Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Seminar project

on

  • 1,428 views

hardness of water & its determination

hardness of water & its determination

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,428
Views on SlideShare
1,428
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
60
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Seminar project Seminar project Presentation Transcript

  • PRESENTATION ON
    “HARDNESS OF WATER
    & ITS DETERMINATION”
  • ACKNOWEDGEMENT
    I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the writing of this assignment.
    My deepest thanks to lecturer, the guide of the project, for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care.
    I would also thanks my institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers.
  • GENERAL INTRODUCTION
  • STRUCTURE
    • H20 is Polar i.e. ,it is partially charged
    • O2has higher Electronegativity
    • H2O is a solvent
    • Forms 104.5deg angle
    • Bent shape/V-shape structure
    • H-bonding
  • HARDNESS OF WATER
    Soap consuming power of water is called Hardness.
    Ca2+/Mg2+ cationsCause Hardness
    SoapSodium/Potassium salts of oleic acid,
    palmitic acid, stearic acid.
    2C17H35COONa + CaCl2 (C17H35COO)2Ca +2NaCl
    (Sodium stearate)
    2C17H35COONa + Ca(HCO3)2 (C17H35COO)2Ca + 2NaHCO3
    Calcium stearate
    (Insoluble salt)
    • There are two types of hardness-
    • Temporary hardness
    • Permanent hardness
    1>Temporary hardness-
    ~it is due to the presence of soluble salts of HCO3-
    of Ca & Mg.
    ~it can be removed by boiling. In this the HCO3- are
    decomposed into insoluble CO32-
    Ca(HCO3)2CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
    (soluble) (insoluble)
    TYPES OF HARDNESS
  • 2. Permanent hardness
    It is due to sulphides,chlorides & nitrates of calcium, magnesium & other metals.
    CLASSIFICATION OF HARDNESS
    Alkaline hardness Non-alkaline hardness
    carbonates,bicarbonates chlorides,sulphides &. & hydroxides of metals nitrates of metals
  • 1.SOAP SOLUTION METHOD:
    Ca(HCO3)2+2C17H35COONa(C17H35COO)2Ca +NaHCO3
    Cabicarbonatesodium stearate Ca stearate
    CaCl2 +2C17H35COONa(C17H35COO)2Ca+2NaCl
    CaSO4+2C17H35COONa(C17H35COO)2Ca+Na2SO4
    DETERMINATION OF HARDNESS
  • Hardness causing metal ions get precipitated.
    When more sodium salt is added, lather is formed.
    The aliquot is titrated against standard soap solution in alcohol.
    End point indicates total hardness.
    The aliquot is boiled for 30 mins.
    Temporary hardness get removed(may be due to the formation of CO2 which escapes)
  • 2.EDTA method:
    Burette:Na2[EDTA]H2[EDTA]H22- +2Na+
    Flask:Ca2+/Mg2++[EBT]H[EBT]Ca +H+
    (blue) (wine red)
    Titration:
    [EDTA]H22-+[EBT]Ca[EDTA]Ca+[EBT]H {end point}
    (wine red) colorless blue
  • Boil the aliquot for 30mins
    Temporary hardness is removed
    The remaining again titrated against Na2[EDTA]H2 complex
    End point indicates permanent hardness
    {Total hardness-Permanent hardness=temporary hardness}
    CALCULATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS
  • Blockage of passage occurs when water is used for cooling due to scale deposition.
    Hard water is harmful for drinkingas it causes deposition of calcium in the bone joints.
    It causes formation in boilers and pipes.
    Hard water does not form any lather with soaps or detergents.
    EFFECTS OF HARDNESS
  • Hard water is calculated in terms of calcium carbonate. It is because of the following reasons:
    • Molecular weight of CaCO3 is: 40+12+16x3=100
    • Most insoluble salt of Ca which is precipitated during water treatment processes.
    • Equivalent of CaCO3 =
    =[Mass of hardness producing substance x chemical equivalent of CaCO3
    Chemical equivalent of hardness producing substance
    = [Mass of hardness producing substance in mg/L]x multiplication factor
    MEASUREMENT OF HARDNESS OF WATER
  • THANK YOU