Online økonomi 260314

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Online økonomi 260314

  1. 1. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 1 ONLINE ØKONOMI Anja Bechmann THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 2 Læsning til idag •  Jose Van Dijck’s kapitel 2 •  Bechmann, A & Lomborg, S (2012) Mapping Actor Roles in Social Media: Different Perspectives on Value Creation in Theories of User Participation, New Media & Society, i- first, November 26. •  Wasko, J, Murdock, G. & Sousa, H 2011. Introduction: The political economy of communications: Core concerns and issues. The Handbook of Political economy and communications. West sussex. Blackwell: 1-10. [findes på AULA] •  Bechmann, A (2013). Internet Profiling: the economy of data interoperability on Facebook and Google, Mediekultur, 55: 72-91. http://ojs.statsbiblioteket.dk/index.php/mediekultur/article/viewFile/8070/13613 •  Bechmann, A. (2012) Towards cross-platform value creation, Information, Communication & society, 15(6): 888-908. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369118X.2012.680483#.UujW02Q1j-k •  http://intl- nms.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/11/22/1461444812462853.full •  Anderson, C (2008) Free Why $0.00 Is the Future of Business, Wired Magazine 02.25.08 http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/magazine/16-03/ff_free?currentPage=all THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 3 Program: Online økonomi •  Mediesystemiske rammer (van dijck, Wasko, Bechmann & Lomborg) •  Pause 20 min •  Medier på nettet: Cross-platform & forretningsmodeller (Bechmann) •  Gratisøkonomi (Anderson) •  Eksempler på online reklamemodeller (bl.a. Bechmann) THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 4 Mediesystemiske forståelsesrammer
  2. 2. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 5 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 6 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 7 Bechmann & Lomborg som mediesystemisk ramme •  360 graders forståelse af aktørbegrebet •  Vi fokuserer på værdiskabelse og analysere aktører IKKE bestemte klassiske roller som udgangspunkt •  IKKE afsender/modtager fokuseret THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 8 ANT-inspireret •  Non-funktionel •  Multi-materiel /ingen objekt-subjekt kun aktører •  Relationel analyse •  Analysere translation (I stedet for “power” som overordnet tema – I kontrast til fx. Castells) •  Ikke hvorfor og hvordan men hvad
  3. 3. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 9 Van Dijck som mediesystemisk ramme THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 10 •  Platforme som mikrosystemer •  To niveauer: techno-kulturelle & socioøkonomiske strukturer •  ANT (& politisk økonomi)-inspireret •  Afhængighed og udveksling mellem platforme – ikke isolerede størrelser – se mønstre på tværs THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 11 Øvelse •  Hvordan adskiller van Dijck og Vestergaards modeller sig? •  Hvad er styrken ved henholdsvis den ene og den anden? •  Hvad er svaghederne ved henholdsvis den ene og den anden? THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 12 Politisk økonomi som mediesystemisk ramme •  Political economy was, from the outset, caught up in all three projects. For its early practitioners, like Adam Smith, theoretical and empirical questions about how to organize economic life and balance markets against state intervention were inextricably bound up with questions about the constitution of the good society. Marx, who presented his magnum opus, Capital, as a critique of political economy, shared this ethical concern, but argued forcefully that it could only be pursued by abolishing capitalism. Other socialists opted for a more gradualist approach in which the negative impacts of capitalist dynamics would be disciplined by strong public regulation and countered by substantial investment in public services. •  Wasko, murdoch & sousa p. 1
  4. 4. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 13 Polititisk økonomi •  Macro-niveau (Mansell 2004) •  Normativ •  “strukturel” og “processuel” magtrelationer I samfundet (Mansell, 2004:97). •  Udfordrer “inequality and what they perceive to be unjust” (Wasko, Murdock & Sousa, 2011:3) THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 14 •  Internet profiling – eksempel på brug af bl.a. politisk økonomi som teoretisk ramme for at forstå samfundsmæssige konsekvenser af profiling via dataindsamling. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 15 PAUSE THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 16 16 Cross-platform & forretningsmodeller –  Cross-platform: The study of strategic communication/production using more than one platform –  Concentrating on universes with internet and mobile phones Source: Bechmann (2009). Crossmedia, PhD dissertation
  5. 5. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 17 FLOW DESIGN: CONTROL 17 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 18 18 Challenges in the change proces •  New business models –  Bundling and unbundling –  Nuances of cope –  Keep status as passagepoint in network –  Control mechanisms Bet. Beskrivelse CAP Create and Play DAL Discover and Link FAD Fetch and Distribute OAP Open and Play Source: Bechmann (2009). Crossmedia, PhD dissertation Content Content/Code THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 19 19 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 20 20 Cross-media perspectives •  New business models –  Bundling and unbundling –  Nuances of cope –  Keep status as passagepoint in network –  Control mechanisms Bet. Beskrivelse CAP Create and Play DAL Discover and Link FAD Fetch and Distribute OAP Open and Play Source: Bechmann (2009). Crossmedia, PhD dissertation
  6. 6. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 21 21 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 22 22 Cross-media perspectives •  New business models –  Bundling and unbundling –  Nuances of cope –  Keep status as passagepoint in network –  Control mechanisms Bet. Beskrivelse CAP Create and Play DAL Discover and Link FAD Fetch and Distribute OAP Open and Play Source: Bechmann (2009). Crossmedia, PhD dissertation THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 23 23 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 24 24 Cross-media perspectives •  New business models –  Bundling and unbundling –  Nuances of cope –  Keep status as passagepoint in network –  Control mechanisms Bet. Beskrivelse CAP Create and Play DAL Discover and Link FAD Fetch and Distribute OAP Open and Play Source: Bechmann (2009). Crossmedia, PhD dissertation
  7. 7. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 25 25 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 26 26 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 27 27 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 28 28
  8. 8. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 29 FLOW DESIGN: USER PARTICIPATION 29 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 30 30 History of user influence/involvement •  Continuation of interactivity (Jensen 1995 – tv vs. webpages): –  Transmission – consultation, conversation, registration •  User Production (Syvertsen 2006 tv vs. Sms-tv) –  Reactive (little influcence), reactive (more influence), interactive (most influence) •  User Innovation (von Hippel 2005 trad. Media vs. Open source) –  Internal motivated, probabilistic, process/not problem solving, equipotentiality not hieararchy, granular, small scale contribution, shared not owned content (Benkler & Bruns 2008) –  User-led innovation: in-segment-variation (nicheproduction), tools for user innovation process, complementary products for the user innovation Source: Bechmann (2010). User-created tv as entertainment (in Danish). THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 31 31 User involvement and crossmedia (OAP) •  Distinguish between: Reactive -> (productive) -> proactive Production patterns Reactive Proactive Unique/ context sensitive User production User innovation Expert solution Coworkers Potential competition THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 32 32
  9. 9. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 33 33 •  CNN and Twitter: •  http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/international/ 2009/03/19/ic.march.twitter.bk.a.cnn THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 34 34 User involvement and crossmedia (OAP) •  Distinguish between: Reactive -> (productive) -> proactive Production patterns Productive Proactive Unique/ context sensitive User User innovation Expert solution Coworkers Potential competition THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 35 35 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 36 36
  10. 10. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 37 PAUSE THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 38 Gratis-taksonomi (Chris Anderson: Free) Taksonomi Gratis-karakteristika eksempel Freemium 1%pay 99% free Prof udg af software/ service Advertising Third party pays – free to everyone reklameformer Cross-subsidies Grundprodukter gratis men nødvendig tilbehør koster Ex. Mobil, men abo koster Zero marginal cost Digitale produkter er gratis Ex. Musik, men tjener på andre led i værdikæden Labor exchange Websites og services gratis for alle – betaler via trafikmønstre Ex. Google – salg af brugsmønstre Gift economy Alt er gratis (giver og tager) Open source THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 39 Adfærdsbaseret reklame •  Predictive behavioral targeting •  Retargeting •  Frekvensstyring •  Price targeting •  Contextual targeting •  Geo-targeting Kilde: konkurrence- og forbrugerstyrelsen 2011 THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 40 Predictive behavioral targeting
  11. 11. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 41 Retargeting THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 42 Keyword marketing THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 43 •  Maximum bid (cost per click) x quality score •  Quality score –  Geographical consideration, landing page quality, historical performance, keyword relevance, and click through rate (CTR) – and maybe unknown factors.. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 44 Frekvensstyring
  12. 12. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 45 Price targeting THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 46 Contextual targeting (semantisk) THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 47 Contextual targeting (semantisk) THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 48 Geo-targeting
  13. 13. THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 49 Pervasiv advertising (geo-targeting) THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 50 Pervasiv advertising (geo-targeting) THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 51 •  Mulige opgaveemner om online økonomi –  Hvordan opsamler x virksomhed data om brugerne, hvordan bruges data og hvilken værdi repræsentere data for virksomheden? –  Hvordan indregnes (eller ikke) nye online reklameformer i den danske statistik af reklameforbrug og hvad giver det af udfordringer for synligheden af sådanne former? –  Hvilke forretningsmodeller og ejerskabsstrukturer kendetegner x online virksomhed? –  Hvor stor et økonomisk potentiale ligger der I x reklameform afdækket via ex. Interviews? Hvad er udfordringerne fx. Privacy, kompentencer, brugermønstre etc. –  Hvilke beslutningsprocesser ligger til grund for x virksomheds udvælgelse af reklameformer online? –  Hvordan skriver netflix og andre abonnementtjenester sig ind i de traditionelle mediers historie med at brugere IKKE vil betale for indhold på nettet THE CENTRE FOR INTERNET RESEARCH Anja Bechmann, Associate Professor DigitalFootprints 52 Tak for idag!

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