by thinking about what you can learn from the speaker• Set aside the time to listen so that you won’t feel rushed or become distracted by other responsibilities• Don’t prejudge the message based on who is delivering it. Focus instead on the content of the message. Don’t evaluate.• Monitor the way you listen by asking yourself questions such as “Did I really pay attention or was I thinking about what I was going to say next”? “Was there information I missed because I allowed myself to become distracted”?
  98. 98. Note taking• Write informal outline format, main points and leave space for sub points.• Note aids to be ready, match up with speaker• Use underlining of main ideas, use symbols and short forms.• Always record definitions, unfamiliar concepts and vocab.• Ask questions to clarify concepts.• Write only important points , not details, use telegraphic lang., abbreviations.• Polishing: fill in missed points after the speech.• Review notes – understandable, make notes for reference work , in the margins; use highlights.
  99. 99. 5 Basic reasons we Do Not Listen• Listening is Hard Work• Competition• The Rush for Action• Speed differences (120 wpm v/s 360 wpm)• Lack of Training
  100. 100. Barriers• Perceptual barriers: Frames of reference, experience and expectations, relationship with speaker, Selection for profits, reject criticism. Psychological, sociological.• Speaker related- speed, clarity, P, p, p mannerisms, unfamiliar expressions.• Listener related- Rejection, ‘I Know it all’, mental state, interest in appearance, purpose unclear.• Misunderstanding NVC , or overuse.• Environmental: chatting with next person, time, light, noise, discomfort etc.• Faking attention, making it passive. Listening only for facts. Yielding easily to distractions.• Rates of speaking and listening, thought.
  101. 101. 4 Levels of Listening• The Non-Listener• The Marginal Listener• The Evaluative Listener• The Active Listener: Listening for RetentionPersonal Characteristics: sex, verbosity, intelligence, scholarly excellence, motivation, organisational structure and environment.
  102. 102. 4 Types of Listening• Discriminative• Evaluative• Appreciative• Empathetic• Faulty listening: Pseudo listening, selective, self centered, insulated, defensive, fill- in, reconstructive based on prior experience.
  103. 103. Guidelines for Active Listening • Do create a supportive • Don’t try to change the other’s atmosphere. views. • Do listen for feelings as well as • Don’t solve the problem for the words. speaker. • Don’t give advice. • Do note cues. • Don’t pass judgment. • Do occasionally test for • Don’t explain or interpret others’ understanding. behavior. • Do demonstrate acceptance and • Don’t give false reassurances. understanding. • Don’t attack if the speaker is • Do ask exploratory, open-ended hostile. questions. • Don’t ask “why” the feelings.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  104. 104. Listening Skills • Help create understanding between both parties • Are an active rather than passive activity • Use of nonverbal indicators, like eye contact, tone of voice, or touch • Are an invaluable skill for managersMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  105. 105. Applications of Management Perspectives—For the Manager • Use your listening skills when dealing with an employee who has an issue that is emotional in nature. • Try to understand the issue from the employee’s perspective. • If it is necessary to give negative feedback, make sure that the behavior being criticized is one the employee is able to control.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  106. 106. Improving Listening Skills• By not being Preoccupied• Being Open Minded & Non Defensive• Minimizing Interruptions• Effective Listening is: Hearing, interpreting when necessary, understanding the message and relating to it.• By Asking Questions
  107. 107. How can we improve our listening skills? Eliminate distractions Concentrate(stop talking) Focus on the speaker (put him at ease) Maintain an open mind Look for nonverbal cues Do not react to emotive words/prepare answers or retorts while listening Ask questions Sit so you can see & hear Avoid prejudices, be empathetic Take notes Ask for clarification Go easy on arguments/criticism108 Silence promotes listening July 23, 2003
  108. 108. Silence as Communication- Is Multi-Pronged communication• If you cannot understand a mans words how will you understand his Silence.• Silence by nature communicates.• Deftly used to communicate.• “Silence is half consent”• Communicates, yes, no, disinterest,• Suppression of emotion/excitement – interpreted by body language / attitude.• Collective silence, working in silence- satisfaction• Silence in meetings – mentally absent, Interview- ignorance, Audience - Interest and discipline.• “Silence Please”
  109. 109. How can we improve our listening & Communication skills ? SUMMARIZING PARAPHRASING Pulling together the Restating what another main points of a has said in your own speaker words QUESTIONING Challenging participants to tackle & solve problems110 July 23, 2003
  110. 110. Paraphrasing…try it out! Use initial phrases such as:Paraphrasing is simplyrestating what anotherperson has said in your own  In other words…words.  I gather that…The best way to paraphrase  If I understand what you are saying…is to listen carefully to whatthe other person is saying.  What I hear you saying is…  Pardon my interruption, but letParaphrase often so you me see if I understand youdevelop the habit of doing so. correctly…Practice some of thefollowing techniques on yourcolleagues. 111 July 23, 2003
  111. 111. Summarizing…try it out! Summarizing pulls important ideas, facts or data together to establish a basis for further discussion and/or review progress. The person summarizing must listen carefully in order to organize the information systematically.Try out these summarizing phrases: It is useful for emphasizing key “If I understand you correctly, points. your main concerns are…” “These seem to be the key ideas you have expressed…” 112 July 23, 2003
  112. 112. Questioning…a critical facilitation skillThere are two basic types of questions: 1. Closed questions generally result in short yes/no or other one word answers. They should be used only when you want precise, quick answers. Otherwise, they inhibit thought. 2. Open-ended questions invite an actual explanation for a response. Questions that begin with “how”, “what” and “why” are typical. 113 July 23, 2003
  113. 113. Practice your questioning skills…Rephrase the following closed questions to make them open-ended:1. Are you feeling tired now?2. Isn’t today a nice day?3. Was the last activity useful?4. Is there anything bothering you?5. So everything is fine, then? (Compare your answers with those in the notes below)114 July 23, 2003
  114. 114. That’s a good question!• Close end questions limit the answer to yes or no• Open end questions allow the responder total freedom in answering• Direct questions ask for specific information; limit answers to brief fact statements• Probing questions follow up other questions to solicit additional information• Hypothetical questions present a theoretical situation to which receiver responds See examples of each on the next slide…
  115. 115. Good question - examplesClose end question “Did you attend the staff meeting this morning”?Open end question “What was discussed at the staff meeting this morning”?Direct question “Which topics were listed on the meeting agenda”?Probing question “Can you tell me more about the first agenda topic”?.Hypothetical question “What would you have done, if you had not had the chance to present your idea at the meeting”?
  116. 116. Other questioning techniques include: Direct questions: asked of a particular individual – allows you to initiate control – good for re-directing discussion from excessive talkers. Return questions: puts the question back to the questioner or group – “What do you think about that?” General overview questions: used to initiate a discussion or set up a thoughtful exercise – “How would you respond to the situation?” Hypothetical questions: tests the responder’s problem-solving ability by posing a hypothetical situation – “If you had an unlimited budget, what would you fund?”117 July 23, 2003
  117. 117. Other helpful techniques to foster communication (both verbal and non-verbal)… Repeat the last Nod Your Head word or two of the prior speaker Maintain eye Keep an open contact body position Repeat a sentence Make encouraging or part of one statements118 July 23, 2003
  118. 118. Ask yourself…• Which of the skills covered in this module was most useful as you think about conducting a training event?• Which was the easiest to employ? Write down three things• Which was the most difficult you want to do to improve for you? your communication skills… and practice them prior to your next training event119 July 23, 2003
  119. 119. Reading skills• Careful Reading:50-350 words/min.for accuracy, analysis, problem solving, proof- reading. Stays in memory for long.• Rapid:300-600, light content, no conceptual burden.• Skimming: up to 1500 words/min, eyes go over the words, skipping the details. Grasp main ideas or review. Less time.• Scanning: Fastest, upto 3000, specifically search for some info. Requires focus of attention.
  120. 120. Reading• Reading should enhance comprehension, speed should not compromise.• Reading Efficiency= Speed x Comprehension• Retention is independent of Reading.• Depends on education, mental and physical capability, interest and practice• Can be improved by……...• What is Executive reading? SQ3R Technique?
  121. 121. 7 C’s of effective Communication1. Courtesy and Consideration: Diplomacy, Tact and Appreciation go a long way in the business world.• You Vs I attitude.• Interest in receiver, emphasize his benefits, positives and pleasant facts.• Be sincere, tactful, thoughtful, appreciative.• Use expressions of respect and are non-discriminatory.• Positives(Benefit, happy ,help, pleasure, thoughtful, loyal, generous etc.) Vs Negative words (problem, blame, unfair, fault, failed, neglect, reject, trouble etc.)
  122. 122. 2.Clarity• Mind of Sender> Transmission> Receiver• Simple, precise and familiar words.• Limit sentence to average of 20 words.• One idea per sentence.• Main idea should occur early in word order.
  123. 123. 3. Correctness• Level of knowledge, education and status of coder and decoder are important.• Use right level of language, formal or informal, not substandard.• Check accuracy of words, facts and figures.• Maintain acceptable writing mechanics: grammar, punctuation and spelling etc.
  124. 124. 4. Concreteness• Specific, definite, factual and vivid Vs vague and general.• Used Denotative ( direct, explicit) Vs Connotative(ideas, notions).• Use action verbs (will consider), active voice.• Choose vivid image building(Spark Plug).• Facts and figs.(50%) Help decipher and understand more correctly, the way it was intended.
  125. 125. 5. Credibility• Long drawn out process, build over time, after constant interaction.• Receiver has trust and security and feels his interests and safeguarded.
  126. 126. 6. Completeness and Consistency• Provide all info.: 5Ws• Answer all questions,• Give something extra when desired. Eg: Tariffs of rooms• Difference in perceptions and background may hinder so eye contact and body attitude maybe used to completely interpret.
  127. 127. 7. Conciseness• Saying it in the fewest possible words. Briefly.• Eliminate wordy expressions: single word substitutes vs phrases, long conventional statements vs concise versions (American )• Include only relevant material, stick to purpose, avoid rambling, omit obvious info. Avoid long, unnecessary explanations, excessive adjectives.• Highlight the important point tactfully and concisely.• Avoid repetition: use pronouns, substitutes etc
  128. 128. 4 S’s of communication• Shortness: brief Vs Verbose• Simplicity: Concepts and terminology• Strength: Credibility• Sincerity: Deceit will sabotage future relationship prospects.
  129. 129. Nonverbal Communication Skills: Instinctive, subtle, complimentary to verbal, extensive• Nonverbal communication is for messages with emotional content.• Dimensions : 55% NVC, 7% Words  Body movements and gestures  Eye contact  Touch  Facial expressions  Physical distance  Tone of voice :38%, A cry of agony is more powerful than a tale of woe.
  130. 130. Nonverbal Communication• Silence is golden; Smile is a diamond• Eye contact-Trust and goodwill• One ounce of image = one pound of appearance• Facial Expression –Stern, busy, confused• Body language –Confident, nervous, aggressive• Nonverbal communication, known as “body language” sends strong positive and negative signals.
  131. 131. Non verbal communication• 93% of all Comm.. is non verbal• Eye contact• Facial expressions• Body language• Tone of voice• Emphasis• Deliberate silence• Timing• Appearance• Touch• Hand movements
  132. 132. COMMUNICATION• 7% WORDS – Words are only labels and the listeners put their own interpretation on speakers words• 38% PARALINGUISTIC – The way in which something is said - the accent, tone and voice modulation is important to the listener.• 55% BODY LANGUAGE – What a speaker looks like while delivering a message affects the listener’s understanding most.
  133. 133. Nonverbal Communication• Body Language –Friendly, confident ,lazy etc• Attitude – Sincerity,Success,self esteem• Empathy –Show interest, feel ,comfort• Grooming –Neat, proper, simple (no distraction) Smart, Attention to detail, color sense etc.• Gestures –Synchronous, fine tune, avoid irrelevant movements
  134. 134. Nonverbal Communication• Body Language –Friendly, confident ,lazy etc• Attitude – Sincerity, Success, self esteem• Empathy –Show interest, feel ,comfort• Grooming –Neat, proper, simple (no distraction) Smart, Attention to detail, color sense etc.• Gestures –Synchronous, fine tune, avoid irrelevant movements—Positive Vs Negative.
  135. 135. TYPES OF BODY LANGUAGE Remember that you are dealing with “PEOPLE” (P)OSTURES & GESTURES  How do you use hand gestures? Stance? (E)YE CONTACT  How’s your “Lighthouse”? (O)RIENTATION  How do you position yourself? (P)RESENTATION  How do you deliver your message? (L)OOKS  Are your looks, appearance, dress important? (E)PRESSIONS OF EMOTION  Are you using facial expressions to express emotion?
  136. 136. Body language includes…• Face• Figure• Focus• Territory• Tone• TimeEach of these is described in the following slides…
  137. 137. Body language - face• Face includes: – Your expressions – Your smile or lack thereof – Tilt of the head; e.g., if your head is tilted to one side, it usually indicates you are interested in what someone is saying What message are you sending if someone is presenting a new idea and you are frowning?
  138. 138. Body language - figure• Figure includes: : thin , youthful , tall and Endomorphs: fat, round and soft. Meso: Strong, athletic muscular bony. – Your posture – Your demeanor and gestures – Your clothes and accessories such as jewelry. – Appearance, Dress sense, grooming What message are you sending if you are dressed casually at an important meeting?
  139. 139. Body language - focus• Focus is your eye contact with others• The perception of eye contact differs by culture. For most Americans… – Staring makes other people uncomfortable – Lack of eye contact can make you appear weak or not trustworthy – Glasses may interfere or enhance eye contact What message are you sending if you are looking at other things and people in a room when someone is speaking to you?
  140. 140. Body language - territory• Territory focuses on how you use space. It is also called proxemics.• The perception of territory differs by culture. Most Americans are comfortable with an individual space that is about an arm’s length in diameter What message are you sending if you keep moving closer to a person who is backing away from you?
  141. 141. Body language - tone• Tone is a factor of your voice – Pitch is the highness or lowness of voice – Volume is how loud your voice is – Emphasis is your inflection What message are you sending if during a disagreement you start speaking very loudly?
  142. 142. Body language - time• Time focuses on how you use time. It is also called chronemics. – Pace is how quickly you speak – Response is how quickly you move – Punctuality is your timeliness What message are you sending if you are consistently late for meetings?
  143. 143. Classification• Kinesics• Proxemics –Feature fixed, semi feature fixed, Personal space –Zones.• Chronemics• Paralinguistic: way of use of voice/tone, Voice- Pitch, Volume, Pronunciation, Pause, Pace, Fluenc y, word stress.• Sign Language : Depictions, Maps, blue prints, pictures, traffic lights, rood signs, posters etc.
  144. 144. Ideas to walk away with…• People are always communicating• The meaning intended by the sender is never exactly the message gotten by the receiver• We can help to overcome barriers to communication by being aware of them• Verbal and non-verbal communication is important in sending our messages
  145. 145. Interpreting Body Language• People who are willing to listen• People who are showing friendliness• People who are anxious to interrupt• People who feel frustrated or rejected• People who feel threatened• People who feel superior• People who do not wish to communicate
  146. 146. People who are willing to listen• Look directly at you• Sit with their body forward• Lean forward when standing• Rest their chin on the palm of their hands• Nod in agreement with what is being said• Interject with supportive comments such as ‘Yes ! I see’ or ‘That’s right’
  147. 147. People who are showing friendliness• Smile• Use strong eye contact• Have a static body posture• Stand or sit with open, unfolded arms and legs, facing you• Use non threatening gestures such as handshakes, pats on the backs or arms• Initiate and maintain conversation• Use humour in speech• Are polite and courteous to you
  148. 148. People who are anxious to interrupt• Excited• Look directly and intently at you• Shift their posture while sitting• Move while standing• Rapidly move / vibrate their legs• Try to come closer to you if possible
  149. 149. People who are Frustrated or rejected• Feel tensed, become red in the face• Use aggressive, downward hand gestures• Hit the table or desk top with a hand• Move to and fro rapidly in the room• Get withdrawn from the conversation OR raise the tone of their voice• Look down and put their hands on their forehead
  150. 150. Information Sharing• Giving Information • Getting Information
  151. 151. Sharing your ideas• Why and when is it necessary to share your ideas?Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  152. 152. Share your ideas to…• State an opinion or position• Give instructions or directions• Announce a change• Make presentations• Participate in meetings• Give information in emergencies• Communicate the organizational mission, vision, and values• and other ideas you may have thought of
  153. 153. Obstacles to sharing ideas• What can make sharing ideas difficult?Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  154. 154. Obstacles to sharing ideas…• Your own shyness• Fear of rejection• Peer pressure• Unorganized thinking• Others possibly becoming defensive• Physical disabilities (impaired sight, hearing, speech)• Having to deal with aggressive people• and others you may have thought of
  155. 155. Speak for yourself…• To ensure your messages are clear, speak for yourself, not for others: – Speaking for yourself sounds like: • I, me, my… • I think, I feel, I want to know that… – Speaking for no one sounds like: • It, some people, everyone, they decided… – Speaking for others sounds like: • We, you, John, Mary said…
  156. 156. SHARE your ideas – a model• State the main point of your message• Highlight other important points• Assure the receiver’s understanding• React to how the receiver responds• Emphasize/summarize your main ideas
  157. 157. SHARE – an exampleState the main point of your message “I’d like to talk to you about the new employee welcome program”.Highlight other important points “We need to discuss the new schedule, locations, and presenters”.Assure the receiver’s understanding “Do you need me to further clarify how we are making invitations”?React to how the receiver responds “I understand your concern about parking”.Emphasize/summarize your main ideas “To wrap-up, I’ll develop the schedule and make the room reservations, if you can line up the guest speakers”.
  158. 158. Getting good information• Why is it necessary to get good information from others?Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  159. 159. Get good information to…• Find out facts and details• Get directions or instructions• Try to understand another’s point of view• Help someone solve a problem• Resolve a team conflict• Solve work problems• and other ideas you may have thought of
  160. 160. Obstacles to getting good information• What can make getting good information difficult?Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  161. 161. Obstacles to getting good information • Lack of trust • Assuming you already know it all • Jumping to conclusions • Not valuing diverse opinions • Weak reading skills • Weak listening skills • Weak questioning skills • and other ideas you may have thought of
  162. 162. FOCUS on information – a model• Focus the discussion on the specific information you need• Open-end question to expand the discussion• Close-end question to get specifics• Use active listening skills to understand what you are hearing• Summarize and close the discussion
  163. 163. FOCUS on information – an example Focus the discussion on the specific information you need “I need to ask you about the computer meeting you attended yesterday”. Open-end question to expand the discussion “What kinds of decisions were made regarding expansion of our departmental system”? Close-end question to get specifics “Did the committee decide to buy Dell computers”? Use active listening skills to understand what you are hearing “What I think I heard you say was that the decision was made”? Summarize and close the discussion “So to wrap up, the system will expand and we will be using Dells. Thanks for keeping me up to date”.
  164. 164. Giving feedback• Why is it necessary to give constructive feedback to others?Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  165. 165. Give feedback when…• Someone asks for your opinion• Work errors occur frequently• A coworker’s habits disturb you• A coworker’s behavior has negative consequences• There are unresolved problems• and other ideas you may have thought ofConstructive feedback focuses on facts not people, solving problems instead of placing blame, and strengthening relationships instead of “being right”
  166. 166. Obstacles to giving constructive feedback• What makes it hard to give constructive feedback?Take a few moments to write down some of your thoughts…
  167. 167. Obstacles to giving constructive feedback• Separating the person from the problem• Others becoming defensive or angry• Fear of negative consequences (especially if the other person is a supervisor)• Dealing with potential conflict (especially if the other person is aggressive)• Avoiding hurt feelings• Preserving relationships• Not having all the facts and jumping to conclusions• Choosing the right time so that the other person is most receptive• and other ideas you may have thought of
  168. 168. STATE feedback – a model• State the constructive purpose of your feedback• Tell specifically what you have observed• Address and describe your reactions• Tender specific suggestions for improvement• Express your support and respect for the person
  169. 169. STATE feedback – an exampleState the constructive purpose of your feedback “I’d like to give you some feedback about your training style so that your evaluations will be more positive and you will enjoy it more”.Tell specifically what you have observed “I notice that you rely heavily on your notes”.Address and describe your reactions “I feel as though you are unsure of yourself when you read”.Tender specific suggestions for improvement “I can help you develop a PowerPoint presentation so that you can use the screens as a cue instead of being tied to your notes”.Express your support for the person “You know a lot about the subject. With practice you can become a good trainer”.
  170. 170. Test yourself…1. Communication is defined as the interchange of thoughts or opinions through shared symbols. True___ False___2. The four facets of interpersonal communication are sender, receiver, information, and behavior. True___ False___3. Unclear process; chain of command; large size of an organization or geographic distance; personal limitations; human nature; conflicting feelings, goals, opinions; and power are examples of barriers to communication. True___ False___
  171. 171. Test yourself4. Describe the steps of the SHARE model for giving good information – share, highlight, assure, react, emphasize:5. Describe the steps of the FOCUS model for getting good information – focus, open end, close end, use, summarize:6. Describe the steps of the STATE model for giving constructive feedback – state, tell, address, tender, express:7. Describe the the six aspects of non-verbal communication (body language):
  172. 172. Test yourself… - answers1. Communication is defined as the interchange of thoughts or opinions through shared symbols. True2. The four facets of interpersonal communication are sender, receiver, information, and behavior. True3. Unclear process; chain of command; large size of an organization or geographic distance; personal limitations; human nature; conflicting feelings, goals, opinions; power are examples of barriers to communication. True
  173. 173. Test yourself… - answers4. The steps of the SHARE model for giving good information are: – State the main point of your message – Highlight other important points – Assure the receiver’s understanding – React to how the receiver responds – Emphasize/summarize your main ideas5. The steps of the FOCUS model for getting good information are: – Focus the discussion on the specific information you need – Open-end question to expand the discussion – Close-end question to get specifics – Use active listening skills to understand what you are hearing – Summarize and close the discussion
  174. 174. Test yourself… - answers6. The steps of the STATE model for constructive feedback are: – State the constructive purpose of your feedback – Tell specifically what you have observed – Address and describe your reactions – Tender specific suggestions for improvement – Express your support for the person7. The the six aspects of non-verbal communication (body language): – Face – expressions, smile, tilt of head – Figure – posture, demeanor, gestures, dress – Focus – eye contact – Territory – use of space – Tone – voice pitch, volume, emphasis – Time – the use time
  175. 175. Apply what you’ve learned• When you started this program we asked you to consider some questions. Let’s wrap up: – What new things did you learn about interpersonal communication? – Did you meet your learning goals for this program? – Did you meet your supervisor’s expectations, if any, for participation in this training? – How will you be able to apply your learning on the job?