Recovery And Recycling of
Municipal Solid Waste
Process to recover useful material from
Material Recovery Facility are specialized
plants that receives, separates and
prepares recyclable materials for
marketing to end-user manufacturers.
of resources by
converting them into new
Used, reused, or reclaimed.
Use of the material as a source raw
material, involves physical transformation
◦ Reused: The direct use or reuse of a
secondary material without prior
◦ Reclaimed: regeneration of wastes or
recovery of usable materials from wastes
◦ Wastes are regenerated when they are
processed to remove contaminants in a
way that restores them to their usable
condition materials that must be
reclaimed/recycled prior to use or reuse .
Advantages of Recycling:
Prevents the emission of many greenhouse gases
and water pollutants,
Supplies valuable raw materials to industry,
Stimulates the development of greener
Conserves resources for future, and
Reduces the need for new landfills and
This is the most recycled material in the
U.S. because of economy.
Making new aluminum cans from used
cans takes 95 percent less energy and
20 recycled cans can be made with the
energy needed to produce one can
using virgin ore.
Approximately 2/3 of cans are recycled
each year, saving 19 million barrels of
Aluminum foils are contaminated
hence not accepted.
U.S. currently recycles 49% of its paper and
Denmark, recycles about 97% of its paper.
USA export about 19% of recycled paper.
In India we produce 14.6 million tonnes of waste
paper out of which we recycle only 26%.
Recycling one short ton paper we save 17 full
grow trees, 26 m3 fresh water ,4100 kW-Hour of
energy and fuel equivalent to 3 year use of
Low grade paper is recycled to make
containerboard or corrugated containers.
High grade paper is de-inked and used again as
1 - PET (Polyethylene terephthalate)
is used to make soft drink
bottles, peanut butter jars, etc.
PET can be recycled into
fiberfill for sleeping bags,
carpet fibers, rope, and pillows.
In recycling process it is
depolymerized to ethylene
glycol & Terephthalic acid
which are repolymerised to
2 - HDPE (High-density
is found in milk
jugs, butter tubs,
detergent bottles, and
motor oil bottles.
HDPE can be recycled
trashcans, traffic barrier
cones, and detergent
3 - PVC (Polyvinyl chloride)
is used in shampoo and
cooking oil bottles & fast-food
Recycled products include
nonfood containers, shower
curtains, truck bed liners,
drainage pipes etc.
4 - LDPE (Low-density
is found in
grocery bags, bread
and margarine tub
LDPE can be
recycled into new
5 - PP (Polypropylene)
is used in yogurt containers,
straws, pancake syrup bottles,
and bottle caps.
PP can be recycled into plastic
lumber, car battery cases, and
6 - PS (Polystyrene)
is found in disposable hot cups,
packaging materials (peanuts), & meat
PS can be recycled into plastic lumber,
cassette tape boxes, and flowerpots.
7 - Other
plastics, like squeeze ketchup
bottles & “microwaveable”
million replaced annually in
US. Only 15% is recycled.
2.Tire derived fuel
3. Rubber modified asphalt for
U.S. recycles about 36% of its glass
It costs less to recycle glass than to
make new glass.
Mixed color glass “cullet” is used for
paving glassphalt, a glass/asphalt
May be used in building products such
as brick, ceramic and terrazzo tiles
Lead Acid (Car Batteries)
consumed and replaced in US.
90% recycled in US.
After controlled crushing lead,
plastic and sulfuric acid are
separated for reuse.
amount of waste oil is
produced as metal working oil,
hydraulic oil, lubricating oil and
engine crankcase oil.
Can be used for burning in cement
industries , marine boilers etc.
Must go to an automotive or
environmental company for
Reprocessing and re refining.
E-waste consists of toxic and
hazardous waste such as PVC,
lead, mercury, and cadmium.
The U.S. produces almost half of
the world's e-waste but only
recycles about 10% of it.
Comprise over 1/2 of the solid waste
Includes yard debris, wood
materials, bio-solids, food, manure and
agricultural residues, land clearing
debris, used paper, and mixed
municipal organic waste.
May be used for composting or
Recycling by means of repair, reprocessing, and reuse of
waste materials is a common practice in India. Waste is
accessible to waste pickers; they segregate it into
saleable materials such as paper, plastics, glasses, metal
pieces, textile, etc.
Rag pickers segregate the wastes directly from the dumps
and bins with no precautions and they are exposed
directly to harmful wastes. The separated waste is sold to
a small waste dealer, from where the waste is transferred
to a medium sized dealer or wholesaler.
All these activities are not regulated or monitored by any
governmental organisation. Due to this informal
segregation, volume reduction is achieved, while it
ignores social, economic, environmental, and health
The complete flow diagram:
Source: IIED 1999, Informal Waste Management Recovery Process in India
The incredible coir: Coconut fire
Demand for coir dwindling due to use of nylon ropes
and other substitutes.
Experts say coir, a natural fibre taken from the husk
of a coconut, strengthens roads and increases
Coir absorbs all the moisture on the surface and
prevents the black topping and blue metal from
The initial cost is high but these roads have a longer
The road will last at least five to six years more than
the conventional ones, said NIT-Trichy professor
Samson Mathew,who is coordinating with the state
rural development department for the initiative.
The Centre has asked governments of
The incredible coir: Coconut fibre
Road before ,during and after
Source:Application of coir geotextile in Rural Roads, Central Coir Research Institute, Kerala
It uses energy and generates
Ex. the de-inking process in paper
recycling requires energy, and
produces a toxic sludge that
contains heavy metals.
Follow 5 R’s:
Refuse: to buy items that we really
Reduce: consume less and live a
simpler and less stressful life by
Reuse: rely more on items that can
be used over and over.
Repurpose: use something for
another purpose instead of throwing it
Recycle: paper, glass, cans,
plastics…and buy items made from