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  • 1. Recovery And Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste
  • 2. RECOVERY Process to recover useful material from mixed waste. Material Recovery Facility are specialized plants that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers.
  • 3. Recycling Definition  Conservation of resources by converting them into new product.
  • 4. Recycling Used, reused, or reclaimed. Use of the material as a source raw material, involves physical transformation ◦ Reused: The direct use or reuse of a secondary material without prior reclamation ◦ Reclaimed: regeneration of wastes or recovery of usable materials from wastes ◦ Wastes are regenerated when they are processed to remove contaminants in a way that restores them to their usable condition materials that must be reclaimed/recycled prior to use or reuse .
  • 5. Advantages of Recycling:        Prevents the emission of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants, Saves energy, Supplies valuable raw materials to industry, Creates jobs, Stimulates the development of greener technologies, Conserves resources for future, and Reduces the need for new landfills and combustors.
  • 6. Specific Recycled Items
  • 7. Aluminum This is the most recycled material in the U.S. because of economy. Making new aluminum cans from used cans takes 95 percent less energy and 20 recycled cans can be made with the energy needed to produce one can using virgin ore. Approximately 2/3 of cans are recycled each year, saving 19 million barrels of oil annually. Aluminum foils are contaminated hence not accepted.
  • 8. Paper U.S. currently recycles 49% of its paper and paperboard. Denmark, recycles about 97% of its paper. USA export about 19% of recycled paper. In India we produce 14.6 million tonnes of waste paper out of which we recycle only 26%. Recycling one short ton paper we save 17 full grow trees, 26 m3 fresh water ,4100 kW-Hour of energy and fuel equivalent to 3 year use of average family. Low grade paper is recycled to make containerboard or corrugated containers. High grade paper is de-inked and used again as
  • 9. Recyclable Plastics
  • 10. 1 - PET (Polyethylene terephthalate)  PET is used to make soft drink bottles, peanut butter jars, etc.  PET can be recycled into fiberfill for sleeping bags, carpet fibers, rope, and pillows.  In recycling process it is depolymerized to ethylene glycol & Terephthalic acid which are repolymerised to quality resins.
  • 11. 2 - HDPE (High-density polyethylene)  HDPE is found in milk jugs, butter tubs, detergent bottles, and motor oil bottles.  HDPE can be recycled into flowerpots, trashcans, traffic barrier cones, and detergent bottles.
  • 12. 3 - PVC (Polyvinyl chloride)  PVC is used in shampoo and cooking oil bottles & fast-food service items.  Recycled products include nonfood containers, shower curtains, truck bed liners, drainage pipes etc.
  • 13. 4 - LDPE (Low-density polyethylene)  LDPE is found in grocery bags, bread bags, shrink-wrap, and margarine tub tops.  LDPE can be recycled into new grocery bags.
  • 14. 5 - PP (Polypropylene)  PP is used in yogurt containers, straws, pancake syrup bottles, and bottle caps.  PP can be recycled into plastic lumber, car battery cases, and manhole steps.
  • 15. 6 - PS (Polystyrene)  PS is found in disposable hot cups, packaging materials (peanuts), & meat trays.  PS can be recycled into plastic lumber, cassette tape boxes, and flowerpots.
  • 16. 7 - Other  A mixture of various plastics, like squeeze ketchup bottles & “microwaveable” dishes.
  • 17. Tires  281 million replaced annually in US. Only 15% is recycled.  Recycling opportunities: 1.Rethreading and remanufacturing 2.Tire derived fuel 3. Rubber modified asphalt for pavement design.
  • 18. Glass U.S. recycles about 36% of its glass containers.  It costs less to recycle glass than to make new glass.  Mixed color glass “cullet” is used for paving glassphalt, a glass/asphalt mixture.  May be used in building products such as brick, ceramic and terrazzo tiles 
  • 19. Lead Acid (Car Batteries)  78-80 million batteries consumed and replaced in US.  90% recycled in US.  After controlled crushing lead, plastic and sulfuric acid are separated for reuse.
  • 20. Oil  Huge amount of waste oil is produced as metal working oil, hydraulic oil, lubricating oil and engine crankcase oil.  Can be used for burning in cement industries , marine boilers etc.  Must go to an automotive or environmental company for Reprocessing and re refining.
  • 21. Electronic Waste: E-waste consists of toxic and hazardous waste such as PVC, lead, mercury, and cadmium.  The U.S. produces almost half of the world's e-waste but only recycles about 10% of it.  Figure 22-4
  • 22. Organic Comprise over 1/2 of the solid waste  Includes yard debris, wood materials, bio-solids, food, manure and agricultural residues, land clearing debris, used paper, and mixed municipal organic waste.  May be used for composting or methane generation. 
  • 23. INDIAN SCENARIO Recycling by means of repair, reprocessing, and reuse of waste materials is a common practice in India. Waste is accessible to waste pickers; they segregate it into saleable materials such as paper, plastics, glasses, metal pieces, textile, etc.  Rag pickers segregate the wastes directly from the dumps and bins with no precautions and they are exposed directly to harmful wastes. The separated waste is sold to a small waste dealer, from where the waste is transferred to a medium sized dealer or wholesaler.  All these activities are not regulated or monitored by any governmental organisation. Due to this informal segregation, volume reduction is achieved, while it ignores social, economic, environmental, and health 
  • 24. The complete flow diagram: Source: IIED 1999, Informal Waste Management Recovery Process in India
  • 25. Case Study: The incredible coir: Coconut fire       Demand for coir dwindling due to use of nylon ropes and other substitutes. Experts say coir, a natural fibre taken from the husk of a coconut, strengthens roads and increases longevity. Coir absorbs all the moisture on the surface and prevents the black topping and blue metal from peeling off. The initial cost is high but these roads have a longer life. The road will last at least five to six years more than the conventional ones, said NIT-Trichy professor Samson Mathew,who is coordinating with the state rural development department for the initiative. The Centre has asked governments of
  • 26. The incredible coir: Coconut fibre Road before ,during and after construction Source:Application of coir geotextile in Rural Roads, Central Coir Research Institute, Kerala
  • 27. Problems Associated  Recycling does have environmental costs.  It uses energy and generates pollution.  Ex. the de-inking process in paper recycling requires energy, and produces a toxic sludge that contains heavy metals.
  • 28. Message: Follow 5 R’s: Refuse: to buy items that we really don’t need.  Reduce: consume less and live a simpler and less stressful life by practicing simplicity.  Reuse: rely more on items that can be used over and over.  Repurpose: use something for another purpose instead of throwing it away.  Recycle: paper, glass, cans, plastics…and buy items made from recycled materials.  