Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice

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Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice

by:Michael Armstrong
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  • 3. ii
  • 5. ivPublisher’s noteEvery possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate at thetime of going to press, and the publisher and authors cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions,however caused. No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to any person acting, or refraining fromaction, as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by the editor, the publisher or any of theauthors.First edition published in 1977 as A Handbook of Personnel Management Practice by Kogan Page LimitedSeventh edition published in 1999 as A Handbook of Human Resource Management PracticeEleventh edition published in 2009 as Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management PracticeApart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permittedunder the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or trans-mitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case ofreprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licences issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerningreproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned addresses:120 Pentonville Road 525 South 4th Street, #241London N1 9JN Philadelphia PA 19147United Kingdom© Michael Armstrong, 1977, 1984, 1988, 1991, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2009The right of Michael Armstrong to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accord-ance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.ISBN 978 0 7494 5242 1British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA CIP record for this book is available from the British Library.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataArmstrong, Michael, 1928–Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice / Michael Armstrong. -- Eleventh ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: A handbook of human resource management practice. 10th ed. 2006. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7494-5242-1 1. Personnel management --Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Armstrong, Michael, 1928– Handbook of humanresource management practice. II. Title. III. Title: Handbook of human resource management practice. HF5549.17.A76 2009 658.3--dc22 2008053904Typeset by Saxon Graphics Ltd, DerbyPrinted and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd
  • 6. v Contents in BriefPreface xxvPart I Human Resource Management 1 1. The Practice of Human Resource Management 3 2. Strategic Human Resource Management 25 3. HR Strategies 47 4. Human Capital Management 65 5. The Role and Organization of the HR Function 81 6. The Role of the HR Practitioner 104 7. The Impact of HRM on Performance 135 8. International HRM 150 9. Corporate Social Responsibility 165 10. Human Resource Management Research Methods 174Part II Human Resource Management Processes 199 11. Competency-based HRM 201 12. Knowledge Management 218 13. High-performance Work Systems 230Part III Work and Employment 249 14. Work 251 15. The Employment Relationship 260 16. The Psychological Contract 276Part IV Organizational Behaviour 289 17. The Essence of Organizational Behaviour 291 18. Characteristics of People 299
  • 7. vi Brief Contents 19. Motivation 316 20. Engagement and Commitment 335 21. How Organizations Function 357 22. Organizational Culture 383Part V Organization Design and Development 401 23. Organization Design 403 24. Organization Development 415 25. Change Management 423 26. Job, Role, Competency and Skills Analysis 443 27. Job and Role Design and Development 466Part VI People Resourcing 477 28. People Resourcing Strategy 479 29. Human Resource Planning 485 30. People Resourcing Practice 495 31. Recruitment and Selection 514 32. Selection Interviewing 540 33. Selection Tests 567 34. Talent Management 579 35. Career Management 590 36. Introduction to the Organization 602 37. Release from the Organization 609Part VII Performance Management 615 38. The Process of Performance Management 617 39. 360-degree Feedback 643Part VIII Learning and Development 651 40. Learning and Development Strategy 653 41. The Process of Learning and Development 663 42. Learning and Development Programmes and Events 683 43. How People Learn 700 44. Organizational Learning 713 45. Management Development 720
  • 8. Brief Contents viiPart IX Rewarding People 733 46. Reward Management 735 47. Job Evaluation 755 48. Market Rate Analysis 783 49. Grade and Pay Structures 795 50. Contingent Pay 815 51. Rewarding Special Groups 839 52. Employee Benefits, Pensions and Allowances 849 53. Managing Reward Systems 859Part X Employee Relations 875 54. The Employee Relations Framework 877 55. Employee Relations Processes 905 56. Employee Voice 935 57. Employee Communications 949Part XI Health, Safety and Employee Well-being 957 58. Health and Safety 959 59. Employee Well-being 975Part XII HR Policies, Procedures and Systems 985 60. HR Policies 987 61. HR Procedures 1000 62. HR Information Systems 1010Appendices 1017 A. Example of Employee Engagement and Commitment Survey 1019 B. Example of Performance Management Survey 1020 C. Example of Reward Survey 1021 D. Learning and Development Activities and Methods 1022Useful Website Addresses 1031Subject Index 1034Author Index 1057
  • 9. viii This page has been left intentionally blank
  • 10. ix ContentsSupporting resources for instructors and students xixList of figures xxiList of tables xxiiiPreface xxvPart I Human Resource Management 1 1. The Practice of Human Resource Management 3 Introduction 4; Human resource management defined 4; The objectives of HRM 5; Theories of HRM 6; Characteristics of HRM 7; The development of the concept of HRM 13; Reservations about HRM 14; The context of HRM 17; The ethical dimension 19 2. Strategic Human Resource Management 25 Introduction 26; The conceptual basis of strategic HRM 26; Strategic HRM defined 29; The resource-based view of strategic HRM 30; Strategic fit 32; Perspectives on strategic HRM 32; The best practice approach 33; The best fit approach 35; Bundling 37; The reality of strategic HRM 39; Practical implications of strategic HRM theory 40 3. HR Strategies 48 Introduction 48; What are HR strategies? 48; General HR strategies 49; Specific HR strategies 52; Criteria for an effective HR strategy 53; How should HR strategies be formulated? 54; Issues in developing HR strategies 55; Implementing HR strategies 59 4. Human Capital Management 65 Introduction 66; Human capital management defined 66; The concept of human capital 66; The constituents of human capital 68; Human capital measurement 69; Human capital internal reporting 75; Human capital external reporting 76; Introducing HCM 77
  • 11. x Full Contents 5. The Role and Organization of the HR Function 81 Introduction 82; The role of the HR function 82; The organization of the HR function 84; Evaluating the HR function 87; HR shared service centres 92; Outsourcing HR work 93; Offshoring 94; Using management consultants 94; Marketing the HR function 95; HR budgeting 96; The HR role of front line managers 97 6. The Role of the HR Practitioner 104 Introduction 105; The basic role 105; The business partner role 106; The strategic role of HR specialists 108; The change agent role 111; The internal consultancy role 112; The service delivery role 112; The guardian of values role 113; Models of HR roles 113; Gaining support and commitment 117; Ethical considerations 120; Professionalism in human resource management 121; Ambiguities in the role of HR practitioners 122; Conflict in the HR contribution 124; The qualities required by HR professionals 125; Continuous professional development 129 7. The Impact of HRM on Performance 135 Introduction 136; The impact made by HRM 136; How HRM strategies make an impact 141; How HRM practices make an impact 144 8. International HRM 150 Introduction 151; International HRM defined 151; Issues in international HRM 151; Global HR policies and practices 156; Managing expatriates 156 9. Corporate Social Responsibility 165 Introduction 166; Strategic CSR defined 166; CSR activities 167; The rationale for CSR 168; Developing a CSR strategy 170 10. Human Resource Management Research Methods 174 Introduction 175; The nature of research 175; Research philosophy 176; Planning and conducting research programmes 178; Literature reviews 180; Quantitative and qualitative methods of research 181; Methods of collecting data 182; Processes involved in research 187; Statistical analysis 191Part II Human Resource Management Processes 199 11. Competency-based HRM 201 Introduction 202; Types of competencies 202; Competency frameworks 204; Coverage of competencies 209; Applications of competency-based HRM 210; Developing a competency framework 212; Competencies and emotional intelligence 214
  • 12. Full Contents xi 12. Knowledge Management 218 Introduction 219; Knowledge management defined 219; The concept of knowledge 220; The purpose and significance of knowledge management 221; Knowledge management strategies 222; Knowledge management systems 223; Knowledge management issues 223; The contribution of HR to knowledge management 225 13. High-performance Work Systems 230 Introduction 231; High-performance culture 231; High-performance work system defined 232; Characteristics of a high-performance work system 234; Components of an HPWS 235; Impact of high- performance work systems 238; Reservations about the impact of an HPWS 240; Developing a high-performance work system 241Part III Work and Employment 249 14. Work 251 Introduction 252; The nature of work 252; Organizational factors affecting work 255; Changes in the pattern of employment 256; The future of work 257 15. The Employment Relationship 260 Introduction 261; The employment relationship defined 261; The basis of the employment relationship 262; Employment relationship contracts 263; What is happening to the employment relationship 265; Managing the employment relationship 266; Developing a high trust organization 267; Theories explaining the employment relationship 270 16. The Psychological Contract 276 Introduction 277; The psychological contract defined 277; The psychological contract and the employment relationship 279; The significance of the psychological contract 280; Changes to the psychological contract 282; State of the psychological contract 2004 283; How psychological contracts develop 284; Developing and maintaining a positive psychological contract 285Part IV Organizational Behaviour 289 17. The Essence of Organizational Behaviour 291 Introduction 292; Organizational behaviour defined 292; Characteristics of organizational behaviour 292; Organizational behaviour and the social and behavioural sciences 293; Explaining organizational behaviour 294; Factors affecting organizational behaviour 294; The sources and applications of organization behaviour theory 295; The significance of organizational behaviour theory 296
  • 13. xii Full Contents 18. Characteristics of People 299 Introduction 300; Individual differences 300; Personal characteristics 302; Types of behaviour 307; Implications for HR specialists 311 19. Motivation 316 Introduction 317; Motivation defined 317; Types of motivation 318; Motivation theories 319; Motivation and money 329; Motivation strategies 330 20. Engagement and Commitment 335 Introduction 336; The concepts of engagement and commitment compared 336; Employee engagement 337; Organizational commitment 345; The contribution of HR to developing commitment 351 21. How Organizations Function 357 Introduction 358; Organization theory 359; Organization structure 365; Types of organization 366; Organizational processes 369 22. Organizational Culture 383 Introduction 384; Organizational culture defined 384; Organizational climate defined 385; How organizational culture develops 386; The diversity of culture 387; The components of culture 387; Classifying organizational culture 390; Assessing organizational culture 391; Measuring organizational climate 392; Appropriate cultures 394; Supporting and changing cultures 394Part V Organization Design and Development 401 23. Organization Design 403 Introduction 404; The process of organizing 404; Aims of organization design 405; Conducting organization reviews 406; Who does the work? 412 24. Organization Development 415 Introduction 416; Organization development defined 416; Organization development programmes 417; Assumptions and values of organization development 417; Organization development activities 418 25. Change Management 423 Introduction 424; Types of change 424; The change process 426; Change models 426; Resistance to change 430; Implementing change 432; Guidelines for change management 433; Organizational transformation 434; The role of HR in managing change 437
  • 14. Full Contents xiii 26. Job, Role, Competency and Skills Analysis 443 Introduction 444; Definitions 444; Job analysis 446; Job descriptions 449; Role analysis and role profiles 451; Generic role profiles 453; Behavioural competency modelling 454; Analysing technical competencies 461; Skills analysis 461 27. Job and Role Design and Development 466 Introduction 467; Job design 467; Role development 473Part VI People Resourcing 477 28. People Resourcing Strategy 479 Introduction 480; The objective of people resourcing strategy 480; The strategic HRM approach to resourcing 480; Integrating business and resourcing strategies 481; The components of people resourcing strategy 482; Bundling resourcing strategies and activities 482 29. Human Resource Planning 485 Introduction 486; Human resource planning defined 486; Aims of human resource planning 487; Use of human resource planning 488; Approaches to human resource planning 488 30. People Resourcing Practice 495 Introduction 496; Employee value proposition 496; Employer brand 497; Employee turnover 497; Retention planning 503; Absence management 506; Flexibility planning 509 31. Recruitment and Selection 514 Introduction 515; The recruitment and selection process 515; Defining requirements 515; Recruitment planning 518; Attracting candidates 519; Processing applications 527; Selection methods 529; Dealing with recruitment problems 533; References and offers 534 32. Selection Interviewing 540 Introduction 541; Purpose 541; The basis of an interview – the person specification 541; The nature of an interview – obtaining the information 542; Advantages and disadvantages of interviews 544; Interviewing arrangements 545; Preparation 546; Planning an interview 547; Types of interviews 548; Interview techniques – starting and finishing 552; Interviewing techniques – asking questions 552; Selection interviewing skills 560; Coming to a conclusion 562 33. Selection Tests 567 Introduction 568; Psychological tests 568; Aptitude tests 571; Characteristics of a good test 572; Interpreting test results 573; Choosing tests 574; The use of tests in a selection procedure 574; Good practice in psychological testing 575
  • 15. xiv Full Contents 34. Talent Management 579 Introduction 580; The meaning of talent management 580; The process of talent management 582; Developing a talent management strategy 584; Management succession planning 586 35. Career Management 590 Introduction 591; Career management defined 591; Aims 591; Career stages 592; Career development strategy 593; Career management activities 593; The process of career management 594; Self-managed careers 598 36. Introduction to the Organization 602 Introduction 603; Induction: what it is and why it is important 603; Reception 604; Documentation 604; Company induction – initial briefing 605; Introduction to the workplace 605; Formal induction courses 606; On-the-job induction training 607 37. Release from the Organization 609 Introduction 610; Redundancy 610; Dismissal 611; Retirement 612Part VII Performance Management 615 38. The Process of Performance Management 617 Introduction 618; Performance management defined 618; Objectives of performance management 619; Characteristics of performance management 619; Underpinning theories 620; The performance management cycle 621; Conducting a performance review meeting 627; Assessing performance 629; Dealing with under- performers 634; Introducing performance management 636; Line managers and performance management 638 39. 360-degree Feedback 643 Introduction 644; Use of 360-degree feedback 644; 360-degree feedback – methodology 644; 360-degree feedback – advantages and disadvantages 646; Development and implementation 647Part VIII Learning and Development 651 40. Learning and Development Strategy 653 Introduction 654; Features of a learning and development strategy 654; Learning culture 656; The learning organization 657; The contribution of learning and development to organizational performance 658 41. The Process of Learning and Development 663 Introduction 664; Learning and development defined 664; Elements of learning and development 665; Approaches to learning and
  • 16. Full Contents xv development 666; Informal and formal learning 666; E-learning 670; Blended learning 673; Self-directed learning 673; Development 674; Training 675 42. Learning and Development Programmes and Events 683 Introduction 684; The business case for learning and development 684; Planning and delivering learning programmes and events 685; Responsibility for the implementation of learning 689; Identifying learning needs 690; Evaluation of learning 693 43. How People Learn 700 Introduction 701; Learning defined 701; The learning process 701; Learning theory 702; Learning styles 704; Learning to learn 706; The learning curve 706; The motivation to learn 708; The implications of learning theory and concepts 709 44. Organizational Learning 713 Introduction 714; Organizational learning defined 714; The process of organizational learning 715; Outcomes of organizational learning 717; Evaluative enquiry 717; Organizational learning and the learning organization 718 45. Management Development 720 Introduction 721; Management development policy 721; Management development strategy 722; Approaches to management development 723; The integrated approach to management development 726; Responsibility for management development 727; Criteria for management development 730Part IX Rewarding People 733 46. Reward Management 735 Introduction 736; Reward management defined 736; The philosophy of reward management 737; The reward system 739; Total reward 741; Reward strategy 746; Reward management and line management capability 751 47. Job Evaluation 755 Introduction 756; Job evaluation defined 756; Approaches 757; Analytical job evaluation schemes 758; Non-analytical schemes 761; Market pricing 764; Computer-aided job evaluation 765; Choice of approach 766; Designing an analytical point-factor job evaluation scheme 769; Designing an analytical matching job evaluation scheme 776; Equal pay considerations 777; Conclusions 779 48. Market Rate Analysis 783 Introduction 784; The concept of a market rate 784; Job matching 785; Use of benchmark jobs 786; Sources of market data 787; Interpreting and presenting market rate data 792; Using survey data 792
  • 17. xvi Full Contents 49. Grade and Pay Structures 795 Introduction 796; Definitions 796; Types of grade and pay structure 798; Designing grade and pay structures 807 50. Contingent Pay 815 Introduction 816; Contingent pay as a motivator 816; Arguments for and against contingent pay 817; Alternatives to contingent pay 819; Criteria for success 820; Performance-related pay 821; Competency- related pay 822; Contribution-related pay 823; Skill-based pay 825; Readiness for individual contingent pay 827; Developing and implementing individual contingent pay 827; Service-related pay 828; Summary of individual contingent pay schemes 829; Bonus schemes 829; Team-based pay 832; Organization-wide bonus schemes 833; Choice of approach to contingent pay 834 51. Rewarding Special Groups 839 Reward management for directors and executives 840; Reward management for sales representatives 842; Paying manual workers 844 52. Employee Benefits, Pensions and Allowances 849 Employee benefits 850; Pensions 852; Communicating pensions policies 855; Total reward statements 856; Allowances 856 53. Managing Reward Systems 859 Introduction 860; Controlling reward 860; Monitoring and evaluating reward policies and practices 861; Conducting pay reviews 862; Reward procedures 867; Managing the development of reward systems 868; Devolution to line managers of responsibility for reward 868; Communicating to employees 871Part X Employee Relations 875 54. The Employee Relations Framework 877 Introduction 878; The basis of employee relations 878; Industrial relations as a system of rules 880; Regulations and rules in industrial relations 881; Collective bargaining 882; The unitary and pluralist views 884; The concept of social partnership 886; Individualism and collectivism 886; Voluntarism and its decline 887; The HRM approach to employee relations 887; The context of industrial relations 889; Developments in industrial relations 890; The parties to employee relations 893 55. Employee Relations Processes 905 Introduction 906; Employee relations policies 906; Employee relations strategies 909; Employee relations climate 910; Union recognition 912; Collective bargaining arrangements 913; Collective bargaining outcomes 915; Informal employee relations processes 920; Other
  • 18. Full Contents xvii features of the industrial relations scene 921; Negotiating and bargaining 923; Managing with unions 927; Managing without trade unions 929; The state of employment relations 930; Handling employment issues 931 56. Employee Voice 935 Introduction 936; The meaning of employee voice 936; The forms of employee voice 937; The framework for employee voice 938; Expression of employee voice 939; Joint consultation 941; Attitude surveys 942; Suggestion schemes 944; Effectiveness of employee involvement and participation 945; Planning for voice 945; EU Directives affecting employee voice procedures 945 57. Employee Communications 949 Introduction 950; The importance of employee communications 950; What should be communicated? 950; Approach to communication 951; Communication methods 951; Employee communication strategy 953Part XI Health, Safety and Employee Well-being 957 58. Health and Safety 959 Introduction 960; Managing health and safety at work 960; Health and safety policies 961; Conducting risk assessments 962; Health and safety audits 965; Health and safety inspections 967; Accident prevention 967; Occupational health programmes 968; Measuring health and safety performance 969; Communicating the need for better health and safety practices 970; Health and safety training 971; Organizing health and safety 971 59. Employee Well-being 975 Introduction 976; Improving of the work environment 976; Services for individuals 981; Group employee services 982Part XII HR Policies, Procedures and Systems 985 60. HR Policies 987 Introduction 988; Why have HR policies? 988; Overall HR policy 988; Specific HR policies 990; Formulating HR policies 997; Implementing HR policies 998 61. HR Procedures 1000 What are HR procedures? 1001; Capability procedure 1001; Disciplinary procedure 1003; Grievance procedure 1005; Redundancy procedure 1006 62. HR Information Systems 1010 Introduction 1011; Reasons for introducing an HRIS 1011; The functions of an HRIS 1011; Features of an HRIS 1013; Introducing an HRIS 1014
  • 19. xviii Full ContentsAppendices 1017 A. Example of Employee Engagement and Commitment Survey 1019 B. Example of Performance Management Survey 1020 C. Example of Reward Survey 1021 D. Learning and Development Activities and Methods 1022Useful Web Addresses 1031Subject Index 1034Author Index 1057
  • 20. xix Supporting Resources for Instructors and StudentsAs a reader of Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, you haveautomatic access to a range of additional resources designed to enhance your experi-ence and use of the book. Full details are provided below.For lecturers and instructorsResources include: • Session outlines for each of the 62 chapters. • Glossaries of key concepts and terms for 60 chapters. • Questions for each chapter. • A selection of multiple choice questions. • Bibliographies for 59 chapters. • Fifty case studies. • Two hundred and thirty-seven PowerPoint slides.The lecturer resources are contained within the Free Resources section of the KoganPage website – Using the left-hand menu, go to theAcademic Resources section, click on Lecturer Resources and follow the instructionsonline.For studentsResources include: • Student learning notes – with key learning points for each chapter. • A glossary of key concepts and terms.
  • 21. xx Supporting Resources • Multiple choice questions. • Case studies. • A guide to taking CIPD exams, including an analysis of question papers from May 2005 to May 2008.The student resources are contained within the Free Resources section of the KoganPage website – Using the left-hand menu, go to theAcademic Resources section, click on Student Resources and follow the instructionsonline.
  • 22. xxi List of FiguresFigure 0.1 Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice route map xxviFigure 1.1 The HRM system 12Figure 2.1 Strategic HRM model 40Figure 6.1 The John Storey model of personnel management 115Figure 6.2 The Peter Reilly model of HR 115Figure 7.1 Impact of HRM on organizational performance 143Figure 10.1 Examples of charts 192Figure 10.2 A scattergram with regression (trend) line 194Figure 15.1 Dimensions of the employment relationship 262Figure 16.1 A model of the psychological contract 280Figure 17.1 The sources and applications of organization behaviour theory 295Figure 19.1 The process of motivation 323Figure 19.2 Motivation model (Porter and Lawler) 326Figure 20.1 Combinations of the impact of engagement and organizational commitment 337Figure 21.1 Channels of communication within groups 371Figure 26.1 Example of job description 451Figure 26.2 Example of a role profile 453Figure 26.3 Example of a generic role profile 454Figure 29.1 Human resource planning flow chart 490Figure 30.1 A survival curve 499Figure 31.1 Competency-based person specification for a recruitment specialist 518Figure 31.2 Example of application form (compressed) 530Figure 32.1 Example of an interview rating form 563Figure 33.1 A normal curve 569Figure 34.1 The elements of talent management 582Figure 34.2 Management succession schedule 587Figure 35.1 Career progression curves 593Figure 35.2 The process of career management 595Figure 35.3 Competency band career progression system 597
  • 23. xxii List of FiguresFigure 35.4 Career paths in a career family structure 598Figure 38.1 The performance management cycle 621Figure 38.2 Performance matrix 633Figure 39.1 360-degree feedback profile 645Figure 41.1 Elements of learning and development 666Figure 41.2 Systematic training model 677Figure 42.1 The learning gap 690Figure 42.2 Learning needs analysis – areas and methods 691Figure 42.3 A learning specification 692Figure 43.1 The Kolb learning cycle 704Figure 43.2 A standard learning curve 707Figure 43.3 Different rates of learning 707Figure 43.4 A stepped learning curve 708Figure 44.1 Single- and double-loop learning 716Figure 46.1 The reward management system: elements and interrelationships 742Figure 46.2 The components of total reward 743Figure 46.3 Model of total reward 745Figure 46.4 A model of the reward strategy development process 750Figure 47.1 A typical job evaluation programme 771Figure 47.2 Point-factor job evaluation scheme design sequence 772Figure 47.3 Analytical matching job evaluation scheme design sequence 776Figure 49.1 A multi-graded structure 799Figure 49.2 A broad-graded structure 799Figure 49.3 Narrow- and broad-banded structures 800Figure 49.4 A broad-banded structure with zones 801Figure 49.5 A job family structure 802Figure 49.6 A career family structure 803Figure 49.7 A pay spine 803Figure 49.8 Incidence of grade and pay structures 807Figure 49.9 Flow chart: design of a new grade and pay structure 812Figure 50.1 Line of sight model 821Figure 50.2 Performance-related pay 821Figure 50.3 Competency-related pay 822Figure 50.4 Contribution pay model (1) 824Figure 50.5 Contribution pay model (2) 824Figure 50.6 Contribution-related pay 825Figure 50.7 Contribution-related pay model 825Figure 53.1 Development of reward system 869Figure 56.1 A framework for employee voice 938Figure 56.2 Levels of employee voice 940Figure 62.1 Introducing an HRIS 1015
  • 24. xxiii List of TablesTable 2.1 Role behaviours appropriate for different strategies, Schuler and Jackson (1987) 36Table 3.1 Achieving vertical fit between HR and business strategies 56Table 4.1 A summary of human capital measures and their possible uses 73Table 4.2 Framework for external reporting 76Table 5.1 Issues facing HR departments 83Table 5.2 Measures of HR effectiveness and their use 89Table 6.1 Competency framework for HR professionals 126Table 6.2 Key competency areas 127Table 7.1 Research on the link between HRM and firm performance 136Table 7.2 The HR practices that impact on performance 144Table 10.1 Alternative research philosphies 177Table 10.2 Contrasts between quantitative and qualitative research (Bryman and Bell, 2007) 181Table 11.1 Incidence of different competency headings 205Table 11.2 Reasons for using competencies 208Table 13.1 Lists of HR practices in high-performance work systems 236Table 13.2 Examples of high-performance working ingredients 242Table 14.1 Feelings at work (WERS, 2004) 254Table 16.1 Changes in the psychological contract 282Table 16.2 Job satisfaction (WERS, 2004) 283Table 19.1 Summary of motivation theories 319Table 19.2 Factors affecting motivation strategies and the HR contribution 330Table 26.1 Criteria for a rigorous competency definition 455Table 30.1 A survival rate analysis 500Table 30.2 Leavers’ length of service analysis 501Table 31.1 Person specification classification schemes 517Table 32.1 Advantages and disadvantages of interviews 544Table 32.2 Dos and don’ts of selection interviewing 563Table 41.1 Characteristics of formal and informal learning 669Table 43.1 The implications of learning theory and concepts 709Table 46.1 Economic theories explaining pay levels 738
  • 25. xxiv List of TablesTable 47.1 A factor plan 759Table 47.2 A paired comparison 763Table 47.3 Comparison of different job evaluation methods 767Table 48.1 Analysis of market rate data sources 790Table 49.1 Summary analysis of different grade and pay structures 805Table 50.1 Summary of contingent pay and service-related pay schemes 830Table 51.1 Summary of payment and incentive arrangements for sales staff 842Table 51.2 Comparison of shop floor payment-by-result schemes 845Table 53.1 A pay matrix 865Table 55.1 Industrial relations negotiations/commercial negotiations 923
  • 26. xxv PrefaceThis eleventh edition of Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource ManagementPractice contains many additions and revisions. It covers major developments in thetheory and practice of human resource management in the last three years. There arenew chapters on the impact of HRM, corporate social responsibility, high perform-ance work systems, employee engagement, change management, resourcing strategyand practice and employee well-being. Significant changes and improvements havebeen made to most of the other chapters. The plan of the book is illustrated in the‘route map’ in Figure 0.1.The design of the book has been radically updated, with the aim of providing a text thatencourages and facilitates better learning. Chapters contain key concepts and terms,learning outcomes, key learning points, questions and further reading; allowing stu-dents to recap, reflect and test their learning.The companion website provides further resources for both students and lecturers.Students can expand on their learning and are provided with help and advice on takingexaminations. Lecturers are provided with a range of resources, including PowerPointslides and support notes for teaching.
  • 27. xxvi Preface I Human resource management 1. Practice of HRM 2. Strategic HRM 3. HR strategies 4. Human capital management 5. Role of HR function 6. Role of HR practitioner 7. Impact of HRM 8. International HRM 9. Corporate social responsibility 10. HRM research methods II HRM processes III Work and IV Organizational V Organization design employment behaviour and development 11. Competency-based HRM 14. Work 17. Essence of organiza- 23. Organization design 12. Knowledge 15. Employment tional behaviour 24. Organization management relationship 18. Characteristics of development 13. High performance 16. Psychological contract people 25. Change management work systems 19. Motivation 26. Job and role analysis 20. Engagement and 27. Job and role design commitment 21. How organizations function 22. Organizational culture VI People resourcing VII Performance VIII Learning and IX Rewarding people management development 28. Resourcing strategy 46. Reward management 29. Human resource 38. The process of 40. Learning and 47. Job evaluation planning performance development strategy management 48. Market rate analysis 30. Resourcing practice 41. The process of 39. 360-degree feedback learning and 49. Grade and pay 31. Recruitment and structures development selection 50. Contingent pay 42. Learning and 32. Selection interviewing 51. Rewarding special development 33. Selection tests programmes groups 34. Talent management 43. How people learn 52. Employee benefits 35. Career management 44. Organizational and pensions 36. Introduction to the learning 53. Managing reward organization 45. Management systems 37. Release from the development organization X Employee relations XI Health, safety and XII HR processes employee well-being and systems 54. The employee relations framework 58. Health and safety 60. HR policies 55. Employee relations 59. Employee well-being 61. HR procedures processes 62. HR information 56. Employee voice systems 57. Employee communicationsFigure 0.1 Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice route map
  • 28. 1 Part I Human Resource ManagementThis part describes the basic features and characteristics of human resource manage-ment, strategic human resource management and HR strategies (Chapters 1, 2 and 3).This provides the framework within which the detailed descriptions of HRM strate-gies, policies, processes and practices that occupy most of this book take place. Theroles of the HR function and the HR practitioner are examined in Chapters 4 and 5,and Chapter 6 deals with the impact of HRM. Chapter 7 covers human capital manage-ment and the part ends with an analysis of international HRM, corporate social respon-sibility and HRM research methods.Part I contents 1. The practice of human resource management 3 2. Strategic human resource management 25 3. HR strategies 47 4. Human capital management 65 5. The role and organization of the HR function 81 6. The role of the HR practitioner 104 7. The impact of HRM on performance 135 8. International HRM 150 9. Corporate social responsibility 16510. Human resource management research methods 174
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  • 30. 3 1 The Practice of Human Resource ManagementKey concepts and terms• AMO theory • The matching model of HRM• Commitment • Mutuality• Contingency theory • Pluralistic employee relations• The hard version of HRM • The resource-based view• The Harvard framework • The soft version of HRM• HRM systems • Strategic integration• Human resource management (HRM)Learning outcomesOn completing this chapter you should be able to define these key concepts.You should also be able to:• Define the objectives of HRM • Define the policy goals of HRM• Describe the characteristics of • Understand how HRM developed HRM as a concept• Appreciate the reservations • Understand the context in which expressed about HRM HRM operates• Appreciate the ethical dimensions of HRM
  • 31. 4 Human Resource ManagementIntroductionThe practice of human resource management (HRM) is concerned with all aspects of howpeople are employed and managed in organizations. It covers activities such as strategic HRM,human capital management, corporate social responsibility, knowledge management, organi-zation development, resourcing (human resource planning, recruitment and selection, andtalent management), performance management, learning and development, reward manage-ment, employee relations, employee well-being and health and safety and the provision ofemployee services. HRM practice has a strong conceptual basis drawn from the behaviouralsciences and from strategic management, human capital and industrial relations theories. Thisfoundation has been built with the help of a multitude of research projects.The aim of this chapter is to provide a general introduction to the practice and underpinningconcepts of HRM. It covers the definition of HRM, the objectives of HRM, HRM theory, thecharacteristics of HRM, the components of HRM systems, the development of HRM as anapproach to managing people, the views expressed about HRM by key commentators, thecontext within which HRM functions, and the ethical dimensions that affect HR policy andpractice.Human resource management definedHuman resource management (HRM) is a strategic, integrated and coherent approach to theemployment, development and well-being of the people working in organizations. Other definitions of HRM Human resource management involves all management decisions and action that affect the nature of the relationship between the organization and its employees – its human resources. (Beer et al, 1984) HRM comprises a set of policies designed to maximize organizational integration, employee commitment, flexibility and quality of work. (Guest, 1987) HRM consists of the following propositions: That human resource policies should be integrated with strategic business planning and used to reinforce an appropriate (or change an inappropriate)
  • 32. The Practice of Human Resource Management 5 organizational culture, that human resources are valuable and a source of competitive advantage, that they may be tapped most effectively by mutually consistent policies that promote commitment and which, as a consequence, foster a willingness in employees to act flexibly in the interests of the ‘adaptive organization’s’ pursuit of excellence. (Legge, 1989) Human resource management is a distinctive approach to employment manage- ment which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deploy- ment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. (Storey, 1995) HRM is: ‘The management of work and people towards desired ends.’ (Boxall et al, 2007) HRM is concerned with how organizations manage their workforce (Grimshaw and Rubery, 2007)The objectives of HRMThe overall purpose of human resource management is to ensure that the organization is ableto achieve success through people. HRM aims to increase organizational effectiveness andcapability – the capacity of an organization to achieve its goals by making the best use of theresources available to it. Ulrich and Lake (1990) remarked that: ‘HRM systems can be thesource of organizational capabilities that allow firms to learn and capitalize on new opportuni-ties.’ But HRM has an ethical dimension which means that it must also be concerned with therights and needs of people in organizations through the exercise of social responsibility.Dyer and Holder (1998) analysed management’s HR goals under the headings of contribution(what kind of employee behaviour is expected?), composition (what headcount, staffing ratioand skill mix?), competence (what general level of ability is desired?) and commitment (whatlevel of employee attachment and identification?).
  • 33. 6 Human Resource Management HRM policy goals, David Guest (1987, 1989a, 1989b, 1991) SOURCE REVIEW 1. Strategic integration: the ability of the organization to integrate HRM issues into its strategic plans, ensure that the various aspects of HRM cohere, and provide for line managers to incorporate an HRM perspective into their decision making. 2. High commitment: behavioural commitment to pursue agreed goals, and atti- tudinal commitment reflected in a strong identification with the enterprise. 3. High quality: this refers to all aspects of managerial behaviour that bear directly on the quality of goods and services provided, including the man- agement of employees and investment in high quality employees. 4. Flexibility: functional flexibility and the existence of an adaptable organi- zation structure with the capacity to manage innovation.The policy goals for HRM identified by Caldwell (2004) included managing people as assetsthat are fundamental to the competitive advantage of the organization, aligning HRM policieswith business policies and corporate strategy, and developing a close fit of HR policies, proce-dures and systems with one another.Theories of HRMThe practice of HRM is underpinned by a number of theories. The categories of HRM theorylisted by Guest (1997) and Boselie et al (2005) are listed below. Theories of HRM, David Guest (1997) SOURCE REVIEW 1. Strategic theories – in the UK the implicit but untested hypothesis is that good fit (between HR practice and the internal and external context) will be associated with superior performance. In the United States the focus has been more on classifying types of HR strategy. The hypothesis is that firms that have a fit between business strategy, structure and HRM policy will have superior performance. 2. Descriptive theories – these either list areas of HR policy and outcomes (Beer et al, 1984) or adopt a systems approach, describing the relationships between levels (Kochan et al, 1986). They are largely non-prescriptive. 3. Normative theories – these are normative in the sense that they establish a norm or standard pattern in the form of prescribed best practice. These take a considerable risk in implying ‘one best way’.
  • 34. The Practice of Human Resource Management 7 Theories of HRM, Boselie et al (2005) 1. Contingency theory – HRM is influenced by the organization’s environ- ment and circumstances (Legge, 1978). 2. The resource-based view – HRM delivers added value through the strate- gic development of the organization’s rare, hard to imitate and hard to substitute human resources (Barney, 1991, 1995). 3. AMO theory – the formula Performance = Ability + Motivation + Opportunity to Participate provides the basis for developing HR systems that attend to employees’ interests, namely their skill requirements, moti- vations and the quality of their job (Appelbaum et al, 2000; Bailey et al, 2001; Boxall and Purcell, 2003).Characteristics of HRMHRM was regarded by Storey (1989) as a ‘set of interrelated policies with an ideological and phil-osophical underpinning’. He listed four aspects that constitute the meaningful version of HRM:1. a particular constellation of beliefs and assumptions;2. a strategic thrust informing decisions about people management;3. the central involvement of line managers; and4. reliance upon a set of ‘levers’ to shape the employment relationship.As Boselie et al (2005) explained, HRM: responds accurately and effectively to the organization’s environment and complements other organizational systems (cf contingency theory) and delivers ‘added value’ through the strategic development of the organization’s rare, inimitable and non-substitutable resources, embodied – literally – in its staff (cf the resource-based view).The characteristics of HRM are that it is diverse, strategic and commitment-oriented, adopts aunitary rather than pluralist viewpoint, is founded on the belief that people should be treatedas assets and is a management-driven activity. HRM tends to focus on business values althoughthere is a growing body of opinion (eg Guest, 2002) that it has also to be concerned withemployee-centred outcomes. In its fully developed form, HRM functions as a system. AsSchuler (1992) indicated, HRM links, integrates and coheres.
  • 35. 8 Human Resource ManagementThe diversity of HRMThere are no universal characteristics of HRM. Many models exist, and practices within differ-ent organizations are diverse, often only corresponding to the conceptual version of HRM in afew respects. Boxall et al (2007) remarked that: ‘Human resource management covers a vastarray of activities and shows a huge range of variations across occupations, organizationallevels, business units, firms, industries and societies.’A distinction was made by Storey (1989) between the ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ versions of HRM. Thehard version emphasizes that people are important resources through which organizationsachieve competitive advantage. These resources have therefore to be acquired, developed anddeployed in ways that will benefit the organization. The focus is on the quantitative, calculativeand business-strategic aspects of managing human resources in as ‘rational’ a way as for anyother economic factor.The soft version of HRM has its roots in humanism – an approach devoted to human intereststhat views people as responsible and progressive beings. It also traces its origins to the humanrelations school founded by Elton Mayo (1933), which believed that productivity was directlyrelated to job satisfaction and that the output of people will be high if they like their co-work-ers and are given pleasant supervision. But this is a fairly remote connection. The soft versionof HRM as described by Storey (1989) involves ‘treating employees as valued assets, a source ofcompetitive advantage through their commitment, adaptability and high quality (of skills,performance and so on)’. It therefore views employees, in the words of Guest (1999b), as meansrather than objects, but it does not go as far as following Kant’s (1781) advice: ‘Treat people asends unto themselves rather than as means to an end.’ The soft approach to HRM stresses theneed to gain the commitment (the ‘hearts and minds’) of employees through involvement,communication, leadership and other methods of developing a high-commitment, high-trustorganization. Attention is also drawn to the key role of organizational culture.In 1998, Karen Legge defined the ‘hard’ model of HRM as a process emphasizing ‘the close integra-tion of human resource policies with business strategy which regards employees as a resource to bemanaged in the same rational way as any other resource being exploited for maximum return’. Incontrast, the soft version of HRM sees employees as ‘valued assets and as a source of competitiveadvantage through their commitment, adaptability and high level of skills and performance’.It has, however, been observed by Truss (1999) that ‘even if the rhetoric of HRM is soft, thereality is often hard, with the interests of the organization prevailing over those of the indi-vidual’. Research carried out by Gratton et al (1999) found that in the eight organizations theystudied, a mixture of hard and soft HRM approaches was identified. This suggested to theresearchers that the distinction between hard and soft HRM was not as precise as some com-mentators have implied.But as Dyer and Holder (1998) emphasized: ‘HRM goals vary according to competitive choices,technologies or service tangibles, characteristics of their employees (eg could be different for
  • 36. The Practice of Human Resource Management 9managers), the state of the labour market and the societal regulations and national culture.’And Boxall et al (2007) noted that: ‘The general motives of HRM are multiple.’The strategic nature of HRMPerhaps the most significant feature of HRM is the importance attached to strategic integra-tion. Legge (1989) argued that one of the common themes of the typical definitions of HRMis that human resource policies should be integrated with strategic business planning. KeithSisson (1990) suggested that a feature increasingly associated with HRM is the emphasis onthe integration of HR policies both with one another and with business planning more gener-ally. John Storey (1989) believes that: ‘The concept locates HRM policy formulation firmly atthe strategic level and insists that a characteristic of HRM is its internally coherent approach.’The commitment-oriented nature of HRMOne of the aims of HRM is to promote commitment – the strength of an individual’s identifi-cation with, and involvement in, a particular organization. It was noted by Karen Legge (1995)that human resources ‘may be tapped most effectively by mutually consistent policies thatpromote commitment and which, as a consequence, foster a willingness in employees to actflexibly in the interests of the “adaptive organization’s” pursuit of excellence’.However, this emphasis on commitment has been criticized from the earliest days of HRM.Guest (1987) asked: ‘commitment to what?’ and Fowler (1987) has stated: At the heart of the concept is the complete identification of employees with the aims and values of the business – employee involvement but on the company’s terms. Power in the HRM system, remains very firmly in the hands of the employer. Is it really possible to claim full mutuality when at the end of the day the employer can decide unilaterally to close the company or sell it to someone else?Focus on mutualityThe importance of mutuality (the belief that management and employees share the same con-cerns and it is therefore in both their interests to work together) was emphasized by Walton(1985a) as follows: The new HRM model is composed of policies that promote mutuality – mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards, mutual responsibility. The theory is that policies of mutuality will elicit commitment which in turn will yield both better economic performance and greater human development.
  • 37. 10 Human Resource ManagementThe concept of mutuality is based on the notion of unitary employee relations, described below.Unitary and pluralist employee relationsHRM is characterized by a unitarist rather than a pluralist view of employee relations with theemphasis on individual contracts, not collective agreements. A unitarist view expresses the beliefthat people in organizations share the same goals and work as members of one team. The plural-ist view recognizes that the interests of employees will not necessarily coincide with their employ-ers and suggests that the unitary view is naïve, unrealistic and against the interest of employees.Treating people as assets or human capitalThe notion that people should be regarded as assets rather than variable costs, in other words,treated as human capital, was originally advanced by Beer et al (1984). HRM philosophy, asmentioned by Legge (1995), holds that ‘human resources are valuable and a source of competi-tive advantage’. Armstrong and Baron (2002) stated that: People and their collective skills, abilities and experience, coupled with their ability to deploy these in the interests of the employing organization, are now recognized as making a significant contribution to organizational success and as constituting a major source of competitive advantage.Focus on business valuesThe concept of hard HRM is based on a management- and business-oriented philosophy. It isconcerned with the total interests of the organization – the interests of the members of theorganization are recognized but subordinated to those of the enterprise. Hence the impor-tance attached to strategic integration and strong cultures, which flow from top management’svision and leadership, and which require people who will be committed to the strategy, whowill be adaptable to change and who fit the culture.In 1995 Legge noted that HRM policies are adapted to drive business values and are modifiedin the light of changing business objectives and conditions. She suggested that evidence indi-cated more support for the hard versions of HRM than the soft version.Organization- versus employee-centred outcomesIn line with labour process theory, Thompson and Harley (2007) asserted that; ‘What is hap-pening is a process of “capitalizing on humanity” rather than investing in human capital.’ Theemphasis may have been on the business orientation of HRM but there is a growing body of
  • 38. The Practice of Human Resource Management 11opinion that there is more to HRM than that. This is the employee-centred and ethical dimen-sion of HRM, discussed at the end of the chapter.Grant and Shields (2002) argued that the emphasis typically placed on the business case forHRM suggests a one-sided focus on organizational outcomes at the expense of employees. Itwas noted by Paauwe (2004) that: Added value represents the harsh world of economic rationality, but HRM is also about moral values… The yardstick of human resource outcomes is not just economic ration- ality – a stakeholder perspective is required, ie develop and maintain sustainable rela- tionships with all the relevant stakeholders, not just customers and shareholders.Kochan (2007) contended that: The HR profession has always had a special professional responsibility to balance the needs of the firm with the needs, aspirations and interests of the workforce and the values and standards society expects to be upheld at work… A regime which provides human beings no deep reason to care about one another cannot long preserve its legitimacy.Ulrich and Brockbank (2005a) believe that ‘caring and listening to employees remains a centrepiece of HR work’.HRM as a systemAn open systems view of HRM has been developed by Wright and Snell (1998). An opensystem is dependent on the environment for inputs, which are transformed during throughputto produce outputs that are exchanged in the environment. Wright and Snell defined an openHRM system as a competence model of organizations. Skills and abilities are treated as inputsfrom the environment; employee behaviours are treated as throughput; and employee satisfac-tion and performance are treated as outputs.In its traditional form, HRM, as pointed out by Boselie et al (2005), can be viewed as ‘a collec-tion of multiple discrete practices with no explicit or discernible link between them’. In con-trast ‘the more strategically minded systems approach views HRM as an integrated andcoherent bundle of mutually reinforcing practices’. As Kepes and Delery (2007) comment, adefining characteristic of HRM is that HRM systems and not individual HRM practices are thesource of competitive advantage. ‘Coherent and internally aligned systems form powerful con-nections that create positive synergistic effects on organizational outcomes.’As illustrated in Figure 1.1 an HRM system brings together HR philosophies that describe theoverarching values and guiding principles adopted in managing people, HR strategies that
  • 39. 12 Human Resource Managementdefine the direction in which HRM intends to go, HR policies that provide guidelines defininghow these values, principles and the strategies should be applied and implemented in specificareas of HRM, HR processes that comprise the formal procedures and methods used to putHR strategic plans and policies into effect, linked HR practices that consist of the approachesused in managing people, and HR programmes that enable HR strategies, policies and prac-tices to be implemented according to plan. Becker and Gerhart (1996) have classified thesecomponents into three levels: the system architecture (guiding principles), policy alternatives,and processes and practices. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT HR philosophies Human capital HR strategies, policies, processes, Corporate social management practices and programmes responsibility Organization Learning and Reward Employee Resourcing development managment relations Design Human resource Organizational Job evaluation/ Industrial planning learning market surveys relations Recruitment & Individual Grade and pay Employee voice Development selection learning structures Talent Management Contingent pay Communications Job/role design management development Health and Performance safety management Employee benefits Employee Knowledge wellbeing management HR servicesFigure 1.1 The HRM system
  • 40. The Practice of Human Resource Management 13The development of the concept of HRMThe terms ‘human resource management’ (HRM) and ‘human resources’ (HR) have virtuallyreplaced the term ‘personnel management’ as a description of the processes involved in man-aging people in organizations, although what is now described as HRM is in practice oftensynonymous with what used to be described as personnel management. In the early days ofHRM it was suggested by Armstrong (1987) that: HRM is regarded by some personnel managers as just a set of initials or old wine in new bottles. It could indeed be no more and no less than another name for personnel man- agement, but as usually perceived, at least it has the virtue of emphasizing the virtue of treating people as a key resource, the management of which is the direct concern of top management as part of the strategic planning processes of the enterprise. Although there is nothing new in the idea, insufficient attention has been paid to it in many organizations.However, commentators such as Guest (1987) and Storey (1995) regard HRM as a substan-tially different model built on unitarism (employees share the same interests as employers),individualism, high commitment and strategic alignment (integrating HR strategy with thebusiness strategy). It is claimed that HRM is more holistic than traditional personnel manage-ment. HRM has also emphasized the notion that people should be regarded as assets ratherthan variable costs.Origins of the concept of HRMThe concept of HRM was first defined by Bakke (1966) who wrote that: The general type of activity in any function of management… is to use resources effec- tively for an organizational objective… The function which is related to the under- standing, maintenance, development, effective employment, and integration of the potential in the resource of ‘people’ I shall call simply the human resources function.However, HRM did not emerge in a fully fledged form until the 1980s in the ‘matching model’and the Harvard framework, described below.The matching model of HRMOne of the first detailed statements of the HRM concept was made by the Michigan school(Fombrun et al, 1984). They held that HR systems and the organization structure should bemanaged in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy (hence the name ‘matching
  • 41. 14 Human Resource Managementmodel’). They further explained that there is a human resource cycle that consists of fourgeneric processes or functions that are performed in all organizations: selection, appraisal,rewards and development.The Harvard frameworkThe other pioneers of HRM in the 1980s were the Harvard school of Beer et al (1984) whodeveloped what Boxall (1992) calls the ‘Harvard framework’. This framework is based on theirbelief that the problems of historical personnel management can only be solved: when general managers develop a viewpoint of how they wish to see employees involved in and developed by the enterprise, and of what HRM policies and practices may achieve those goals. Without either a central philosophy or a strategic vision – which can be provided only by general managers – HRM is likely to remain a set of independ- ent activities, each guided by its own practice tradition.Beer and his Harvard colleagues believed that ‘Today, many pressures are demanding a broader,more comprehensive and more strategic perspective with regard to the organization’s humanresources.’ These pressures have created a need for: ‘A longer-term perspective in managingpeople and consideration of people as potential assets rather than merely a variable cost.’ Theywere the first to underline the HRM tenet that it belongs to line managers. The Harvard schoolsuggested that HRM had two characteristic features: 1) line managers accept more responsibil-ity for ensuring the alignment of competitive strategy and HR policies, and 2) HR has themission of setting policies that govern how HR activities are developed and implemented inways that make them more mutually reinforcing.Reservations about HRMFor some time HRM was a controversial topic, especially in academic circles. The main reser-vations have been that HRM promises more than it delivers and that its morality is suspect.HRM promises more than it can deliverNoon (1992) has commented that HRM has serious deficiencies as a theory: ‘It is built withconcepts and propositions, but the associated variables and hypotheses are not made explicit.It is too comprehensive… If HRM is labelled a “theory” it raises expectations about its abilityto describe and predict.’Guest (1991) believed that HRM is an ‘optimistic but ambiguous concept’; it is all hype andhope. Mabey et al (1998) followed this up by asserting that ‘the heralded outcomes (of HRM)
  • 42. The Practice of Human Resource Management 15are almost without exception unrealistically high’. To put the concept of HRM into practiceinvolves strategic integration, developing a coherent and consistent set of employment poli-cies, and gaining commitment. This requires high levels of determination and competence atall levels of management and a strong and effective HR function staffed by business-orientedpeople. It may be difficult to meet these criteria, especially when the proposed HRM cultureconflicts with the established corporate culture and traditional managerial attitudes andbehaviour.Gratton et al (1999) were convinced on the basis of their research that there was ‘a disjunctionbetween rhetoric and reality in the area of human resource management between HRM theoryand HRM practice, between what the HR function says it is doing and that practice as per-ceived by employers, and between what senior management believes to be the role of the HRfunction, and the role it actually plays’. In their conclusions they refer to the ‘hyperbole andrhetoric of human resource management’.Caldwell (2004) believed that HRM ‘is an unfinished project informed by a self-fulfilling visionof what it should be’.The above comments were based on the assumption that there is a single monolithic form ofHRM. This is not the case. HRM comes in all sorts of shapes and sizes. Sometimes, as Armstrong(1987) commented, it is just new wine in old bottles – personnel management under anothername. It has to be conceded that many organizations that think they are practising HRM asdescribed earlier are not doing so, at least to the full extent. It is difficult, and it is best not toexpect too much. For example, most of the managements who hurriedly adopted perform-ance-related pay as an HRM device that would act as a lever for change have been sorelydisappointed.However, the research conducted by Guest and Conway (1997) covering a stratified randomsample of 1,000 workers established that a notably high level of HRM was found to be in place.This contradicts the view that management has tended to ‘talk up’ the adoption of HRM prac-tices. The HRM characteristics covered by the survey included the opportunity to expressgrievances and raise personal concerns on such matters as opportunities for training anddevelopment, communication about business issues, single status, effective systems for dealingwith bullying and harassment at work, making jobs interesting and varied, promotion fromwithin, involvement programmes, no compulsory redundancies, performance-related pay,profit sharing and the use of attitude surveys.The morality of HRMHRM is accused by many academics of being manipulative if not positively immoral. Willmott(1993) remarked that HRM operates as a form of insidious ‘control by compliance’ when itemphasizes the need for employees to be committed to do what the organization wants themto do. It preaches mutuality but the reality is that behind the rhetoric it exploits workers. It is,
  • 43. 16 Human Resource Managementas Keenoy (1990) asserted, a wolf in sheep’s clothing. Scott (1994) thought that HRM was aform of deceit, ‘using subtle approaches to incorporate workers in an organizational way ofthinking and in effect brainwashing them to become willing slaves’.Legge (1998) pointed out that: Sadly, in a world of intensified competition and scarce resources, it seems inevitable that, as employees are used as means to an end, there will be some who will lose out. They may even be in the majority. For these people, the soft version of HRM may be an irrelevancy, while the hard version is likely to be an uncomfortable experience.The accusation that HRM treats employees as means to an end is often made. However, itcould be argued that if organizations exist to achieve ends, which they obviously do, and ifthose ends can only be achieved through people, which is clearly the case, the concern of man-agement for commitment and performance from those people is not unnatural and is notattributable to the concept of HRM – it existed in the good old days of personnel managementbefore HRM was invented. What matters is how management treat people as ends and whatmanagement provide in return.Much of the hostility to HRM expressed by a number of academics is based on the belief thatit is against the interests of workers, ie, that it is managerialist. However, the Guest and Conway(1997) research established that the reports of workers on outcomes showed that a highernumber of HR practices were associated with higher ratings of fairness, trust and manage-ment’s delivery of their promises. Those experiencing more HR activities also felt more securein and more satisfied with their jobs. Motivation was significantly higher for those working inorganizations where more HR practices were in place. In summary, as commented by Guest(1999b), it appears that workers like their experience of HRM. These findings appear to con-tradict the ‘radical critique’ view produced by academics such as Mabey et al (1998) and theothers quoted above that HRM has been ineffectual, pernicious (ie managerialist) or both.Some of those who adopt this stance tend to dismiss favourable reports from workers aboutHRM on the grounds that they have been brainwashed by management. But there is no evi-dence to support this view.Moreover, as Armstrong (2000) pointed out: HRM cannot be blamed or given credit for changes that were taking place anyway. For example, it is often alleged to have inspired a move from pluralism to unitarism in industrial relations. But newspaper production was moved from Fleet Street to Wapping by Murdoch, not because he had read a book about HRM but as a means of breaking the print unions’ control.
  • 44. The Practice of Human Resource Management 17Contradictions in the reservations about HRMGuest (1999b) has suggested that there are two contradictory concerns about HRM. The firstas formulated by Legge (1995, 1998) is that while management rhetoric may express concernfor workers, the reality is harsher. And Keenoy (1997) complained that: ‘The real puzzle aboutHRMism is how, in the face of such apparently overwhelming critical refutation, it has securedsuch influence and institutional presence.’Other writers, however, simply observe that HRM does not work. Scott (1994), for example,stated that both management and workers were captives of their history and found it very dif-ficult to let go of their traditional adversarial orientations.But these contentions are contradictory. Guest (1999b) remarked that; ‘It is difficult to treatHRM as a major threat (though what it is a threat to is not always made explicit) deserving ofserious critical analysis while at the same time claiming that it is not practiced or isineffective.’The context of HRMHRM processes take place within the context of the internal and external environment of theorganization. HR practitioners will gain credibility and make a greater strategic contributionif they can analyse the impact of external events on company policies and practices. They needto be aware of the fact that what the organization does and what they need to do will dependto a large extent on its external and internal environments. They need to understand contin-gency theory.Contingency theoryContingency theory tells us that definitions of HR aims, policies and strategies, lists of activitiesand analyses of the role of the HR department are valid only if they are related to the situation ofthe organization. Legge (1978) in her influential book, Power, Innovation and Problem Solving inPersonnel Management was the first commentator to insist that a contingent approach should beadopted to personnel management, ie, ‘the design and implementation of policy that matches, oris contingent upon specified organizational requirements and circumstances’.As Paauwe (2004) explained: Contingency theory states that the relationship between the relevant independent vari- ables (eg HRM policies and practices) and the dependent variable (performance) will vary according to the influences such as company size, age and technology, capital intensity, degree of unionization, industry/sector ownership and location.
  • 45. 18 Human Resource ManagementContingency theory is associated with the concept of fit – the need to achieve congruencebetween an organization’s HR strategies, policies and practices and its business strategieswithin the context of its external and internal environment.Contextual factorsThe contextual factors that influence HR policies and practices are the external and internalenvironments of the organization.The external environmentThe external environment consists of social, political, legal and economic developments andcompetitive pressures. Global competition in mature production and service sectors is increas-ing. This is assisted by easily transferable technology and reductions in international trade bar-riers. Customers are demanding more as new standards are reached through internationalcompetition. Organizations are reacting to this competition by becoming ‘customer-focused’,speeding up response times, emphasizing quality and continuous improvement, acceleratingthe introduction of new technology, operating more flexibly and ‘losing cost’. The pressure hasbeen for businesses to become ‘lean and mean’, downsizing and cutting out layers of manage-ment and supervision. They are reducing permanent staff to a core of essential workers,increasing the use of peripheral workers (sub-contractors, temporary staff) and ‘outsourcing’work to external service providers.The internal environmentThe following aspects of the internal environment will affect HR policy and practice: • the type of business or organization – private, public or voluntary sector; manufactur- ing or service; • the size of the organization; • the age or maturity of the organization; • the technology or key activities of the business will determine how work is organized, managed and carried out; • the type of people employed, eg professional staff, knowledge workers, technicians, administrators, production workers, sales and customer service staff; • the organization’s culture – the established pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and assumptions that shape the ways in which people behave and things get done.
  • 46. The Practice of Human Resource Management 19The ethical dimensionAs Boxall et al (2007) point out: ‘While HRM does need to support commercial outcomes(often called “the business case”), it also exists to serve organizational needs for social legiti-macy.’ This means exercising social responsibility, ie being concerned for the interests (well-being) of employees and acting ethically with regard to the needs of people in the organizationand the community.Within the organization the requirement is to: • treat people equally in terms of the opportunities for employment, learning and devel- opment provided for them; • treat people according to the principle of procedural justice (Adams, 1965 and Leventhal, 1980), ie the ways in which people are managed are fair, consistent, transparent and properly consider the views and needs of employees; • treat people according to the principles of distributive justice (Adams, 1965 and Leventhal, 1980), ie rewards are distributed to them according to their contribution and they receive what was promised to them; • treat people according to the principles of natural justice, ie individuals should know the standards they are expected to achieve and the rules to which they are expected to conform, they should be given a clear indication of where they are failing or what rules have been broken and, except in cases of gross misconduct, they should be given a chance to improve before disciplinary action is taken; • avoid treating people as mere factors of production; • be concerned with the well-being of employees as well as the pursuit of commercial gain; • offer as much security of employment as possible; • provide a working environment that protects the health and safety of employees and minimizes stress; • act in the interests of providing a reasonable balance for employees between their life and their work; • protect employees against harmful practices at work, eg bullying, harassment and discrimination.
  • 47. 20 Human Resource Management The practice of HRM – key learning points The objectives of HRM • focus on business values; • To ensure that the organization is • organization-centred orientation. able to achieve success through How HRM developed as a concept people. • To increase organizational effective- Emerged in the 1980s in the form of the ness and capability. Harvard framework and the matching model. • To be concerned with the rights and needs of people in organiza- Reservations expressed about HRM tions through the exercise of social • promises more than it can deliver; responsibility. • manipulative – ‘control by compli- The policy goals of HRM (Guest) ance’ (Willmott); • strategic integration; • managerialist. • high commitment; The context in which HRM operates • high quality; HRM practice contingent on the circum- • flexibility. stances in which the organization operates, The characteristics of HRM ie its internal and external environment. • diverse (hard and soft); Appreciate the ethical dimensions of • strategic; HRM • commercial orientation; HRM must exercise social responsibility – it • focus on mutuality; must be concerned with the interests (well- • unitary view; being) of employees and act ethically with • people treated as assets or human regard to the needs of people in the organi- capital; zation and the community.
  • 48. The Practice of Human Resource Management 21 Questions 1. You are head of human resources in a medium-sized manufacturing company. Your new chief executive mentions to you that in her last firm they had a personnel manager and asks you to explain the difference, if any. 2. At a meeting of trustees the chief executive of a medium-sized charity proposed that a director of human resources should be appointed. Two trustees protested that the term ‘human resources’ implied that employees would just be treated as factors of production not as people. How would you respond? 3. John Storey wrote in 1995 that: ‘Human resource management is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques.’ Examine the approach to HRM in your own organization or any other organization known to you and analyse the extent to which Storey’s description of HRM applies. 4. Your local branch of the CIPD has asked you either to propose or oppose (your choice) a motion to the effect that ‘This house agrees with the statement of Keenoy and Anthony in 1992 that HRM is no more than a rhetoric masking the intensification and commodi- fication of labour.’ Prepare the case either for or against the motion. 5. Harley and Hardy (2004) wrote that ‘Managers can use the language of HRM to estab- lish the legitimacy of their practices, even if the latter bear little resemblance to the former.’ What is the meaning and significance of this statement?ReferencesAdams, J S (1965) Injustice in social exchange, in (ed) L Berkowitz, Advances in Experimental Psychology, Academic Press, New YorkAppelbaum, E, Bailey, T, Berg, P and Kalleberg, A L (2000) Manufacturing Advantage: Why high performance work systems pay off, ILR Press, Ithaca, NYArmstrong, M (1987) Human resource management: a case of the emperor’s new clothes, Personnel Management, August, pp 30–35Armstrong, M (2000) The name has changed but has the game remained the same?, Employee Relations, 22 (6), pp 576–89Armstrong, M and Baron, A (2002) Strategic HRM: The route to improved business performance, CIPD, LondonBailey, T, Berg, P and Sandy, C (2001) The effect of high performance work practices on employee earnings in the steel, apparel and medical electronics and imaging industries, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 54 (2A), pp 525–43
  • 49. 22 Human Resource ManagementBakke, E W (1966) Bonds of Organization: An appraisal of corporate human relations, Archon, HamdenBarney, J B (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of Management Studies, 17 (1), pp 99–120Barney, J B (1995) Looking inside for competitive advantage, Academy of Management Executive, 9 (4), pp 49–61Becker, B E and Gerhart, S (1996) The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: progress and prospects, Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4), pp 779–801Beer, M, Spector, B, Lawrence, P, Quinn Mills, D and Walton, R (1984) Managing Human Assets, The Free Press, New YorkBoselie, P, Dietz, G and Boon, C (2005) Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research, Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3), pp 67–94Boxall, P F (1992) Strategic HRM: a beginning, a new theoretical direction, Human Resource Management Journal, 2 (3) pp 61–79Boxall, P F and Purcell, J (2003) Strategy and Human Resource Management, Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeBoxall, P F, Purcell J and Wright P (2007) The goals of HRM, in (eds) P Boxall, J Purcell and P Wright, Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordCaldwell, R (2004) Rhetoric, facts and self-fulfilling prophesies: exploring practitioners’ perceptions of progress in implementing HRM, Industrial Relations Journal, 35 (3), pp 196–215Dyer, L and Holder, G W (1998) Strategic human resource management and planning, in (ed) L Dyer, Human Resource Management: Evolving roles and responsibilities, Bureau of National Affairs, Washington DCFowler, A (1987) When chief executives discover HRM, Personnel Management, January, p 3Fombrun, C J, Tichy, N M and Devanna, M A (1984) Strategic Human Resource Management, Wiley, New YorkGrant, D and Shields, J (2002) In search of the subject: researching employee reactions to human resource management, Journal of Industrial Relations, 44 (3), pp 178–93Gratton, L A, Hailey, V H, Stiles, P and Truss, C (1999) Strategic Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordGrimshaw, D and Rubery, J (2007) Economics and HRM, in (eds) P Boxall, J Purcell and P Wright, Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordGuest, D E (1987) Human resource management and industrial relations, Journal of Management Studies, 14 (5), pp 503–21Guest, D E (1989a) Human resource management: its implications for industrial relations’, in (ed) J Storey, New Perspectives in Human Resource Management, Routledge, LondonGuest, D E (1989b) Personnel and HRM: can you tell the difference? Personnel Management, January, pp 48–51Guest, D E (1991) Personnel management: the end of orthodoxy, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 29 (2), pp 149–76Guest, D E (1997) Human resource management and performance; a review of the research agenda, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8 (3), 263–76Guest, D E (1999b) Human resource management: the workers’ verdict, Human Resource Management Journal, 9 (2), pp 5–25Guest, D E (2002) Human resource management, corporate performance and employee well-being: building the worker into HRM, Journal of Industrial Relations, 44 (3), pp 335–58
  • 50. The Practice of Human Resource Management 23Guest, D E and Conway, N (1997) Employee Motivation and the Psychological Contract, IPD, LondonHarley B and Hardy, C (2004) Firing blanks? An analysis of discursive struggle in HRM, Journal of Management Studies, 41 (3), pp 377–400Kant, I (1781) Critique of Pure Reason, Dover Publications (2003), Mineola, NYKeenoy, T (1990) HRM: a case of the wolf in sheep’s clothing, Personnel Review, 19 (2), pp 3–9Keenoy, T (1997) HRMism and the images of re-presentation, Journal of Management Studies, 34 (5), pp 825–41Keenoy, T and Anthony, P (1992) HRM: metaphor, meaning and morality, in (eds) P Blyton and P Turnbull, Reassessing Human Resource Management, Sage Publications, LondonKepes, S and Delery, J E (2007) HRM systems and the problem of internal fit, in (eds) P Boxall, J Purcell and P Wright, Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordKochan, T A (2007) Social legitimacy of the HR profession, in (eds) P Boxall, J Purcell and P Wright, Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordKochan, T A, Katz, H and McKersie, R (1986) The Transformation of American Industrial Relations, Basic Books, New YorkLegge, K (1978) Power, Innovation and Problem Solving in Personnel Management, McGraw-Hill, MaidenheadLegge, K (1989) Human resource management: a critical analysis, in (ed) J Storey, New Perspectives in Human Resource Management, Routledge, LondonLegge, K (1995) Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and realities, Macmillan, LondonLegge, K (1998) The morality of HRM, in (eds) C Mabey, D Skinner and T Clark, Experiencing Human Resource Management, Sage, LondonLeventhal, G S (1980) What should be done with equity theory? in (eds) G K Gergen, M S Greenberg and R H Willis, Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, Plenum, New YorkMabey, C, Skinner, D and Clark, T (1998) Experiencing Human Resource Management, Sage, LondonMayo, E (1933) Human Problems of an Industrial Civilisation, Macmillan, LondonNoon, M (1992) HRM: a map, model or theory?, in (eds) P Blyton and P Turnbull, Reassessing Human Resource Management, Sage Publications, LondonPaauwe, J (2004) HRM and performance: Achieving long term viability, Oxford University Press, OxfordSchuler, R S (1992) Strategic human resource management: linking people with the strategic needs of the business, Organizational Dynamics, 21 (1), pp 18–32Scott, A (1994) Willing Slaves: British workers under human resource management, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeSisson, K (1990) Introducing the Human Resource Management Journal, Human Resource Management Journal, 1 (1), pp 1–11Storey, J (1989) From personnel management to human resource management, in (ed) J Storey, New Perspectives on Human Resource Management, Routledge, LondonStorey, J (ed) (1995) Human Resource Management: A critical text, Routledge, LondonThompson, P and Harley, B (2007) HRM and the worker: labour process perspectives, in (eds) P Boxall, J Purcell and P Wright, Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordTruss, C (1999) Soft and hard models of HRM, in (eds) L Gratton, V H Hailey, P Stiles, and C Truss, Strategic Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordUlrich, D and Brockbank, W (2005a) The HR Value Proposition, Harvard Press, Cambridge, MA
  • 51. 24 Human Resource ManagementUlrich, D and Lake, D (1990) Organizational Capability: Competing from the inside out, Wiley, New YorkWalton, R E (1985a) From control to commitment in the workplace, Harvard Business Review, March– April, pp 77–84Willmott, H (1993) Strength is ignorance, slavery is freedom: Managing culture in modern organizations, Journal of Management Studies, 30 (4), pp 515–52Wright, P M and Snell, S A (1998) Towards a unifying framework for exploring fit and flexibility in strategic human resource management, Academy of Management Review, 23 (4), pp 756–72
  • 52. 25 2 Strategic Human Resource ManagementKey concepts and terms• Best fit • Resource-based view• Best practice • Strategic configuration• Bundling • Strategic fit• Competitive advantage • Strategic HRM• Configuration • Strategic management• Human resource advantage • Strategy• Lifecycle modelLearning outcomesOn completing this chapter you should be able to define these key concepts.You should also understand:• The conceptual basis of strategic • The fundamental characteristics HRM of strategy• How strategy is formulated • The aims of strategic HRM• The resource-based view and its • The three HRM ‘perspectives’ of implications Delery and Doty• The significance of the concepts • The significance of bundling of ‘best practice’ and ‘best fit’• The practical implications of strategic HRM theory
  • 53. 26 Human Resource ManagementIntroductionAs Baird and Meshoulam (1988) remarked: ‘Business objectives are accomplished when humanresource practices, procedures and systems are developed and implemented based on organi-zational needs, that is, when a strategic perspective to human resource management is adopted.’The aim of this chapter is to explore what this involves. It starts with an introduction to thebasis of strategic human resource management (strategic HRM) provided by the concepts ofhuman resource management and strategic management. It then covers a definition of strate-gic human resource management (strategic HRM) and its aims; an analysis of its underpin-ning concepts – the resource-based view and strategic fit; and a description of how strategicHRM works, namely the universalistic, contingency and configurational perspectives definedby Delery and Doty (1996) and the three approaches associated with those perspectives – bestpractice, best fit and bundling. The chapter ends with discussions on the reality of strategicHRM and the practical implications of the theories reviewed earlier.The conceptual basis of strategic HRMBoxall (1996) explained that strategic HRM ‘is the interface between HRM and strategic man-agement’. It takes the notion of HRM as a strategic, integrated and coherent approach anddevelops that in line with the concept of strategic management. This is an approach to man-agement that involves taking a broad and long-term view of where the business or part of thebusiness is going and managing activities in ways that ensure this strategic thrust ismaintained.As defined by Pearce and Robinson (1988): ‘Strategic management is the set of decisions andactions resulting in the formulation and implementation of strategies designed to achieve theobjectives of an organization.’ According to Kanter (1984) its purpose is to: ‘elicit the presentactions for the future’ and become ‘an action vehicle – integrating and institutionalizing mech-anisms for change’. The concept of strategic management is built on the concept of strategy, asconsidered below.The concept of strategyStrategy is the approach selected to achieve defined goals in the future. According to Chandler(1962) it is: ‘The determination of the long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and theadoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out thosegoals.’Strategy has three fundamental characteristics. First, it is forward looking. It is about decidingwhere you want to go and how you mean to get there. It is concerned with both ends and
  • 54. Strategic Human Resource Management 27means. In this sense a strategy is a declaration of intent: ‘This is what we want to do and this ishow we intend to do it.’ Strategies define longer-term goals but they also cover how those goalswill be attained. They guide purposeful action to deliver the required result. A good strategy isone that works, one that in Abell’s (1993) phrase enables organizations to adapt by ‘masteringthe present and pre-empting the future’. As Boxall (1996) explained: ‘Strategy should be under-stood as a framework of critical ends and means.’The second characteristic of strategy is that the organizational capability of a firm (its capacityto function effectively) depends on its resource capability (the quality and quantity of itsresources and their potential to deliver results). This is the resource-based view, based on theideas of Penrose (1959) who wrote that: the firm is ‘an administrative organization and a col-lection of productive resources’. It was expanded by Wernerfelt (1984) who explained thatstrategy ‘is a balance between the exploitation of existing resources and the development ofnew ones’. Resource-based strategy theorists such as Barney (1991, 1995) argued that sustainedcompetitive advantage stemmed from the acquisition and effective use of bundles of distinc-tive resources that competitors cannot imitate. The resource-based view is a major element instrategic HRM, as discussed later in this chapter.The third characteristic of strategy is strategic fit – the need when developing HR strategies toachieve congruence between them and the organization’s business strategies within the contextof its external and internal environment. The focus is upon the organization and the worldaround it. To maximize competitive advantage a firm must match its capabilities and resourcesto the opportunities available in its environment. The concept of fit or integration is also amajor feature of strategic HRM.The formulation of strategyThe formulation of corporate strategy is best described as a process for developing a sense ofdirection, making the best use of resources and ensuring strategic fit. It has often been describedas a logical, step-by-step affair, the outcome of which is a formal written statement that pro-vides a definitive guide to the organization’s intentions. Many people still believe and act as ifthis were the case, but it is a misrepresentation of reality. In practice the formulation of strat-egy can never be as rational and linear a process as some writers describe it or as some manag-ers attempt to make it.The difficulty is that strategies are often based on the questionable assumption that the futurewill resemble the past. Some years ago, Heller (1972) had a go at the cult of long-range plan-ning: ‘What goes wrong’ he wrote, ‘is that sensible anticipation gets converted into foolishnumbers: and their validity always hinges on large loose assumptions.’Strategy formulation is not necessarily a deterministic, rational and continuous process, as waspointed out by Mintzberg (1987). He believe that, rather than being consciously and system-atically developed, strategy reorientation happens in what he calls brief ‘quantum loops’. A
  • 55. 28 Human Resource Managementstrategy, according to Mintzberg, can be deliberate – it can realize the intentions of seniormanagement, for example to attack and conquer a new market. But this is not always the case.In theory, he says, strategy is a systematic process: first we think, then we act; we formulate,then we implement. But we also ‘act in order to think’. In practice, ‘a realized strategy canemerge in response to an evolving situation’ and the strategic planner is often ‘a pattern organ-izer, a learner if you like, who manages a process in which strategies and visions can emerge aswell as be deliberately conceived’. This concept of ‘emergent strategy’ conveys the essence ofhow in practice organizations develop their business and HR strategies.Mintzberg was even more scathing about the weaknesses of strategic planning in his 1994article in the Harvard Business Review on ‘The rise and fall of strategic planning’. He contendsthat ‘the failure of systematic planning is the failure of systems to do better than, or nearly aswell as, human beings’. He went on to say that: Far from providing strategies, planning could not proceed without their prior exist- ence… real strategists get their hands dirty digging for ideas, and real strategies are built from the nuggets they discover… sometimes strategies must be left as broad visions, not precisely articulated, to adapt to a changing environment.He emphasized that strategic management is a learning process as managers of firms find outwhat works well in practice for them. A realistic view of strategy SOURCE REVIEW Tyson (1997) pointed out that, realistically, strategy: • has always been emergent and flexible – it is always ‘about to be’, it never exists at the present time; • is not only realized by formal statements but also comes about by actions and reactions; • is a description of a future-oriented action that is always directed towards change; • is conditioned by the management process itself.The process of strategic HRM as defined below has to take account of these features ofstrategy.
  • 56. Strategic Human Resource Management 29Strategic HRM definedStrategic HRM is an approach that defines how the organization’s goals will be achievedthrough people by means of HR strategies and integrated HR policies and practices.Strategic HRM can be regarded as a mind set underpinned by certain concepts rather than aset of techniques. It provides the foundation for strategic reviews in which analyses of theorganizational context and existing HR practices lead to choices on strategic plans for thedevelopment of overall or specific HR strategies (see Chapter 3). Strategic HRM involves theexercise of strategic choice (which is always there) and the establishment of strategicprioritiesBut strategic HRM is not just about strategic planning. It is also concerned with the imple-mentation of strategy and the strategic behaviour of HR specialists working with their linemanagement colleagues on an everyday basis to ensure that the business goals of the organiza-tion are achieved and its values are put into practice. The strategic role of HR practitioners isexamined in Chapter 5.Aims of strategic HRMThe fundamental aim of strategic HRM is to generate organizational capability by ensuringthat the organization has the skilled, engaged, committed and well-motivated employees itneeds to achieve sustained competitive advantage. It has two main objectives: first to achieveintegration – the vertical alignment of HR strategies with business strategies and the horizon-tal integration of HR strategies. The second objective is to provide a sense of direction in anoften turbulent environment so that the business needs of the organization and the individualand collective needs of its employees can be met by the development and implementation ofcoherent and practical HR policies and programmes. In accordance with the resource-basedview, the strategic goal will be to ‘create firms which are more intelligent and flexible than theircompetitors’ (Boxall, 1996) by hiring and developing more talented staff and by extendingtheir skills base.Schuler (1992) stated that: Strategic human resource management is largely about integration and adaptation. Its concern is to ensure that: 1) human resources (HR) management is fully integrated with the strategy and strategic needs of the firm; 2) HR policies cohere both across policy areas and across hierarchies; and 3) HR practices are adjusted, accepted and used by line managers and employees as part of their everyday work.As Dyer and Holder (1988) remarked, strategic HRM provides ‘unifying frameworks whichare at once broad, contingency based and integrative’. The rationale for strategic HRM is the
  • 57. 30 Human Resource Managementperceived advantage of having an agreed and understood basis for developing and implement-ing approaches to people management that take into account the changing context in whichthe firm operates and its longer-term requirements.Strategic HRM is based on two key concepts, namely, the resource-based view and strategic fit.The resource-based view of strategic HRMTo a very large extent, the philosophy and approaches to strategic HRM are underpinned bythe resource-based view. This states that it is the range of resources in an organization, includ-ing its human resources, that produces its unique character and creates competitiveadvantage.Barney (1991, 1995) stated that competitive advantage arises first when firms within an indus-try are heterogeneous with respect to the strategic resources they control and second, whenthese resources are not perfectly mobile across firms and thus heterogeneity can be long lasting.Creating sustained competitive advantage therefore depends on the unique resources andcapabilities that a firm brings to competition in its environment. These resources include allthe experience, knowledge, judgement, risk-taking propensity and wisdom of individuals asso-ciated with a firm. For a firm resource to have the potential for creating sustained competitiveadvantage it should have four attributes: it must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable andnon-substitutable. To discover these resources and capabilities, managers must look insidetheir firm for valuable, rare and costly-to-imitate resources, and then exploit these resourcesthrough their organization.The significant link between the resources and capabilities of a firm and its strategies was sum-marized by Grant (1991) as follows. The significance of the resource-base view, Grant (1991) SOURCE REVIEW The resources and capabilities of a firm are the central considerations in for- mulating its strategy: they are the primary constants upon which a firm can establish its identity and frame its strategy, and they are the primary sources of the firm’s profitability. The key to a resource-based approach to strategy for- mulation is understanding the relationships between resources, capabilities, competitive advantage, and profitability – in particular, an understanding of the mechanisms through which competitive advantage can be sustained over time. This requires the design of strategies which exploit to maximum effect each firm’s unique characteristics.
  • 58. Strategic Human Resource Management 31Wright et al (2001) noted that there are three important components of HRM that constitutea resource for the firm and are influenced by HR practices or the HR system:1. The human capital pool comprised of the stock of employee knowledge, skills, motivation and behaviours.2. The flow of human capital through the firm – the movement of people and of knowledge.3. The dynamic processes through which organizations change and/or renew themselves.They suggested that HR practices are the primary levers through which the firm can changethe pool of human capital as well as attempt to change the employee behaviours that lead toorganizational success.Resource-based strategic HRM can produce what Boxall and Purcell (2003) referred to ashuman resource advantage. The aim is to develop strategic capability. This means strategic fitbetween resources and opportunities, obtaining added value from the effective deployment ofresources, and developing people who can think and plan strategically in the sense that theyunderstand the key strategic issues and ensure that what they do supports the achievement ofthe business’s strategic goals. In line with human capital theory, the resource-based viewemphasizes that investment in people increases their value to the firm.The strategic goal emerging from the resource-based view will be to ‘create firms which aremore intelligent and flexible than their competitors’ (Boxall, 1996) by hiring and developingmore talented staff and by extending their skills base. Resource-based strategy is therefore con-cerned with the enhancement of the human or intellectual capital of the firm. As Ulrich (1998)commented: ‘Knowledge has become a direct competitive advantage for companies sellingideas and relationships. The challenge to organizations is to ensure that they have the capabil-ity to find, assimilate, compensate and retain the talented individuals they need.’The significance of the resource-based view of the firm is that it highlights the importance ofa human capital management approach to HRM and provides the justification for investing inpeople through resourcing, talent management and learning and development programmes asa means of enhancing organizational capability.However, it should be remembered that the original resource-based view as expressed byBarney (1991, 1995) referred to all the strategic resources associated with a firm, not justhuman resources. This is pointed out by Mueller (1996) in a challenging comment, asfollows.
  • 59. 32 Human Resource Management The resources covered by the resource-based view, Mueller (1996) SOURCE REVIEW Empirical analyses conducted within a resource-based view framework have shown that in fact most companies value their company and product reputa- tion – even though obviously sustained by employees – as their most important asset, followed in third place by employee know-how. It is difficult to see, for example, what could be more important for Glaxo than its patents, or for British Airways its landing spots at London Heathrow Airport. Often people alone cannot sustain the success of the ‘super star’ of corporate performance… It is more fruitful to look at how different strategic assets sustain each other, rather than engage in a sterile debate about which are ana- lytically prior or more important. Human resources have to be seen within the context of the firm’s broad array of resources: employees are central for a firm to retain its valued product reputation, but also vice versa; a highly reputable company will find it easier to attract highly qualified employees.Strategic fitAs explained by Wright and McMahan (1992) strategic fit refers to the two dimensions thatdistinguish strategic HRM: First, vertically, it entails the linking of human resource management practices with the strategic management processes of the organization. Second, horizontally, it empha- sizes the coordination or congruence among the various human resource management practices.Perspectives on strategic HRMTaking into account the concepts of the resource-based view and strategic fit, Delery and Doty(1996) contended that ‘organizations adopting a particular strategy require HR practices thatare different from those required by organizations adopting different strategies’ and thatorganizations with ‘greater congruence between their HR strategies and their (business) strat-egies should enjoy superior performance’. They identified the three HRM perspectives set outbelow.
  • 60. Strategic Human Resource Management 33 Perspectives on HRM, Delery and Doty (1996) SOURCE REVIEW 1. The universalistic perspective – some HR practices are better than others and all organizations should adopt these best practices. There is a universal relationship between individual ‘best’ practices and firm performance. 2. The contingency perspective – in order to be effective, an organization’s HR policies must be consistent with other aspects of the organization. The primary contingency factor is the organization’s strategy. This can be described as ‘vertical fit’. 3. The configurational perspective – this is an holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of the pattern of HR practices and is concerned with how this pattern of independent variables is related to the dependent variable of organizational performance. In its general sense, configuration has been defined by Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) as: ‘The structures, processes, relationships and boundaries through which an organization operates.’This typology provided the basis for what has become the most commonly used classificationof approaches as advocated by Richardson and Thompson (1999), which was to adopt theterms ‘best practice’ and ‘best fit’ for the universalistic and contingency perspectives, and ‘bun-dling’ as the third approach. This followed the classification made by Guest (1997) of fit as anideal set of practices, fit as contingency and fit as bundles.The best practice approachThis approach is based on the assumption that there is a set of best HRM practices that areuniversal in the sense that they are best in any situation, and that adopting them will lead tosuperior organizational performance.A number of lists of ‘best practices’ have been produced, the best known of which was pro-duced by Pfeffer (1998a), namely:1. employment security;2. selective hiring;3. self-managed teams;4. high compensation contingent on performance;5. training to provide a skilled and motivated workforce;
  • 61. 34 Human Resource Management6. reduction of status differentials;7. sharing information.The following list was drawn up by Guest (1999):1. Selection and the careful use of selection tests to identify those with potential to make a contribution.2. Training, and in particular a recognition that training is an ongoing activity.3. Job design to ensure flexibility, commitment and motivation, including steps to ensure that employees have the responsibility and autonomy fully to use their knowledge and skills.4. Communication to ensure that a two-way process keeps everyone fully informed.5. Employee share ownership programmes to increase employees’ awareness of the implica- tions of their actions on the financial performance of the firm.Delery and Doty (1996) identified seven strategic HR practices, ie ones that are related tooverall organizational performance: the use of internal career ladders, formal training systems,results-oriented appraisal, performance-based compensation, employment security, employeevoice and broadly defined jobs.High-performance work systems as described in Chapter 12 can incorporate best practicecharacteristics, eg the US Department of Labor (1993), Appelbaum et al (2000), Sung andAshton (2005) and Thompson and Heron (2005). Another list for high commitment practiceswas produced by Wood and Albanese (1995).Problems with the best practice modelThe ‘best practice’ rubric has been attacked by a number of commentators. Cappelli andCrocker-Hefter (1996) comment that the notion of a single set of best practices has been over-stated: ‘There are examples in virtually every industry of firms that have very distinctive man-agement practices… Distinctive human resource practices shape the core competencies thatdetermine how firms compete.’Purcell (1999) has also criticized the best practice or universalist view by pointing out theinconsistency between a belief in best practice and the resource-based view that focuses on theintangible assets, including HR, that allow the firm to do better than its competitors. He askshow can ‘the universalism of best practice be squared with the view that only some resourcesand routines are important and valuable by being rare and imperfectly imitable?’In accordance with contingency theory, which emphasizes the importance of interactionsbetween organizations and their environments so that what organizations do is dependent on
  • 62. Strategic Human Resource Management 35the context in which they operate, it is difficult to accept that there is any such thing as universalbest practice. What works well in one organization will not necessarily work well in anotherbecause it may not fit its strategy, culture, management style, technology or working practices.However, a knowledge of what is assumed to be best practice can be used to inform decisionson what practices are most likely to fit the needs of the organization, as long as it is understoodwhy a particular practice should be regarded as a best practice and what needs to be done toensure that it will work in the context of the organization. Becker and Gerhart (1996) arguethat the idea of best practice might be more appropriate for identifying the principles underly-ing the choice of practices, as opposed to the practices themselves. Perhaps it is best to think of‘good practice’ rather than ‘best practice’.The best fit approachThe best fit approach is in line with contingency theory. It emphasizes that HR strategies shouldbe congruent with the context and circumstances of the organization. ‘Best fit’ can be perceivedin terms of vertical integration or alignment between the organization’s business and HR strate-gies. There are three models, namely: lifecycle, competitive strategy, and strategic configuration.The lifecycle best fit modelThe lifecycle model is based on the theory that the development of a firm takes place in fourstages: start-up, growth, maturity and decline. This is in line with product lifecycle theory. Thebasic premise of this model was expressed by Baird and Meshoulam (1988) as follows: Human resource management’s effectiveness depends on its fit with the organization’s stage of development. As the organization grows and develops, human resource man- agement programmes, practices and procedures must change to meet its needs. Consistent with growth and development models it can be suggested that human resource management develops through a series of stages as the organization becomes more complex.Best fit and competitive strategiesThree strategies aimed at achieving competitive advantage have been identified by Porter (1985):1. Innovation – being the unique producer.2. Quality – delivering high quality goods and services to customers.3. Cost leadership – the planned result of policies aimed at ‘managing away expense’.
  • 63. 36 Human Resource ManagementIt was contended by Schuler and Jackson (1987) that to achieve the maximum effect it is neces-sary to match the role characteristics of people in an organization with the preferred strategy.Accordingly, they produced the descriptions of appropriate role behaviours set out in Table 2.1.Table 2.1 Role behaviours appropriate for different strategies, Schuler and Jackson (1987) Innovative Quality Cost-leadership strategy • High degree of creative • Relatively repetitive and • Relatively repetitive and behaviour predictable behaviours predictable behaviours • A longer-term focus • A more long-term or • A rather short-term focus • A relatively high level of intermediate focus • Primarily autonomous or cooperation and inter- • A modest amount of individual activity dependent behaviour cooperative, interdepend- • Modest concern for • A moderate degree of ent behaviour quality concern for quantity • A high concern for quality • High concern for quan- • An equal degree of • A modest concern for tity of output concern for process and quantity of output • Primary concern for results • High concern for process results • A greater degree of risk (how the goods or • Low risk-taking activity taking services are made or • A relatively high degree of • A high tolerance of delivered) comfort with stability ambiguity and • Low risk-taking activity unpredictability • Commitment to the goals of the organizationStrategic configurationAnother approach to best fit is the proposition that organizations will be more effective if theyadopt a policy of strategic configuration (Delery and Doty, 1996) by matching their strategy toone of the ideal types defined by theories such as those produced by Miles and Snow (1978).This increased effectiveness is attributed to the internal consistency or fit between the patternsof relevant contextual, structural and strategic factors.Miles and Snow (1978) identified four types of organizations, classifying the first three typesas ‘ideal’ organizations:1. Prospectors, which operate in an environment characterized by rapid and unpredictable changes. Prospectors have low levels of formalization and specialization and high levels of
  • 64. Strategic Human Resource Management 37 decentralization. They have relatively few hierarchical levels.2. Defenders, which operate in a more stable and predictable environment than prospectors and engage in more long-term planning. They have more mechanistic or bureaucratic structures than prospectors and obtain coordination through formalization, centraliza- tion, specialization and vertical differentiation.3. Analysers, which are a combination of the prospector and defender types. They operate in stable environments like defenders and also in markets where new products are constantly required, like prospectors. They are usually not the initiators of change like prospectors but they follow the changes more rapidly than defenders.4. Reactors, which are unstable organizations existing in what they believe to be an unpre- dictable environment. They lack consistent well-articulated strategies and do not under- take long-range planning.Comments on the concept of best fitThe best fit model seems to be more realistic than the best practice model. As Dyer and Holder(1988) pointed out: ‘The inescapable conclusion is that what is best depends’. It can thereforebe claimed that best fit is more important than best practice. But there are limitations to theconcept. Paawue (2004) emphasized that: ‘It is necessary to avoid falling into the trap of “con-tingent determinism” (ie claiming that the context absolutely determines the strategy). Thereis, or should be, room for making strategic choices.’There is a danger of mechanistically matching HR policies and practices with strategy. It is notcredible to claim that there are single contextual factors that determine HR strategy, and inter-nal fit cannot therefore be complete. As Boxall et al (2007) assert: ‘It is clearly impossible tomake all HR policies reflective of a chosen competitive or economic mission; they may have tofit with social legitimacy goals’. And Purcell (1999) commented that: ‘The search for a contin-gency or matching model of HRM is also limited by the impossibility of modelling all the con-tingent variables, the difficulty of showing their interconnection, and the way in which changesin one variable have an impact on others’.Best fit models tend to be static and don’t take account of the processes of change. They neglectthe fact that institutional forces shape HRM – it cannot be assumed that employers are freeagents able to make independent decisions.BundlingAs Richardson and Thompson (1999) comment: ‘A strategy’s success turns on combining ver-tical or external fit and horizontal or internal fit.’ They conclude that a firm with bundles of
  • 65. 38 Human Resource Managementassociated HR practices should have a higher level of performance, provided it also achieveshigh levels of fit with its competitive strategy.‘Bundling’ is the development and implementation of several HR practices together so thatthey are inter-related and therefore complement and reinforce each other. This is the processof horizontal integration, which is also referred to as the use of ‘complementarities’ (MacDuffie,1995) who explained the concept of bundling as follows: Implicit in the notion of a ‘bundle’ is the idea that practices within bundles are interrelated and internally consistent, and that ‘more is better’ with respect to the impact on perform- ance, because of the overlapping and mutually reinforcing effect of multiple practices.Dyer and Reeves (1995) note that: ‘The logic in favour of bundling is straightforward… Sinceemployee performance is a function of both ability and motivation, it makes sense to havepractices aimed at enhancing both.’ Thus there are several ways in which employees can acquireneeded skills (such as careful selection and training) and multiple incentives to enhance moti-vation (different forms of financial and non-financial rewards). Their study of various modelslisting HR practices that create a link between HRM and business performance found that theactivities appearing in most of the models were involvement, careful selection, extensive train-ing and contingent compensation.On the basis of his research in flexible production manufacturing plants in the United States,MacDuffie (1995) noted that employees will exercise discretionary effort only if they ‘believethat their individual interests are aligned with those of the company, and that the company willmake a reciprocal investment in their well-being’. This means that flexible production tech-niques have to be supported by bundles of high-commitment human resource practices suchas employment security, pay that is partly contingent on performance, a reduction of statusbarriers between managers and workers, and investment in building worker skills. The researchindicated that plants using flexible production systems that bundle human resource practicesinto a system that is integrated with production/business strategy, outperform plants usingmore traditional mass production systems in both productivity and quality.Following research in 43 automobile processing plants in the United States, Pil and MacDuffie(1996) established that when a high-involvement work practice is introduced in the presenceof complementary HR practices, not only does the new work practice produce an incrementalimprovement in performance but so do the complementary practices.The aim of bundling is to achieve high performance through coherence, which is one of thefour ‘meanings’ of strategic HRM defined by Hendry and Pettigrew (1986). Coherence existswhen a mutually reinforcing set of HR policies and practices have been developed that jointlycontribute to the attainment of the organization’s strategies for matching resources to organi-zational needs, improving performance and quality and, in commercial enterprises, achievingcompetitive advantage.
  • 66. Strategic Human Resource Management 39The process of bundling HR strategies is an important aspect of the concept of strategic HRM.In a sense, strategic HRM is holistic; it is concerned with the organization as a total system orentity and addresses what needs to be done across the organization as a whole. It is not inter-ested in isolated programmes and techniques, or in the ad hoc development of HR practices.Bundling can take place in a number of ways. For example, competency frameworks can bedevised that are used in assessment and development centres and to specify recruitment stand-ards, identify learning and development needs, indicate the standards of behaviour or per-formance required and serve as the basis for human resource planning. They could also beincorporated into performance management processes in which the aims are primarily devel-opmental and competencies are used as criteria for reviewing behaviour and assessing learningand development needs. Job evaluation could be based on levels of competency, and compe-tency-based pay systems could be introduced. Grade structures can define career ladders interms of competency requirements (career family structures) and thus provide the basis forlearning and development programmes. They can serve the dual purpose of defining careerpaths and pay progression opportunities. The development of high-performance, high-com-mitment or high-involvement systems (see Chapters 3 and 12) is in effect bundling because itgroups a number of HR practices together to produce synergy and thus makes a greaterimpact.The problem with the bundling approach is that of deciding what is the best way to relate dif-ferent practices together. There is no evidence that one bundle is generally better thananother.The reality of strategic HRMStrategic HRM, as this chapter has shown, has been a happy hunting ground for academicsover many years. But what does all this conceptualizing mean in real life? What can practition-ers learn from it as they go about their business?Before answering these questions it is worth recalling the rationale for strategic HRM, whichis that it is the basis for developing and implementing approaches to people management thattake into account the changing context in which the firm operates and its longer-term require-ments. It should also be borne in mind that strategic HRM is a mindset that only becomes realwhen it produces actions and reactions that can be regarded as strategic, either in the form ofoverall or specific HR strategies or strategic behaviour on the part of HR professionals workingalongside line managers.As modelled in Figure 2.1, strategic HRM is about both HR strategies and the strategic man-agement role of HR professionals. There is always choice about those strategies and the strate-gic role of HR.
  • 67. 40 Human Resource Management Strategic HRM HR strategies – Strategic management – overall/specific strategic role of HR Strategic choice Strategic analysisFigure 2.1 Strategic HRM modelPractical implications of strategic HRM theoryIt was famously remarked by McGregor (1960) that there is nothing as practical as a goodtheory, ie one that has been based on rigorous field research and, probably, tested by furtherresearch. This is certainly the case with strategic HR theory, which is based on thoroughresearch and testing and, once the jargon has been discarded, has a strong common senseappeal.The theory 1) addresses major people issues which affect or are affected by the strategic plansof the organization, 2) provides an agreed and understood basis for developing and imple-menting approaches to people management that take into account the changing context inwhich the firm operates and its longer-term requirements, 3) ensures that business and HRstrategy and functional HR strategies are aligned with one another, and 4) is the rationale forHR practitioners acting as strategic partners. The significant features of strategic HRM are setout below. The significant features of strategic HRM • Creating sustained competitive advantage depends on the unique resources and capabilities that a firm brings to competition in its environment (Baron, 2001). • Competitive advantage is achieved by ensuring that the firm has higher quality people than its competitors (Purcell et al, 2003).
  • 68. Strategic Human Resource Management 41 • The competitive advantage based on the effective management of people is hard to imitate (Barney, 1991, 1995). • The challenge is to achieve organizational capability, ensuring that businesses are able to find, assimilate, reward and retain the talented individuals they need (Ulrich, 1998). • It is unwise to pursue so-called ‘best practice’ (the ‘universalistic’ perspective of Delery and Doty, 1996) without being certain that what happens elsewhere would work in the context of the organization. • ‘Best fit’ (the ‘contingency’ perspective of Delery and Doty, 1996) is preferable to ‘best practice’ as long as the organization avoids falling into the trap of ‘contin- gent determinism’ by allowing the context to determine the strategy (Paawue, 2004). • The search for best fit is limited by the impossibility of modelling all the contin- gent variables, the difficulty of showing their interconnection, and the way in which changes in one variable have an impact on others (Purcell, 1999). • Best fit can be pursued in a number of ways, namely by fitting the HR strategy to its position in its lifecycle of start-up, growth, maturity or decline (Baird and Meshoulam, 1988), or the competitive strategy of innovation, quality or cost leadership (Porter, 1985), or to the organization’s ‘strategic configuration’ (Delery and Doty, 1996), eg the typology of organizations as prospectors, defenders and analysers defined by Miles and Snow (1978). • Improved performance can be achieved by ‘bundling’, ie the development and implementation of several HR practices together so that they are inter-related and therefore complement and reinforce each other (MacDuffie, 1995).Strategic HRM – key learning pointsThe conceptual basis of strategic HRM The fundamental characteristics of strategyStrategic HRM is the interface betweenHRM and strategic management. It takes • forward looking;the notion of HRM as a strategic, integrated • the organizational capability of aand coherent approach and develops that firm depends on its resourcein line with the concept of strategic man- capability;agement (Boxall, 1996).
  • 69. 42 Human Resource Management Strategic HRM – key learning points (continued) • strategic fit – the need when devel- 3. Configurational – relating HRM to the oping HR strategies to achieve con- ‘configuration’ of the organization in gruence between them and the terms of its structures and processes. organization’s business strategies The concepts of ‘best practice’ and within the context of its external ‘best fit’ and internal environment. • The concept of best practice is based How strategy is formulated on the assumption that there is a set An emergent and flexible process of devel- of best HRM practices which are oping a sense of direction, making the best universal in the sense that they are use of resources and ensuring strategic fit. best in any situation, and that adopt- ing them will lead to superior organ- The aim of strategic HRM izational performance. This concept To generate organizational capability by of universality is criticized because ensuring that the organization has the it takes no account of the local skilled, engaged, committed and well-moti- context. vated employees it needs to achieve sus- • The concept of best fit emphasizes tained competitive advantage. that HR strategies should be con- Implications of the resource-based gruent with the context and circum- view stances of the organization. ‘Best fit’ The creation of firms which are ‘more intelli- can be perceived in terms of vertical gent and flexible than their competitors’ integration or alignment between (Boxall, 1996) by hiring and developing more the organization’s business and HR talented staff and by extending the skills base. strategies. The three HRM ‘perspectives’ of Delery and • It is generally accepted that best fit is Doty (1996) more important than best practice. 1. Universalistic perspective – some HR The significance of bundling practices are better than others and all The process of bundling HR strategies is an organizations should adopt these best important aspect of the concept of strategic practices. HRM which is concerned with the organi- 2. Contingency – in order to be effective, zation as a total system or entity and an organization’s HR policies must be addresses what needs to be done across the consistent with other aspects of the organization as a whole. organization.
  • 70. Strategic Human Resource Management 43Strategic HRM – key learning points (continued)The practical implications of plans of the organization. It provides thestrategic HRM theory rationale for HR practitioners acting as strategic partners on an everyday basis.The theory addresses major people issueswhich affect or are affected by the strategicQuestions1. A junior colleague in your HR department has sent you an e-mail to the effect that: ‘During the course of my studies I have come across the phrase “best fit is more impor- tant than best practice”. What does this mean exactly and what is its significance to us?’ Produce a reply.2. Your chief executive has sent you the following e-mail: ‘I have just returned from a one-day management conference in which an academic kept on referring to “the resource based view” and its significance. What is it and how relevant is it, if at all, to what we are doing here?’ Produce a reply.3. You are the recently appointed HR director of a medium-sized distribution company based in Dartford with a staff of 350 including 130 drivers. After three months you have decided that the crucial HR issues facing the company are the high rate of turnover of drivers (35 per cent last year), an unacceptable level of road accidents, and an unsatisfac- tory climate of employee relations (there is a recognized union for drivers which is mili- tant and hostile and no formal procedures for employee communications or consultation). In spite of this the company is doing reasonably well although it is felt by the board that is should do better and there are plans for opening a new distribution centre in Essex. You have received an e-mail from the finance director who is preparing the company’s business plan and asks for your proposals on what needs to be done in HR to support it.
  • 71. 44 Human Resource ManagementReferencesAbell, D F (1993) Managing with Dual Strategies: Mastering the present, pre-empting the future, Free Press, New YorkAppelbaum, E, Bailey, T, Berg, P and Kalleberg, A L (2000) Manufacturing Advantage: Why high performance work systems pay off, ILR Press, Ithaca, NYBaird, L and Meshoulam, I (1988) Managing two fits of strategic human resource management, Academy of Management Review, 13 (1), pp116–28Barney, J B (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of Management Studies, 17 (1), pp 99–120Barney, J B (1995) Looking inside for competitive advantage, Academy of Management Executive, 9 (4), pp 49–61Baron, D (2001) Private policies, corporate policies and integrated strategy, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 10 (7), pp 7–45Becker, B E and Gerhart, S (1996) The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: progress and prospects, Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4), pp 779–801Boxall, P F (1996) The strategic HRM debate and the resource-based view of the firm, Human Resource Management Journal, 6 (3), pp 59–75Boxall, P F and Purcell, J (2003) Strategy and Human Resource Management, Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeBoxall, P F, Purcell J and Wright P (2007) The goals of HRM, in (eds) P Boxall, J Purcell and P Wright, Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Oxford University Press, OxfordCappelli, P and Crocker-Hefter, A (1996) Distinctive human resources are firms’ core competencies, Organizational Dynamics, Winter, pp 7–22Chandler, A D (1962) Strategy and Structure, MIT Press, Boston, MADelery, J E and Doty, H D (1996) Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: tests of universality, contingency and configurational performance predictions, Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4), pp 802–35Dyer, L and Holder, G W (1998) Strategic human resource management and planning, in (ed) L Dyer, Human Resource Management: Evolving roles and responsibilities, Bureau of National Affairs, Washington DCDyer, L and Reeves, T (1995) Human resource strategies and firm performance: what do we know and where do we need to go? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 6 (3), pp 656–70Grant, R M (1991) The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: implications for strategy formation, California Management Review, 33 (3), pp 14–35Guest, D E (1997) Human resource management and performance; a review of the research agenda, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8 (3), 263–76Guest, D E (1999) The role of the psychological contract, in (eds) S J Perkins and St John Sandringham, Trust, Motivation and Commitment, Strategic Remuneration Centre, FaringdonHeller, R (1972) The Naked Manager, Barrie & Jenkins, LondonHendry, C and Pettigrew, A (1986) The practice of strategic human resource management, Personnel Review, 15, pp 2–8Huczynski, A A and Buchanan, D A (2007) Organizational Behaviour, 6th edn, FT Prentice Hall, HarlowKanter, R M (1984) The Change Masters, Allen & Unwin, London
  • 72. Strategic Human Resource Management 45MacDuffie, J P (1995) Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance, Industrial Relations Review, 48 (2), pp 199–221McGregor, D (1960) The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, New YorkMiles, R E and Snow, C C (1978) Organizational Strategy: Structure and process, McGraw Hill, New YorkMintzberg, H (1987) Crafting strategy, Harvard Business Review, July–August, pp 66–74Mintzberg, H (1994) The rise and fall of strategic planning, Harvard Business Review, January–February, pp 107–14Mueller, F (1996) Human resources as strategic assets: an evolutionary resource-based approach, Journal of Management Studies, 33 (6), pp 757–85Paauwe, J (2004) HRM and performance: Achieving long term viability, Oxford University Press, OxfordPearce, J A and Robinson, R B (1988) Strategic Management: Strategy Formulation and Implementation, Irwin, Georgetown, OntarioPenrose, E (1959) The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Blackwell, OxfordPfeffer, J (1998a) The Human Equation, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MAPil, F K and MacDuffie, J P (1996) The adoption of high-involvement work practices, Industrial Relations, 35 (3), pp 423–55Porter, M E (1985) Competitive Advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance, New York, The Free PressPurcell, J (1999) Best practice or best fit: chimera or cul-de-sac, Human Resource Management Journal, 9 (3), pp 26–41Purcell, J, Kinnie, K, Hutchinson, Rayton, B and Swart, J (2003) People and Performance: How people management impacts on organisational performance, CIPD, LondonRichardson, R and Thompson, M (1999) The Impact of People Management Practices on Business Performance: A literature review, Institute of Personnel and Development, LondonSchuler, R S (1992) Strategic human resource management: linking people with the strategic needs of the business, Organizational Dynamics, 21 (1), pp 18–32Schuler, R S and Jackson, S E (1987) Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practices, Academy of Management Executive, 9 (3), pp 207–19Sung, J and Ashton, D (2005) High Performance Work Practices: Linking strategy and skills to performance outcomes, DTI in association with CIPD, available at, M and Heron, P (2005) Management capability and high performance work organization, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16 (6), pp 1029–48Tyson, S (1997) Human resource strategy: a process for managing the contribution of HRM to organizational performance, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8 (3), pp 277–90Ulrich, D (1998) A new mandate for human resources, Harvard Business Review, January–February, pp 124–34US Department of Labor (1993) High Performance Work Practices and Work Performance, US Government Printing Office, Washington DCWernerfelt, B (1984) A resource-based view of the firm, Strategic Management Journal, 5 (2), pp 171–80Wood, S and Albanese, M (1995) Can we speak of a high commitment management on the shop floor? Journal of Management Studies, 32 (2), pp 215–47Wright, P M and McMahan, G C (1992) Theoretical perspectives for SHRM, Journal of Management, 18 (2), pp 295–320
  • 73. 46 Human Resource ManagementWright, P M, Dunford, B B and Snell, SA (2001) Human resources and the resource-based view of the firm, Journal of Management, 27 (6), pp 701–21
  • 74. 47 3 HR StrategiesKey concepts and terms• High commitment management • High involvement management• High performance management • Horizontal fit• HR strategy • Vertical fitLearning outcomesOn completing this chapter you should be able to define these key concepts.You should also understand:• The purpose of HR strategy • The criteria for a successful HR strategy• Specific HR strategy areas • The fundamental questions on• How HR strategy is formulated the development of HR strategy• How the vertical integration of • How horizontal fit (bundling) is business and HR strategies is achieved achieved • How HR strategies can be• How HR strategies can be set out implemented• General HR strategy areas
  • 75. 48 Human Resource ManagementIntroductionAs described in Chapter 2, strategic HRM is a mindset that leads to strategic actions and reac-tions, either in the form of overall or specific HR strategies or strategic behaviour on the partof HR professionals. This chapter focuses on HR strategies and answers the following ques-tions: What are HR strategies? What are the main types of overall HR strategies? What are themain areas in which specific HR strategies are developed? What are the criteria for an effectiveHR strategy? How should HR strategies be developed? How should HR strategies beimplemented?What are HR strategies?HR strategies set out what the organization intends to do about its human resource manage-ment policies and practices and how they should be integrated with the business strategy andeach other. They are described by Dyer and Reeves (1995) as ‘internally consistent bundles ofhuman resource practices’. Richardson and Thompson (1999) suggest that: A strategy, whether it is an HR strategy or any other kind of management strategy must have two key elements: there must be strategic objectives (ie things the strategy is sup- posed to achieve), and there must be a plan of action (ie the means by which it is pro- posed that the objectives will be met).The purpose of HR strategies is to articulate what an organization intends to do about itshuman resource management policies and practices now and in the longer term, bearing inmind the dictum of Fombrun et al (1984) that business and managers should perform well inthe present to succeed in the future. HR strategies aim to meet both business and human needsin the organization.HR strategies may set out intentions and provide a sense of purpose and direction, but they arenot just long-term plans. As Gratton (2000) commented: ‘There is no great strategy, only greatexecution.’Because all organizations are different, all HR strategies are different. There is no such thing asa standard strategy and research into HR strategy conducted by Armstrong and Long (1994)and Armstrong and Baron (2002) revealed many variations. Some strategies are simply verygeneral declarations of intent. Others go into much more detail. But two basic types of HRstrategies can be identified; these are: 1) general strategies such as high-performance working,and 2) specific strategies relating to the different aspects of human resource management suchas learning and development and reward.
  • 76. HR Strategies 49General HR strategiesGeneral strategies describe the overall system or bundle of complementary HR practices thatthe organization proposes to adopt or puts into effect in order to improve organizational per-formance. The three main approaches are summarized below.1. High-performance managementHigh-performance management or high-performance working aims to make an impact onthe performance of the organization in such areas as productivity, quality, levels of customerservice, growth and profits. High-performance management practices include rigorous recruit-ment and selection procedures, extensive and relevant training and management developmentactivities, incentive pay systems and performance management processes.These practices are often called ‘high-performance work systems’ (HPWS) which, as definedby Appelbaum et al (2000), comprise practices that can facilitate employee involvement, skillenhancement and motivation. Thompson and Heron (2005) refer to them as ‘high-perform-ance work organization practices’ which, they say, ‘consist of work practices that invest in theskills and abilities of employees, design work in ways that enable employee collaboration inproblem solving and provide incentives to motivate workers to use their discretionary effort’.This term is more frequently used than either high-commitment management or high-involve-ment management, although there is a degree of overlap between these approaches and anHPWS and the terms ‘high performance’ and ‘high commitment’ are sometimes usedinterchangeably.2. High-commitment managementOne of the defining characteristics of HRM is its emphasis on the importance of enhancingmutual commitment (Walton, 1985b). High-commitment management has been described byWood (1996) as: ‘A form of management which is aimed at eliciting a commitment so thatbehaviour is primarily self-regulated rather than controlled by sanctions and pressures exter-nal to the individual, and relations within the organization are based on high levels of trust.’The following definitions expand these statements.
  • 77. 50 Human Resource Management High commitment management defined, Wood (1999) SOURCE REVIEW High-commitment management is generally characterized as entailing, a) a particular orientation on the part of employers to their employees, based on an underlying conception of them as assets to be developed rather than as dispos- able factors of production, and b) the combined use of certain personnel prac- tices, such as job redesign, job flexibility, problem-solving groups, team working and minimal status differences. Approaches to achieving high commitment, Beer et al (1984) and Walton (1985b) • The development of career ladders and emphasis on trainability and commitment as highly valued characteristics of employees at all levels in the organization. • A high level of functional flexibility with the abandonment of poten- tially rigid job descriptions. • The reduction of hierarchies and the ending of status differentials. • A heavy reliance on team structure for disseminating information (team briefing), structuring work (team working) and problem solving (quality circles).Wood and Albanese (1995) added to this list: • job design as something management consciously does in order to provide jobs that have a considerable level of intrinsic satisfaction; • a policy of no compulsory lay-offs or redundancies and permanent employment guar- antees with the possible use of temporary workers to cushion fluctuations in the demand for labour; • new forms of assessment and payment systems and, more specifically, merit pay and profit sharing; • a high involvement of employees in the management of quality.As defined above, there are many similarities between high-performance and high-commit-ment management. In fact, there is much common ground between the practices included inall of these approaches as Sung and Ashton (2005) comment.
  • 78. HR Strategies 51 Comparison of approaches, Sung and Ashton (2005) SOURCE REVIEW In some cases high performance work practices are called ‘high commitment practices’ (Walton, 1985a) or ‘high involvement management’ (Lawler, 1986). More recently they have been termed ‘high performance organizations’ (Lawler et al, 1998) or ‘high-involvement’ work practices (Wood et al, 2001). Whilst these studies are referring to the same general phenomena the use of different ‘labels’ has undoubtedly added to the confusion.However, a study of the literature shows that the most frequently used term is ‘high-per-formance management’, which is why in this book it is given more detailed consideration inChapter 12.3. High-involvement managementAs defined by Benson et al (2006): ‘High-involvement work practices are a specific set ofhuman resource practices that focus on employee decision making, power, access to informa-tion, training and incentives.’ The term ‘high involvement’ was used by Lawler (1986) todescribe management systems based on commitment and involvement, as opposed to the oldbureaucratic model based on control. The underlying hypothesis is that employees will increasetheir involvement with the company if they are given the opportunity to control and under-stand their work. He claimed that high-involvement practices worked well because they actedas a synergy and had a multiplicative effect. This approach involves treating employees as part-ners in the enterprise whose interests are respected and who have a voice on matters thatconcern them. It is concerned with communication and involvement. The aim is to create aclimate in which a continuing dialogue between managers and the members of their teamstakes place in order to define expectations and share information on the organization’s mission,values and objectives. This establishes mutual understanding of what is to be achieved and aframework for managing and developing people to ensure that it will be achieved.The practices included in a high-involvement system have sometimes expanded beyond thisoriginal concept and included high-performance practices. For example, as noted above, high-performance practices usually include relevant training and incentive pay systems. Sung andAshton (2005) include high-involvement practices as one of the three broad areas of a high-performance work system (the other two being human resource practices and reward andcommitment practices).
  • 79. 52 Human Resource ManagementExamples of general HR strategiesA local authorityAs expressed by the chief executive of this borough council, their HR strategy is about: having a very strong focus on the overall effectiveness of the organization, its direction and how it’s performing; there is commitment to, and belief in, and respect for indi- viduals, and I think that these are very important factors.A public utility The only HR strategy you really need is the tangible expression of values and the imple- mentation of values… unless you get the human resource values right you can forget all the rest. (Managing Director)A manufacturing company The HR strategy is to stimulate changes on a broad front aimed ultimately at achieving competitive advantage through the efforts of our people. In an industry of fast followers, those who learn quickest will be the winners. (HR Director)A retail stores group The biggest challenge will be to maintain (our) competitive advantage and to do that we need to maintain and continue to attract very high calibre people. The key differen- tiator on anything any company does is fundamentally the people, and I think that people tend to forget that they are the most important asset. Money is easy to get hold of, good people are not. All we do in terms of training and manpower planning is directly linked to business improvement. (Managing Director)Specific HR strategiesSpecific HR strategies set out what the organization intends to do in areas such as: • Human capital management – obtaining, analysing and reporting on data that inform the direction of value-adding people management, strategic, investment and opera- tional decisions. • Corporate social responsibility – a commitment to managing the business ethically in order to make a positive impact on society and the environment.
  • 80. HR Strategies 53 • Organization development – the planning and implementation of programmes designed to enhance the effectiveness with which an organization functions and responds to change. • Engagement – the development and implementation of policies designed to increase the level of employees’ engagement with their work and the organization. • Knowledge management – creating, acquiring, capturing, sharing and using knowl- edge to enhance learning and performance. • Resourcing – attracting and retaining high quality people. • Talent management – how the organization ensures that it has the talented people it needs to achieve success. • Learning and development – providing an environment in which employees are encour- aged to learn and develop. • Reward – defining what the organization wants to do in the longer term to develop and implement reward policies, practices and processes that will further the achievement of its business goals and meet the needs of its stakeholders. • Employee relations – defining the intentions of the organization about what needs to be done and what needs to be changed in the ways in which the organization manages its relationships with employees and their trade unions. • Employee well-being – meeting the needs of employees for a healthy, safe and support- ive work environment.Criteria for an effective HR strategyAn effective HR strategy is one that works in the sense that it achieves what it sets out toachieve. Its particular requirements are set out below. Criteria for an effective HR strategy • It will satisfy business needs. • It is founded on detailed analysis and study, not just wishful thinking. • It can be turned into actionable programmes that anticipate implementation requirements and problems. • It is coherent and integrated, being composed of components that fit with and support each other.
  • 81. 54 Human Resource Management • It takes account of the needs of line managers and employees generally as well as those of the organization and its other stakeholders. As Boxall and Purcell (2003) emphasize: ‘HR planning should aim to meet the needs of the key stake- holder groups involved in people management in the firm.’How should HR strategies be formulated? Propositions about the formulation of HR strategy, Boxall (1993) SOURCE REVIEW • The strategy formation process is complex, and excessively rationalistic models that advocate formalistic linkages between strategic planning and HR planning are not particularly helpful to our understanding of it. • Business strategy may be an important influence on HR strategy but it is only one of several factors. • Implicit (if not explicit) in the mix of factors that influence the shape of HR strategies is a set of historical compromises and trade-offs from stakeholders.Strategic options and choicesThe process of formulating HR strategies involves generating strategic HRM options and thenmaking appropriate strategic choices. It has been noted by Cappelli (1999) that: ‘The choice ofpractices that an employer pursues is heavily contingent on a number of factors at the organi-zational level, including their own business and production strategies, support of HR policies,and cooperative labour relations.’ The process of developing HR strategies involves the adop-tion of a contingent approach in generating strategic HRM options and then making appro-priate strategic choices. There is seldom if ever one right way forward.‘Inside-out’ and ‘outside-in’ approaches to formulating HR strategiesResearch conducted by Wright et al (2004) identified two approaches that can be adopted byHR to strategy formulation: the inside-out approach and the outside-in approach. They madethe following observations about the HR-strategy linkage:
  • 82. HR Strategies 55 At the extreme, the ‘inside-out’ approach begins with the status quo HR function (in terms of skills, processes, technologies, etc) and then attempts (with varying degrees of success) to identify linkages to the business (usually through focusing on ‘people issues’), making minor adjustments to HR activities along the way… On the other hand, a few firms have made a paradynamic shift to build their HR strategies from the starting point of the business. Within these ‘outside-in’ HR functions, the starting point is the business, including the customer, competitor and business issues they face. The HR strategy then derives directly from these challenges to create real solutions and add real value.They suggested that ‘the most advanced linkage was the “integrative” linkage in which thesenior HR executive was part of the top management team, and was able to sit at the table andcontribute during development of the business strategy’.In reality HR strategies are more likely to flow from business strategies, which will be domi-nated by product/market and financial considerations. But there is still room for HR to makea useful, even essential contribution at the stage when business strategies are conceived, forexample, by focusing on resource issues. This contribution may be more significant if strategyformulation is an emergent or evolutionary process – HR strategic issues will then be dealtwith as they arise during the course of formulating and implementing the corporate strategy.Issues in developing HR strategiesFive fundamental questions that need to be asked in developing HR strategies have been posedby Becker and Huselid (1998):1. What are the firm’s strategic objectives?2. How are these translated into unit objectives?3. What do unit managers consider are the ‘performance drivers’ of those objectives?4. How do the skills, motivation and structure of the firm’s workforce influence these per- formance drivers?5. How does the HR system influence the skills, motivation and structure of the workforce?But many different routes may be followed when formulating HR strategies – there is no oneright way. On the basis of their research in 30 well-known companies, Tyson and Witcher (1994)commented that: ‘The different approaches to strategy formation reflect different ways to managechange and different ways to bring the people part of the business into line with business goals.’In developing HR strategies, process may be as important as content. Tyson and Witcher (1994)also noted from their research that: ‘The process of formulating HR strategy was often as
  • 83. 56 Human Resource Managementimportant as the content of the strategy ultimately agreed. It was argued that by workingthrough strategic issues and highlighting points of tension, new ideas emerged and a consen-sus over goals was found.’There are two key issues to be addressed in developing HR strategies: achieving vertical fit orintegration and achieving horizontal fit or integration (bundling).1. Achieving vertical fit – integrating business and HR strategiesWright and Snell (1998) suggest that seeking fit requires knowledge of the business strategy,knowledge of the skills and behaviour necessary to implement the strategy, knowledge of theHRM practices necessary to elicit those skills and behaviours, and the ability quickly to developand implement the desired system of HRM practices.When considering how to integrate business and HR strategies it should be remembered thatbusiness and HR issues influence each other and in turn influence corporate and business unitstrategies. It is also necessary to note that in establishing these links, account must be taken ofthe fact that strategies for change have also to be integrated with changes in the external andinternal environments. Fit may exist at a point in time but circumstances will change and fitno longer exists. An excessive pursuit of ‘fit’ with the status quo will inhibit the flexibility ofapproach that is essential in turbulent conditions.An illustration of how HR strategies could fit vertically with one or other of the competitivestrategies listed by Porter (1985) is given in Table 3.1.Table 3.1 Achieving vertical fit between HR and business strategies HR strategy Competitive strategy Achieve competitive Achieve competitive Achieve competitive advantage through advantage through advantage through innovation quality cost-leadership Resourcing Recruit and retain Use sophisticated Develop core/ high quality people selection procedures to periphery employment with innovative skills recruit people who are structures; recruit and a good track likely to deliver quality people who are likely record in innovation and high levels of to add value; if customer service unavoidable, plan and manage downsizing humanely
  • 84. HR Strategies 57Table 3.1 continued HR strategy Competitive strategy Achieve competitive Achieve competitive Achieve competitive advantage through advantage through advantage through innovation quality cost-leadership Learning and Develop strategic Encourage the Provide training development capability and provide development of a designed to improve encouragement and learning organization, productivity; facilities for enhancing develop and inaugurate just-in-time innovative skills and implement knowledge training which is enhancing the intellec- management processes, closely linked to tual capital of the support total quality immediate organization and customer care business needs and can initiatives with focused generate measurable training improvements in cost- effectiveness Reward Provide financial Link rewards to quality Review all reward incentives and rewards performance and the practices to ensure that and recognition for achievement of high they provide value for successful innovations standards of customer money and do not lead service to unnecessary expenditureThe factors that can make the achievement of good vertical fit difficult are: • The business strategy may not be clearly defined – it could be in an emergent or evolu- tionary state, which would mean that there would be little or nothing with which to fit the HR strategy. • Even if the business strategy is clear, it may be difficult to determine precisely how HR strategies could help in specific ways to support the achievement of particular business objectives – a good business case can only be made if it can be demonstrated that there will be a measurable link between the HR strategy and business performance in the area concerned. • Even if there is a link, HR specialists do not always have the strategic capability to make the connection – they need to be able to see the big picture, understand the business drivers and appreciate how HR policies and practices can impact on them.
  • 85. 58 Human Resource Management • Barriers exist between top management and HR – the former may not be receptive because they don’t believe this is necessary and HR is not capable of persuading them that they should listen, or HR lacks access to top management on strategic issues, or HR lacks credibility with top management as a function that knows anything about the business or should even have anything to do with the business.It is up to HR practitioners in their strategic role to overcome these problems by getting toknow what the business is aiming to do and what drives it (this should be possible even whenstrategies are ‘emergent’), understanding just how HR practices make an impact, and achiev-ing access to strategic business decision making by demonstrating their credibility as an inte-gral part of the management of the business.2. Achieving horizontal fit (bundling)Horizontal fit or integration is achieved when the various HR strategies cohere and are mutu-ally supporting. This can be attained by the process of ‘bundling’, which is carried out by firstidentifying appropriate HR practices; second, assessing how the items in the bundle can belinked together so that they become mutually reinforcing; and finally drawing up programmesfor the development of these practices, paying particular attention to the links between them.The use of high-performance, high-involvement or high-commitment systems as describedearlier in this chapter is an integrating process. The essence of these systems is that they eachconsist of a set of complementary work practices that are developed and maintained as awhole. Other integrating activities or processes are talent management, performance manage-ment and the use of competencies.The factors that inhibit the achievement of horizontal fit are difficulties in: • deciding which bundles are likely to be best; • actually linking practices together – it is always easier to deal with one practice at a time; • managing the interdependencies between different parts of a bundle; • convincing top management and line managers that bundling will benefit the organi- zation and them.These can be overcome by dedicated HR professionals, but it is hard work.Setting out the strategyThere is no standard model of how an HR strategy should be set out; it all depends on the cir-cumstances of the organization. But the typical areas that may be covered in a written strategyare set out below.
  • 86. HR Strategies 59 Typical areas that may be covered in a written HR strategy • Basic considerations – business needs in terms of the key elements of the busi- ness strategy; environmental factors and analysis (SWOT/PESTLE) and cultural factors – possible helps or hindrances to implementation. • Content – details of the proposed HR strategy. • Rationale – the business case for the strategy against the background of business needs and environmental/cultural factors. • Implementation plan – an action programme, definitions of responsibilities and resource requirements and arrangements for communication, consulta- tion, involvement and training. • Costs and benefits analysis – an assessment of the resource implications of the plan (costs, people and facilities) and the benefits that will accrue, for the organ- ization as a whole, for line managers and for individual employees. (So far as possible these benefits should be quantified in terms of added value or return on investment.)Implementing HR strategiesAll too often, 80 per cent of the time spent on strategic management is devoted to designingstrategies and only 20 per cent is spent on planning their implementation. It should be theother way round. It is necessary to plan with implementation in mind.Because strategies tend to be expressed as abstractions, they must be translated into pro-grammes with clearly stated objectives and deliverables. It is necessary to avoid saying, in effect:‘We need to get from here to there but we don’t care how.’ Getting strategies into action is noteasy. Too often, strategists act like Mr Pecksmith who was compared by Dickens (1843) to ‘adirection-post which is always telling the way to a place and never goes there’.The term ‘strategic HRM’ has been devalued in some quarters; sometimes to mean nomore than a few generalized ideas about HR policies, at other times to describe a short-term plan, for example, to increase the retention rate of graduates. It must be emphasizedthat HR strategies are not just programmes, policies, or plans concerning HR issues thatthe HR department happens to feel are important. Piecemeal initiatives do not constitutestrategy.The problem with strategic HRM as noted by Gratton et al (1999) is that too often there is agap between what the strategy states will be achieved and what actually happens to it. The
  • 87. 60 Human Resource Managementfactors they identified as contributing to creating this say/do gap between the strategy asdesigned and the strategy as implemented include: • the tendency of employees in diverse organizations only to accept initiatives they per- ceive to be relevant to their own areas; • the tendency of long-serving employees to cling to the status quo; • complex or ambiguous initiatives may not be understood by employees or will be per- ceived differently by them, especially in large, diverse organizations; • it is more difficult to gain acceptance of non-routine initiatives; • employees will be hostile to initiatives if they are believed to be in conflict with the organization’s identity, eg downsizing in a culture of ‘job-for-life’; • the initiative is seen as a threat; • inconsistencies between corporate strategies and values; • the extent to which senior management is trusted; • the perceived fairness of the initiative; • the extent to which existing processes could help to embed the initiative; • a bureaucratic culture, which leads to inertia.Barriers to the implementation of HR strategiesEach of the factors listed by Gratton et al (1999) can create barriers to the successful imple-mentation of HR strategies. Other major barriers include failure to understand the strategicneeds of the business, inadequate assessment of the environmental and cultural factors thataffect the content of the strategies, and the development of ill-conceived and irrelevant initia-tives, possibly because they are current fads or because there has been an ill-digested analysisof best practice that does not fit the organization’s requirements. These problems are com-pounded when insufficient attention is paid to practical implementation problems, the impor-tant role of line managers in implementing strategies, and the need to have establishedsupporting processes for the initiative (eg, performance management to support performancepay).Approaches to implementationAn implementation programme that overcomes these barriers needs to be based on: • a rigorous preliminary analysis of the strategic needs of the business and how the strat- egy will help to meet them;
  • 88. HR Strategies 61• a communication programme that spells out what the strategy is, what it is expected to achieve and how it is to be introduced;• the involvement of those who will be concerned with the strategy, eg line managers, in identifying implementation problems and how they should be dealt with;• the preparation of action plans that indicate who does what and when;• project managing the implementation in a way that ensures that the action plans are achieved.HR strategies – key learning pointsPurpose of HR strategy • is coherent and integrated;To articulate what an organization intends • takes account of the needs of lineto do about its human resource manage- managers and employees generallyment policies and practices now and in the