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  • 1. M.Sc. (Microbiology) syllabus, C.C.S. University, Meerut Effective from the session 2009-2010 Course no. Name of the course Internal External (M.M.) (M.M.) FIRST SEMESTER GM 101 Techniques in Microbiology 50 50 GM 102 General Microbiology and Bacteriology 50 50 GM 103 Virology 50 50 GM 104 Phycology, Mycology & Protozoology 50 50 GM 105 Practical 100 100 SECOND SEMESTER GM 201 Nutrition, Growth & Metabolism 50 50 GM 202 Molecular Biology 50 50 GM 203 Microbial Biochemistry 50 50 GM 204 Biostatistics & Bioinformatics 50 50 GM 205 Practical 100 100 THIRD SEMESTER GM 301 Medical Microbiology 50 50 GM 302 Immunology and Clinical Microbiology 50 50 GM 303 Agricultural Microbiology 50 50 GM 304 Industrial Microbiology 50 50 GM 305 Practical 100 100 FOURTH SEMESTER GM 401 Environmental Microbiology 50 50 GM 402 Genetic Engineering 50 50 GM 403 Microbial Genetics 50 50 GM 404 Food, Feed & Dairy Microbiology 50 50 GM 405 Practical 100 100 Total Marks 2400All rules for examination pattern, pass percentage and admissions shall be the sameas for the post-graduate courses in the Faculty of Science on the University campus.Minimum eligibility for admission in this two year M.Sc. (Microbiology) courseshall be B.Sc. (Biology). There shall be 50% internal and 50% external assessmentin all aforesaid courses. The pattern of internal assessment shall be decided by theDepartment, however, it will be based on tests, quizzes, seminars, term papers,group discussions and home assignments. The Department shall be free to alter thesequence of the courses depending upon the resources available.
  • 2. Course GM I01: Techniques in MicrobiologyUnit I: Microscopy & Staining techniques: Basic principles for the examination of microbes by light, dark field, phase contrast, confocal, fluorescent and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy; Micrometry. Specimen preparation and basic principles of Simple, Gram, Capsule, Endospore, Flagella, Acid fast, Flurochrome staining, Nuclear/ Geimsa’s staining.Unit II: Basic principles and methods of sterilization: control of microorganisms by physical methods: heat, filtration and radiation; chemical methods: phenolics, alcohols, halogens, heavy metals, quartenary ammonium compounds, aldehydes and sterilizing gases; evaluation of antimicrobial agent effectiveness. Principle and functioning of LAF.Unit III: Basic principles and methods of media preparation: types of culture media: simple media, complex media, synthetic media, enriched media, selective media, indicator media, differential media, anaerobic media; pH and Buffers; Pure culture techniques: streak plate, pour plate and spread plate method; maintenance of pure culture; methods of preservation of various microbes.Unit IV: Basic principles and applications of Spectrophotometry & Chromatography: Beer- Lambert law; interaction of radiation with matter, absorption of radiation, emision of radiation; UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Flame photometry and atomic absorption Spectrophotometry; Chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, gel filtration, ion- exchange and affinity chromatography), GLC, HPLC and FPLC.Unit V: Miscellaneous techniques : Principles and applications of electrophoresis for protein and DNA; Iso-electric focusing and 2D gel electrophoresis; Autoradiography, X-Ray diffraction; Centrifugation; Ultracentifugation; Dialysis, Ultrafiltration; Lyophilization and speed vac.SUGGESTED READING: Wilson K. & Walker J. 2008. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 6th Ed.Cambridge University Press. Berg J. M., Tymoczko J. L. & Stryer, L. 2007. Biochemistry 6th Ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. Nelson D. & Cox M. M. 2009. Principles of Biochemistry 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. Talaro K. P. & Talaro A. 2006. Foundations in Microbiology (6th Ed.), McGraw-Hill College Dimensi. Potter G. W. H. & Potter G. W. 1995. Analysis of Biological Molecules: An Introduction to Principles, Instrumentation and Techniques, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Willey J., Sherwood L. and Woolverton C. 2007. Prescott/Harley/Kleins Microbiology, McGraw Hill.Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definition.
  • 3. Course GM 102: General Microbiology and BacteriologyUnit I: Discovery of microbial world: History of Microbiology and contribution of Antonie Von Leeuwenhoek, Joseph Lister, Paul Ehrlich, Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Martinus Beijerinck, Sergei Winogradsky, Alexander Fleming, Selman Waksman; the spontaneous generation controversy; Current thoughts on microbial evolution including the origin of life; Scope and relevance of Microbiology.Unit II: Taxonomy and classification: Haeckel’s, Whittaker’s, Carl Woese and Cavalier Smith’s concepts of classification; Modern trends in the classification of microbial world including 16S rDNA sequencing, Numerical and molecular taxonomy; Introduction to the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology; General characters of major groups of eubacteria.Unit III: Morphology and Ultrastructure of Bacteria: size, shape and arrangement of bacteria; structure and chemical composition of cell wall of gram positive and gram negative bacteria and archae; Structure, composition and function of cell membrane, capsule, flagella, pilli, gas vesicles, cytoplasmic matrix, reserve food materials, chromosomes, carboxysomes, magnetosomes and phycobilisomes; nucleoid and endospores.Unit IV: Cultivation of bacteria: aerobic, anaerobic; nutritional types of bacteria, culture media used, growth curve, generation time, growth kinetics, synchronous growth; batch and continuous culture; measurement of growth (biomass, turbidity, dry weight and protein content); Physical and chemical factors affecting microbial growth; control of microbes by physical and chemical agents.Unit V: (a) General characters and classification of Archae; General characteristics of Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanomicrobium, Methanosarcina, Halobacterium and Thermococcus; Adaptations and role of Archea in the evolution of microbial world. (b) General characters of Cyanobacteria; Classification of Cyanobacteria; Their ultrastructure and reproduction; economic importance of Cyanobacteria.Suggested reading: th Talaro K.P. & Talaro A. 2006. Foundations in Microbiology (6 Ed.), McGraw-Hill College Dimensi. Willey J., Sherwood L. and Woolverton C. 2007. Prescott/Harley/Kleins Microbiology, McGraw Hill. Wilson K. & Walker J. 2008. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 6th Ed.Cambridge University Press. Aneja K. R., Jain P. & Aneja R 2008. A text book of basic & applied Microbiology, New Age Int. Publ. New Delhi. Berg J. M., Tymoczko J. L. & Stryer, L. 2007. Biochemistry 6th Ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. Nelson D. & Cox M. M. 2009. Principles of Biochemistry 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
  • 4. Course GM 103: VirologyUnit I: General Virology: Breif outline on discovery of viruses, nomencature and classfication of viruses : distinctive properties of viruses; morphology & ultrastructure; capsidids & their arrangements; types of envelops and their compositionviral genome, their types and stucturesUnit II: General characters and ultrastructure of major plant viruses: Tobamovirus group (TMV); Tymovirus group (Circular mosaic virus); Tomato spotted wilt virus; Cauliflower mosaic virus. Effects of these viruses on plants and various histological and physiological changes induced due to viral infection.Unit III: General characters and ultrastructure of major human and animal viruses: Adenovirus, Poxvirus (DNA containing), Picornavirus, Retrovirus (RNA containing). Mechanism of virus adsorption and entry into the host cell including genome replication and mRNA production by animal viruses, mechanism of RNA synthesis, mechanism of DNA synthesis, transcription mechanism and post transcriptional processing, translation of viral proteins, assembly, exit and maturation of progeny virions.Unit IV: Bacteriophages: Structure and life cycle patterns of T-even phages; one step growth curve and burst size; Bacteriophage typing; Structure of Cyanophages, Mycophages. General principles of phage-bacterium interaction and growth cycle studies of RNA and DNA phages. The biochemistry of phages infected bacterium. Phage genetics.Unit V: (a) Viroids and Prions: General characters and structure of viroids, their common plant diseases and control; General characters of Prions, their structure and major diseases caused by them; controversies about their nature. (b) Cultivation of viruses: Growth of viruses in embryonated egg, in experimental animals and in cell cultures-primary and secondary cell lines, suspension cell cultures and monolayer cell cultures. Assay of viruses: Physical and chemical methods of assay, (protein, nucleic acid, radioactivity tracers, electron microscopy, etc); Infectivity assay of animal viruses (plaque method, pock counting, end point method) and infectivity assay of plant viruses. Morphology and ultra-structure of bacteriophages, one step growth curve(latent period, Eclipse period, burst size), life cycle and other details with special reference to T (odd and even).Suggested Reading: Carter J. & Saunders V. 2007. Virology: Principles and Applications. th Knipe D. M. and Howley P. M. 2006. Fields Virology, 5 Ed., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, USA. Straus J. H. & Straus E.S. 1998. Evolution of RNA Viruses Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 42: 657 – 83. Luria S. E. 1978 General virology, 3rd Ed., New York. John Wiley and Sons. th Morag C & Tim bury M C 1994. Medical Virology 10 Ed., Churchil Livingstone, London. Dimmock N. J. & Primrose S. B. 1994. Introduction to Modern Virology 4th Edition by Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford.Note : The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
  • 5. Course GM 104: Phycology, Mycology & ProtozoologyUnit I: General characteristics of eukaryotic microbes and current status of fungi: Ultrastructure and organization of a typical eukaryotic cell; classification of fungi with reference to Ainsworth; General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Myxomycota, Mastigomycotina.Unit II: Important genera of fungi: General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina.Unit III: Heterothallism; sex hormones in fungi; physiological specialization and phylogeny of fungi. Parasexual life cycle; Symbiotic associations of fungi with algae; Economic importance of fungi.Unit IV: General characters of algae: Classification of algae; Somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Algal nutrition, ecology and biotechnology.Unit V: (a) General characters of protozoans: Structure and reproduction of microbiologically important genera of protozoans: Entamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas, Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium. (b) General characters of microbiologically important Nematodes: Ancylostoma, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator; Cestodes: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Diphyllobothrium, Echinococcus granulosus and Trematodes: Paragonimus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma.Suggested Reading: Nester E.W., Anderson D.G. & Nester M.T. 2006. Microbiology: A Human Perspective, McGraw Hill. Atlas R. M. 1997. Principles of Microbiology II Ed., McGraw Hill. Chatterjee, K.D. 1999. Parasitology, Calcutta publication. Lee. R. E. 1999. Phycology, 3rd Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Talaro K.P. & Talaro A. 2006. Foundations in Microbiology (6th Ed.), McGraw-Hill College Dimensi. Willey J., Sherwood L. and Woolverton C. 2007. Prescott/Harley/Kleins Microbiology, McGraw Hill.Note: The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
  • 6. M.Sc. (Applied Microbiology) Syllabus, C.C.S. University, Meerut Effective from the session 2009-2010 Course Name of the course Internal External no. (M.M.) (M.M.) FIRST SEMESTER AM 101 Instrumentation and Microbial 50 50 Techniques AM 102 Microbial Diversity- Prokaryotes and 50 50 Viruses AM 103 Microbial Diversity- Eukaryotes 50 50 AM 104 Biostatistics, Computer Application 50 50 and Bioinformatics Practical 100 100 SECOND SEMESTER AM 201 Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry 50 50 AM 202 Molecular Biology and Microbial 50 50 Genetics AM 203 Recombinant DNA Technology 50 50 AM 204 Environmental Microbial Technology 50 50 Practical 100 100 THIRD SEMESTER AM 301 Medical Microbiology 50 50 AM 302 Molecular Immunology 50 50 AM 303 Agricultural, Food and Dairy 50 50 Microbiology AM 304 Microbial Technology, Fermentation, 50 50 IPR and Patent Practical 100 100 FOURTH SEMESTER AM 401 Project VIVA 400 Total Marks 2200
  • 7. M. Sc. Applied Microbiology Department of Microbiology Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut w.e.f. 2009- 2010 Course AM 101: Instrumentation and Microbial TechniquesUnit I: Microscopy & Staining techniques: Basic principles for the examination of microbes by light, dark field, phase contrast, confocal, fluorescent and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy; Micrometry; Specimen preparation and basic principles of Simple, Gram, Capsule, Endospore, Flagella, Acid fast, Flurochrome and Nuclear/Geimsa’s staining.Unit II: Basic principles and methods of sterilization: control of microorganisms by physical methods: heat, filtration and radiation; chemical methods: phenolics, alcohols, halogens, heavy metals, quartenary ammonium compounds, aldehydes and sterilizing gases; evaluation of antimicrobial agent effectiveness. Principle and functioning of LAF.Unit III: Basic principles and methods of media preparation: types of culture media: simple media, complex media, synthetic media, enriched media, selective media, indicator media, differential media, anaerobic media; pH and buffers; Pure culture techniques: streak plate, pour plate and spread plate method; maintenance of pure culture; methods of preservation of various microbes.Unit IV: Basic principles and applications of spectrophotometry & Chromatography : Beer-Lambert law; interaction of radiation with matter, absorption of radiation, emission of radiation; UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, gel filtration, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography); GLC, HPLC and FPLC.Unit V: Miscellaneous techniques : Principles and applications of Electrophoresis for protein and DNA; Iso-electric focusing and 2D gel electrophoresis; Autoradiography, X-Ray diffraction; Centrifugation; Ultracentifugation; Dialysis, Ultrafiltration; Lyophilization and Speed vac.Suggested Reading: 1. Wilson K. and Walker J. (2008). Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Cambridge University Press. 2. Nelson D and Cox MM. (2009). Principles of Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 3. Talaro K. P. & Talaro A. (2006). Foundations in Microbiology. McGraw-Hill College Dimensi. 4. Potter GWH and Potter GW (1995). Analysis of Biological Molecules: An Introduction to Principles, Instrumentation and Techniques, Kluwer Academic Publishers. 5. Willey J, Sherwood L. and Woolverton C (2008). Prescott/Harley/Kleins Microbiology, McGraw Hill . 6. Willard, HH and Merritt LL (1986). Instrumental Methods of Analysis. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 7. Thornburn CC (1987). Isotopes and radiations in Biology. Butterworth and Co. Ltd., London. 8. Aneja KR. (2005). Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. New Age International (P) Ltd, Publishers. 9. Aneja KR, Jain P and Aneja R (2008). A Text book of Basic and Applied Microbiology. New Age International (P) Ltd, Publishers.Note: The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
  • 8. M. Sc. Applied Microbiology Department of Microbiology Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut w.e.f. 2009- 2010 Course AM 102: Microbial Diversity- Prokaryotes and VirusesUnit I: Discovery of microbial world; History, Scope and relevance of Microbiology; Current thoughts on microbial evolution including the origin of life; Introduction to microbial biodiversity – distribution, abundance, ecological niche of bacteria and archae.Unit II: Current status of microbes in the living world, Haeckel’s three kingdom concept, Whittaker’s five kingdom concept, three domain concept of Carl Woese, eight kingdom system of classification of Cavalier Smith; Modern trends in the classification of microbial world including 16S rRNA sequencing, Numerical and molecular taxonomy; Classification and salient features of bacteria according to the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative bacteriology. Morphology and ultra structure of bacterial cell.Unit III: General characteristics of Archae; cell wall of Archae, classification of Archae; General characteristics of thermophiles, psychrophiles, osmophiles, methanogens, methylotrophs, acidophiles, alkalophiles, halophiles and methanogens. Applications and commercial aspects of extremophiles. Adaptations and role of archeabacteria in the evolution of microbial world. General characters of Cyanobacteria, their classification, ultrastructure and economic importance.Unit VI: History of discovery of viruses; General characters, nomenclature, classification, morphology and ultra-structure of viruses; Capsid and their arrangement; Cultivation of viruses using embryonated eggs, experimental animals and cell cultures (Cell-lines, cell strains and transgenic systems). Purification of viruses by adsorption, precipitation, enzymes, serological methods (haeme agglutination and ELISA). Assay of viruses (physical and chemical methods).Unit V: Bacteriophages: Structure and life cycle patterns of T-even phages; one step growth curve; Bacteriophage typing; Structure of Cyanophages, Mycophages; General characters and structure of viroids and prions, their structure and major diseases caused by them, controversies about their nature.Suggested Reading: 1. Conrat HF, Kimball PC and Levy JA (2004). Virology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliff, New Jersey. 2. Colwd, D (2001). Microbial Diversity, Academic Press. 3. Taylor DJ, Green NPO and Stout GW (2003). Biological Sciences. Cambridge University Press. 4. Luria SE. (1978). General virology,.New York. John Wiley and Sons 5. Talaro KP. and Talaro A. (2006). Foundations in Microbiology. McGraw-Hill College Dimensi. 6. Aneja KR, Jain P & Aneja R (2008). A Text book of Basic and Applied Microbiology. New Age International, New DelhiNote: The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
  • 9. M. Sc. Applied Microbiology Department of Microbiology Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut w.e.f. 2009- 2010 Course AM 103: Microbial Diversity - EukaryotesUnit I: General characteristics of eukaryotic microbes; Ultrastructure and organization of a typical eukaryotic cell (membrane structure and functions, cytoskeleton, intracellular compartments--- nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast and their genetic organization); Structure and organization of chromatin; cell cycle; meiosis and mitosis; Classification of eukaryotic microbes; Evolutionary relationship of each group based on modern systems of classification.Unit II: Current status of fungi; their classification with reference to Ainsworth; General characters, somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Myxomycota, Mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina.Unit III: Heterothallism; sex hormones in fungi; physiological specialization and phylogeny of fungi. Parasexual life cycle; Economic importance of fungi. Lichen and their symbiotic relationship. Economic importance of lichens.Unit IV: General characteristics of algae; Classification of algae; Somatic structure, asexual and sexual reproduction of microbiologically important genera of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Rhodophyceae and Dinophyceae. Algal nutrition, ecology and biotechnology; Economic importance of algae.Unit V: General characteristics of Protozoans; Difference between protozoans and nematodes; Structure and reproduction of microbiologically important genera of protozoans (Entamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium) and Nematodes: Ancylostoma, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator; Cestodes: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Diphyllobothrium, Echinococcus granulosus and Trematodes: Paragonimus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma; Difference between Protozoans and Nematods .Suggested Reading: 1. Nester EW, Anderson DG and Nester MT (2006). Microbiology. A Human Perspective, McGraw Hill. 2. Atlas RM (2004). Principles of Microbiology. McGraw Hill. 3. Chatterjee KD (2005). Parasitology, Calcutta publication. 4. Lee RE. (2004). Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 5. Talaro KP and Talaro A. (2006). Foundations in Microbiology. McGraw-Hill College Dimensi. 6. Willey J, Sherwood L. and Woolverton C (2007). Prescott/Harley/Kleins Microbiology, McGraw Hill. 7. Aneja KR, Jain P and Aneja R (2008). A Text book of Basic and Applied Microbiology. New Age International (P) Ltd, Publishers.Note: The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.
  • 10. M. Sc. Applied Microbiology Department of Microbiology Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut w.e.f. 2009- 2010 Course AM 104: Biostatistics, Computer Application and BioinformaticsUnit I: Presentation of data; Frequency distributions; Graphical representation of data by histogram, polygon, frequency curves and pie diagram. Measures of central tendency: Mean, median and mode; Measures of dispersion : Mean deviation, standard deviation, variance, Standard error, coefficient of variation; Correlation and regression : properties, nature, coefficient of correlation, rank correlation, linear regression and regression equations and multiple linear regression, significance of correlation and regression.Unit II: Probability: Basic concepts related to probability theory, classical probability. Probability Distributions: Introduction and simple properties of Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions and their applications in biology. Sampling: Concept of sampling and sampling techniques.Unit III: Testing of hypotheses: Some basic concepts, Errors in hypothesis testing; critical region; Students t-test for the significance of population mean and the difference between two population means; Paired t-test; Chi square test for population variance, goodness of fit and for the independence of two attributes in a contingency table; F-test for the equality of two population variance; Analysis of variance- One-way and two-way analysis of variance.Unit IV: Introduction to Computers : Definition, Components of computer, Classification of Computers, Generation of Computers; Number system; Introduction to Software; Translators (Compiler & Interpreter); Basics for operating systems (MS-DOS, Windows, Unix and Linux); Introduction to MS Office (MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS-Power Point); Introduction to Networking, Internet (E-Mail, File Transfer Protocol, Usenet, Telnet).Unit V: Introduction to Bioinformatics: Definition and scope; Search engines: tools for web search; Introduction to biological databases (NCBI, EBI, DDBJ, GenBank, PDB, NDB and MMDB), Introduction to BLAST and FASTA; Brief idea about important softwares for microbiological studies.Suggested Reading: 1. White R (2000). How Computers work. Tech. Media. 2. Gralla P (2000). How the Internet Work. Tech. Media. 3. Bailey, NT J (2000). Statistical Methods in Biology. English Univ. Press. 4. Campbell R.C (1999). Statistics for Biologist. Cambridge University Press, UK. 5. Sinha PK (2002). Fundamentals of computers. BPB Publication, New Delhi 6. Jonathan, P. 2008. Bioinformatics & Functional Genomics.Note: The examiner is expected to set the question paper based on the entire course content. In Section A, the question paper shall include 5 long question (10 marks each) out of which the candidate is required to attempt 3 questions. Section B shall be based on short answers 100-200 words and shall include 4 questions of which the candidate is required to attempt 2 questions of 5 marks each. Section C shall include 10 to 20 questions of half / one mark each and shall be based on objective type / true-false / very short answers like definitions.