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Economics 2.0 Economics 2.0 Presentation Transcript

  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet Economics 2.0 By Anja Møller Rasmussen, NIASLinc
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • This workshop is designed to acquaint you with the abundant and varied resources on the new web and to show you how to take advantage of new (and old) ways of searching.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Web 2.0: Beyond technology: open knowledge and network collaboration
    • Web Seminar – Talent/BetterManagement
    • E-Magazine – CLOMedia, Quality Digest
    • Discussion Group – TRDev, Training Ideas
    • Network- LinkedIn, Facebook, Orkut
    • Information in PPT- Slideshare
    • Expert – About, Yahoo Answer
    • Blog – Technorati
    • Sharing: Delicious.com
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • As a researcher you must be able to search for and retrieve information efficiently and use it shrewdly so I will also show you:
    • How to find the best Open Access peer reviewed resources
    • Evaluation of resources on the net
    • The rules and ethics for using scientific literature
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • The present world wide web is very different from that we used ten years ago.
    • We used to rely heavily on software applications loaded onto our PCs - more of the applications are now available across the web. Key examples are calendars and email where google offers similar services to microsoft outlook.
    • Services are even expanded with a headset and microphone turning the computer into an international phone system with the help of Skype.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet It is worth knowing that one of the key changes making this possible is the separation of the content on the web from the way it is displayed at your computer. WEB 2.0 moved the Internet from “push” to “pull” From pre-designed web sites and portals to user-based content; a loosely-coupled system of different Internet applications for the social creation of knowledge.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet We have new techologies. We have a shift from consumers to active users participating as curators and creators. We have a new open knowledge culture allowing for open access and creative remix; creative commons is a challence to traditional copy rights allowing for information to be used and distributed in a flexible way. We have new posiblities for networking and creation and sharing of information. WEB 2.0 offers powerful new ways for scholars to publish, interact and for social networking.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Googology: Some Google, some not
    • iGoogle
    • GoogleScholar
    • GoogleBooks
    • and much more Google
  •  
  • How the web has changed and how you can work with it
    • http://www.google.com/search?q=vietnam%20economics&hl=en&rls=ig&tbo=1&output=search&tbs=ww:1
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • http://www.google.com/webhp?rls=ig#rls=ig&hl=en&source=hp&q=vietnam+economics&aq=f&aqi=&oq=&fp=8abfa38a30232193
    • http://similar-images.googlelabs.com/images?hl=en&q=economic+models&btnG=Search+images
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Why not use Google (at least not as the only source)
    • 200 Billion sites
    • Only 50 Billion is static web
    • Google only indexed around 20% of the web
    • Databases are “deep web” and not searched
    • Daily Web Space increases with approximately 100,000 websites
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Blogging
    • A Weblog, or 'blog' is a type of website in which one or more bloggers regularly post entries in a similar fashion to a diary or a journal, it is a way of disseminate information or expose your self to the public.
    • The focus tends to be on text. People post to their blogs once every fortnight or so, every week, every day, or even a number of times a day. Their postings can be as long as essays or just a few words long. Most posts, however tend to be just a few paragraphs.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • The blogs that have larger audiences tend to focus on politics, music, cooking, sport, and technology - there are almost as many possible topics as there are blogs.
    • Businesses, NGOs, politicians and government departments often also use blogs to keep their members, employees, and customers up to date with ongoing developments in their organisations often with a facility for readers to post comments.
    • Tools:
    • www.wordpress.com
    • Excample:
    • http://www.2point6billion.com/
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Collaborative publishing
    • A new form of group authorship often combined with self-publishing. Wikipedia being the most well-known example.
    • Often this is then made freely available to access and use, subject to certain licensing restrictions like common creatives.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • WIKI
    • A wiki is a type of website that allows the visitors themselves to easily add, remove and otherwise edit and change some available content, sometimes without the need for registration (see full definition , Wikipedia).
    • It is a tool for cooperation:
    • Papers, Applications, Project management, Policy papers and Manuals
    • Easy to publish and access
    • Exsample: ComPart wiki ; http:// pbwiki.com ; http:// www.asiaportal.info / wiki / index.php / Main_Page
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • RSS feeds  
    • RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication, it is a file format which allows you to save the content of a website seperate from the way it is displayed.
    • In web terms, content that is syndicated (e.g. as a news feed) can be incorporated and displayed on other web sites or accessed by users directly with newsreader software such as iGoogle . Syndicated content normally consists of headlines and brief descriptions of articles which then link back to the originating web site or service.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Social bookmarking and Tagging
    • is a web based service, where lists of user-created Internet bookmarks are displayed.
    • Social bookmarking websites allow users to archive, organize and share Internet resources that they find useful.
    • Further, users can categorize their resources by the use of informally assigned, user-defined keywords or tags. Most of the time, users' lists of favourites saved in a social bookmarking site are publicly accessible, and other people with similar interests can view the links by category, tags, or even randomly.
    • For a nice explanation about the benefits of Social Bookmarking we wil have a look at this video.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • When we find interesting links on the web, we bookmark and index them, using descriptive labels called 'tags'. From each of these tags, or from combinations of them, we can then generate lists of selected resources and republish them. This way, the resources each of us bookmarks will be available for colleagues, partners and eventually the general public.
    • The collective use of this system by the different staff members can also assure a constant flow of content, as the new entries we save in del.icio.us will be automatically incorporated in the relevant pages, displaying at the top of the different lists of resources.
    • http://web2share.pbwiki.com/ tagging
    • http:// del.icio.us
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Focuss.Info is a collaborative platform supported by more than 40 global, national and regional institutions and more than 30 individuals
    • It first started as a platform where people collaboratively saved their favourite e-resources in social bookmark platform such as Delicious.com and CiteULike.org. 
    • As a result, Focuss will create a collection of valuable e-resources in the field of global development cooperation which will be full-text retrievable through the search engine on top of the screen.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Open Access is an academic quality mark
    • more then 200 of the highest ranking Universities in teh world demand OA publishing or deposit in repositories of research from the institututions so do many of the big funders and Research Councils
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Dmoz.org: The Open Directory Project is the largest, most comprehensive human-edited directory of the Web. It is constructed and maintained by a vast, global community of volunteer editors.
    • http:// www.dmoz.org /Science/ Social_Sciences /Economics/ Development_Economics
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • DOAJ
    • The aim of the Directory of Open Access Journals is to increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact.
    • The Directory aims to be comprehensive and cover all open access scientific and scholarly journals that use a quality control system to guarantee the content.
    • In short a one stop shop for users to Open Access Journals.
    • http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=subject&cpid=19
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Oapen.org
    • OAPEN consists of a number of European university presses and universities, and is open to new partners. The publishing partners are all scholarly presses predominantly active in Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) and book publishing.
    • http://www.oapen.org/OA_books.asp
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Intute is a free online service that helps you to find the best web resources for your studies and research.
    • With millions of resources available on the Internet, it can be difficult to find useful material. Our subject specialists review and evaluate thousands of resources to help you choose the key websites in your subject.
    • http://intute.ac.uk/economics/
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Create references
    • Online research management, writing and collaboration tools is designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies in the right academic way
    • Refbase is one of many new web-based, platform-independent, multi-user interface for managing scientific literature & citations. http:// refbase.sourceforge.net /
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Zotero
    • is a free, open source scholars' extension for the Firefox browser. Zotero is in part a piece of reference management software, used to manage bibliographies and references when writing essays and articles. It enables its users to collect, manage, and cite research all types of sources without leaving their browser. On many major research websites such as digital libraries, Google Scholar , or even Amazon.com , Zotero will sense when a book, article, or other resource is being viewed and with one click it will find and automatically save the full reference information to a local reference library. If the source is an online article or web page, Zotero can optionally store a local copy of the source as well. Users can then add notes, tags, and their own metadata through the in-browser interface. Selections of the local reference library data can later be exported as formatted bibliographies for research papers or other purposes. http:// www.zotero.org /
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Connotea
    • is a free online reference management service for scientists, researchers, and clinicians, created by Nature Publishing Group.
    • Unlike many of the other well-known tools, Connotea is aimed primarily at scientists, and while users may bookmark any webpage they choose, it incorporates special functionality for certain academic resources. Connotea recognises a number of scientific websites and will automatically collect metadata for the article or page being bookmarked, including author and publication names. http:// www.connotea.org /
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • And many many more:
    • Flickr: Photos
    • Facebook: Socialnetworking site
    • Linkedin: Socialnetworking for professionals – get connected
    • Ning: organise teams
    • Meebo: networking
    • SurveyMonkey: e-surveys
    • SlideShare: store and share powerpoints
    • StumbleUpon: channel surf the net and share your findings
    • Take a tour using : http://our23things.infopeople.org/the_23_things/
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Slideshare
    • Upload PowerPoint presentations so they are freely available online
    • Easily embeddable in other services e.g. blogs
    • Add an mp3 soundtrack / narration and sync it with the slides
    • YouTube for PowerPoint
    • Community features such as tags, comments, favourites, related SlideCasts etc.
    • http:// www.slideshare.net /
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Disseminating lecture material for revision purposes
    • Discuss lecture material using the comments feature to aid understanding
    • As a student assignment assessing virtual presentation skills
    • Find other presentations on your topic - save reinventing the wheel
    • Building up a body of resources over time on a particular topic
    • Drawing together conference / seminar materials using a common "tag"
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Twitter
    • Asks what are you up to right now?
    • Limited to just 140 characters
    • Like the status update feature on Facebook - and that's all
    • Follow people you know, those you don't, organisations, publications
    • Part blog, part social networking site, and part IM tool
    • http:// twitter.com /
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Twitter
    • Pointers to online resources based around a course
    • Student reminders about deadlines
    • Breaking down barriers and getting to know others over this "virtual water cooler"
    • Keeping up to date for you and students
    • Instant lecture feedback - are you twittering about this presentation?
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • How to define your needs and find the best resource
    • Starting your research can be simple: I have a need for information – it can be as simple as that!
    • My experience tells me that almost all information needs can be boiled down to the following five statements:
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • I need an overview of a topic
    • I need to find books on a topic
    • I need journal articles on a topic
    • I need definitions of terms
    • I need to find information about a person
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • One basis assumption is:
    • DO NOT TAKE NO FOR AN ANSWER
    • (unless it is the answer you are looking for!)
    • Always assume that what you want exists.
    • If you assume that what you want is there somewhere, you will be more persistent, and your question becomes how to phrase your search better so you can retrieve it.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • There are always alternative routes to your information:
    • If searching the databases doesn’t work try the Internet and vice versa.
    • It may be that your search is too broad or too narrow.
    • You may not have thought of all the words that could describe your topic.
    • You may not have thought how to link the elements of the topic together.
    • You need to be good at word games, to be able to understand and use Boolean operators (and, or, not) and subsequently to develop effective search techniques.
    • But what is most important you need a good knowledge of your primary sources.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Library is the word for a place to study!
    • So use the library and if all else fails ask a librarian
    • (Better yet, ask a librarian before you’ve wasted a lot of time!)
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • SEARCH STRATEGY
    • Regardless of the search tool being used, the development of an effective search strategy is essential if you hope to obtain satisfactory results.
    • A simplified, generic search strategy might consist of the following steps:
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Formulate the research question and its scope
    • Identify the important concepts within the question
    • Identify search terms to describe those concepts
    • Consider synonyms and variations of those terms
    • Prepare your search logic
    • Write down your search string before you start
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Much database searching is based on the principles of Boolean logic. Boolean logic refers to the logical relationship among search terms.
    • Boolean logic consists of three logical operators:
    • OR
    • AND
    • NOT
    • Each operator can be visually described by using Venn diagrams.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • OR
    • college OR university
    • Query:    I would like information about college.
    • In this search, we will retrieve records in which AT LEAST ONE of the search terms is present. We are searching on the terms college and also university since documents containing either of these words might be relevant.
    • The more terms or concepts we combine in a search with OR logic, the more records we will retrieve
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • NOT
    • cats NOT dogs
    • Query:    I want information about cats, but I want to avoid anything about dogs.
    • In this search, we retrieve records in which ONLY ONE of the terms is present
    • NOT logic excludes records from your search results. Be careful when you use NOT: the term you do want may be present in an important way in documents that also contain the word you wish to avoid.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • AND
    • poverty AND crime
    • Query:    I'm interested in the relationship between poverty and crime.
    • In this search, we retrieve records in which BOTH of the search terms are present
    • The more terms or concepts we combine in a search with AND logic, the fewer records we will retrieve.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Query:     I want to learn about cat behavior.
    • Boolean logic:     OR, AND
    • Search:     (cats OR felines) AND behavior
    • Use of parentheses in this search is known as forcing the order of processing. In this case, we surround the OR words with parentheses so that the search engine will process the two related terms first. Next, the search engine with combine this result with the last part of the search that involves the second concept. Using this method, we are assured that the semantically-related OR terms are kept together as a logical unit.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Where to Search with Boolean operators:
    • Boolean operators:
    • AltaVista Advanced Web Search | AllTheWeb Advanced Search | Dogpile |
    • Google [AND OR only] | Ixquick
    • Full Boolean logic with parentheses, e.g., behavior and (cats or felines)
    • AlltheWeb Advanced Search | AltaVista Advanced Web Search | Ixquick | MSN Search
    • Implied Boolean +/- Most search engines offer this option
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Evaluation of sources
    • Research needs and requirements vary with each assignment, project, or paper. But while there is no single right or absolute way to conduct research, there are methods and skills that can help make your research efforts more efficient and effective.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Before you rely on information, you should:
    • Determine its origin.
    • Discover the author AND the publisher.
    • Ascertain the author and publisher's credentials.
    • Discover the date of the writing. This gives the information historical context.
    • Verify it. Find another reputable source that provides similar information.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Checklist for Research Source Evaluation  
    • Credibility: trustworthy source, author’s credentials, evidence of quality control, known or respected authority, organizational support.
    • Goal: an authoritative source, a source that supplies some good evidence that allows you to trust it.
    • Accuracy: up to date, factual, detailed, exact, comprehensive, audience and purpose reflect intentions of completeness and accuracy.
    • Goal: a source that is correct today (not yesterday), a source that gives the whole truth.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Reasonableness: fair, balanced, objective, reasoned, no conflict of interest, absence of fallacies or slanted tone.
    • Goal: a source that engages the subject thoughtfully and reasonably, concerned with the truth.
    • Support: listed sources, contact information, available corroboration, claims supported, documentation supplied.
    • Goal: a source that provides convincing evidence for the claims made, a source you can triangulate (find at least two other sources that support it). 
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • The rules and ethics for using scientific literature
    • In science, knowledge accumulates as individuals study phenomena in the natural world. These researchers base their studies on the information contributed in the past by others, and the results of the new studies provide new information or different interpretations of the subjects under investigation. Scientists share their work through the publication of the results of their original research projects. In this way, the new knowledge is available to all who have an interest in those subjects.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Citing Sources of Information
    • You must cite the sources of information you use. Citing others' work fulfills a number of purposes:
    • it can be a way of recognizing the contributions of pioneers in a field
    • it identifies the original publications in which an idea or concept was first presented
    • it provides access to other readings on the topic of the work at hand
    • it can be used to identify a methodology
    • it is a way to refer to work of one's own or others that is being critiqued or corrected
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • You do need to cite if:
    • you refer to or describe specific information that you have taken from a source
    • you refer to a theory or idea from a source
    • you want to incorporate a figure, table, or photograph from another source
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Avoid plagiarism in scholarly writing:
    • Plagiarism means to reproduce or copy another’s work with out decaring this by refering to the original source.
    • So never do not cut and paste text from an electronic source with the intention of paraphrasing the text after copying it.
    • Never do not use direct quotations; in scientific writing, you express the information and ideas you have taken from other sources in your own words, rather than how the author says it.
    • Always think about the information that you're using from another source and when you understand it sufficiently, you'll be able to say it your own words.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Executive Summary: The Two-Minute Bottom Line
    • To illustrate some of the basic concepts and recommendations covered in this tutorial, let's say we have an interest in recent findings about new planets being discovered outside our solar system.
    • Using the information "contained" in this statement, you can see how an effective query can be built by following these guidelines.
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • Use nouns and objects as query keywords.
    • Use 6 to 8 keywords in query.
    • 3. Truncate words to pick up singular and plural versions.
    • 4. Use synonyms via the OR operator.
    • 5. Combine keywords into phrases where possible.
    • 6. Combine 2 to 3 "concepts" in query.
    • 7. Distinguish "concepts" with parentheses.
    • 9. Link "concepts" with the AND operator.
    • 10. Issue query to full "Boolean" search engine or metasearcher .
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • ("new planet*") AND (discover* OR find) AND ("solar system")
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • In most cases, an effective search strategy, the correct use of Boolean logic, and familiarity with the features of each of the search engines will lead to satisfactory results. However, there are additional techniques that may further improve your results in particular circumstances:
    • A quick method of finding the relevant words is to type Ctrl-F to search for the text in the current document.
    • Bookmark your results
    • Wildcards: Some search engines allow the use of "wildcard" characters (* ?) in search statements. Wildcards are useful for retrieving variant spellings (e.g. color, colour) and words with a common root
  • Beyond Google: How to do research on the Internet
    • In less than 10 minutes you can improve your research skills considerably:
    • Take the library test which shows how good you are at finding your way around information and how you can get even better:
    • www.librarytest.dk