Making your thesis readable - Typesetting Tips for Non-designers

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Presentation about typesetting your thesis given at the ANU July 2014. Includes typesetting guidelines and a formula for creating a 7 level heading thesis design

Presentation about typesetting your thesis given at the ANU July 2014. Includes typesetting guidelines and a formula for creating a 7 level heading thesis design

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  • 1. WELCOME TO How to Make your Thesis More Readable
  • 2. HELLO my name is
  • 3. HELLO my name is I AM A
  • 4. TODAY I AM TALKING ABOUT Typography (AND OTHER STUFF YOU NEED TO KNOW TO MAKE YOUR THESIS)
  • 5. Typesetting is an old practice ARTIST: ROBERT THOM
  • 6. With strong craft traditions ARTIST: ROBERT THOM
  • 7. PORTRAIT OF STEVE JOBS, BY SUSAN KARE (DESIGNER OF THE ORIGINAL MAC ICONS) 1983 Many of which have persisted through the shift from metal to digital type
  • 8. Which is why using MS Word is like using this…
  • 9. …to fix a watch
  • 10. So we have to plan for this
  • 11. Because typesetting your thesis will take longer than you think
  • 12. Methodology / The Crystal Goblet …the first he asked of this particular object was not ‘How should it look?’ but ‘What must it do?’ and to that extent all good typography is modernist. —Beatrice Warde
  • 13. Here are your specs: International Standard Paper Size A4 (297 x 210mm) 1.5 spacing and presented in a clear and legible font and would normally be expected to be double-sided Left and right margins of no less than 30mm and page numbers that appear inside the margins Pages that are numbered consecutively and clearly Folding diagrams or charts arranged so as to open to the top and right.
  • 14. So, you have some choices to make
  • 15. Serif OR Sans Serif
  • 16. (leave out typefaces who can’t decide)
  • 17. Typefaces communicate
  • 18. The typefaces we read best are the ones we read the most
  • 19. (That doesn’t mean we will believe them more)
  • 20. High contrast between thick and thin strokes is hard to read
  • 21. Minimal contrast is easier to read
  • 22. You can pair Serif and Sans Serif
  • 23. You can pair the same kinds of typefaces Just make sure they are not too similar (OR IT WILL LOOK LIKE A MISTAKE)
  • 24. It’s air, you know. It’s just there. There’s no choice. You have to breathe, so you have to use Helvetica. —Eric Spiekermann
  • 25. TYPEFACES THAT HAVE NO PLACE IN A THESIS: Papyrus Comic Sans Chancery Script Eurostile Copperplate anything art nouveau / art deco style
  • 26. AVOID IF YOU CAN: Gill Sans Optima Futura Arial Times New Roman
  • 27. TRY THESE CLASSICS INSTEAD: Garamond Baskerville Cambria Univers Franklin Gothic Hevetica
  • 28. STAY AWAY FROM SCREEN FONTS INCLUDING: Calibri Trebuchet Geneva Georgia Tahoma (generally any typefaces named after cities)
  • 29. The Rules (FOR NON-DESIGNERS)
  • 30. Do not compress or extend type
  • 31. Don’t distort images
  • 32. Don’t use justified type. it looks terrible
  • 33. Guidelines (FOR NON-DESIGNERS)
  • 34. Don’t use more than three changes in your type
  • 35. Avoid widows
  • 36. Try to leave at least two full lines at the top of a page
  • 37. Line Stuff Up
  • 38. Indent or space between, not both
  • 39. It’s all about hierarchy
  • 40. Possible formula for thesis text with 7 heading levels: Body Copy = 12pt all type sizes are based off this measure (in increments of 2 points) Line Spacing 24pt = 1.5 spaced (32pt would be double-spaced) all spaces are based on this measure Body copy set with no indents, instead uses 1/2 line space as space between (para space) in this case = 12pt* Headings all use the same typeface (which may differ from body text typeface): Section Head = 18pt (8 pts larger than body copy) usually set all caps, on a page by itself Chapter Head = 16pt (4 pts larger than body copy) Bold, looks best with 3 to 5 para spaces below (so 36pt/60pt) A Head (14pt) = set bold, 2 para spaces above, one para space below (24pt above/12 below)** B Head (14pt) = set bold italic, 2 para spaces above, one para space below (24pt above/12 below) C Head (12pt) = Set bold, 1.5 line space above, one para space below (18pt above/12pt below) D Head (12pt) = Set regular, 1 para space above, 1 para below (12pt above and below) E Head (12pt) = Set italic, 1 para space above, 1 para below (12pt above and below) Footnotes and Page Numbers set in body text @ 8–10pt * Paragraphs above headings should be set with no space below. **When one heading is above another, delete the space below the top heading.
  • 41. me, the exemplar work displayed in that long ago hallway had a presence that was almost palpable, and was often capable of triggering ‘the fear’: a heady mixture of inspiration, envy, and anxiety. This conversation made me wonder, how could I help my online design students ‘feel the fear’ without such a hallway? How can I (or indeed should I?) set the conditions for ‘the fear’ to flourish in the digital hallways of the online school? It was on this last thought that I found myself deeply conflicted. While acknowledg- ing that my colleague was perhaps correct, fear is part of design teacher practice, I found myself wondering if this was a good thing. I wondered too what it may mean if online teaching is a less fear filled practice, and at the same time is (at least in my experience) as effective as onsite teaching. Thus, I loosely framed my initial re- search question as: ‘Is ‘the fear’ in fact necessary to good design teaching practice?’ Although I eventually set out to explore how the online design studio reshapes graphic design teaching more broadly, this question still gives me pause. It is how- ever, best left to research of a more cause-effect kind to take forward. This is a A Head This thesis examines the design studio, common to all art and design disciplines, and the focus of learning and teaching in design education (Schön, 1990). The design studio is both a learning space and a unique pedagogical method (Broadfoot & Bennett, 2003, p. 3) of learning-by-doing, which most scholars trace back to the antecedents of the modern design school: the Beaux Arts and the Bauhaus (Bender 2 SPACES ABOVE = 24pt 1 SPACE BELOW = 12pt
  • 42. me, the exemplar work displayed in that long ago hallway had a presence that was almost palpable, and was often capable of triggering ‘the fear’: a heady mixture of inspiration, envy, and anxiety. This conversation made me wonder, how could I help my online design students ‘feel the fear’ without such a hallway? How can I (or indeed should I?) set the conditions for ‘the fear’ to flourish in the digital hallways of the online school? It was on this last thought that I found myself deeply conflicted. While acknowledg- ing that my colleague was perhaps correct, fear is part of design teacher practice, I found myself wondering if this was a good thing. I wondered too what it may mean if online teaching is a less fear filled practice, and at the same time is (at least in my experience) as effective as onsite teaching. Thus, I loosely framed my initial re- search question as: ‘Is ‘the fear’ in fact necessary to good design teaching practice?’ Although I eventually set out to explore how the online design studio reshapes graphic design teaching more broadly, this question still gives me pause. It is how- ever, best left to research of a more cause-effect kind to take forward. This is a B Head This thesis examines the design studio, common to all art and design disciplines, and the focus of learning and teaching in design education (Schön, 1990). The design studio is both a learning space and a unique pedagogical method (Broadfoot & Bennett, 2003, p. 3) of learning-by-doing, which most scholars trace back to the antecedents of the modern design school: the Beaux Arts and the Bauhaus (Bender 2 SPACES ABOVE = 24pt 1 SPACE BELOW = 12pt
  • 43. me, the exemplar work displayed in that long ago hallway had a presence that was almost palpable, and was often capable of triggering ‘the fear’: a heady mixture of inspiration, envy, and anxiety. This conversation made me wonder, how could I help my online design students ‘feel the fear’ without such a hallway? How can I (or indeed should I?) set the conditions for ‘the fear’ to flourish in the digital hallways of the online school? It was on this last thought that I found myself deeply conflicted. While acknowledg- ing that my colleague was perhaps correct, fear is part of design teacher practice, I found myself wondering if this was a good thing. I wondered too what it may mean if online teaching is a less fear filled practice, and at the same time is (at least in my experience) as effective as onsite teaching. Thus, I loosely framed my initial re- search question as: ‘Is ‘the fear’ in fact necessary to good design teaching practice?’ Although I eventually set out to explore how the online design studio reshapes graphic design teaching more broadly, this question still gives me pause. It is how- ever, best left to research of a more cause-effect kind to take forward. This is a C Head This thesis examines the design studio, common to all art and design disciplines, and the focus of learning and teaching in design education (Schön, 1990). The design studio is both a learning space and a unique pedagogical method (Broadfoot & Bennett, 2003, p. 3) of learning-by-doing, which most scholars trace back to the antecedents of the modern design school: the Beaux Arts and the Bauhaus (Bender 1.5 SPACE ABOVE = 18pt 1 SPACE BELOW = 12pt
  • 44. me, the exemplar work displayed in that long ago hallway had a presence that was almost palpable, and was often capable of triggering ‘the fear’: a heady mixture of inspiration, envy, and anxiety. This conversation made me wonder, how could I help my online design students ‘feel the fear’ without such a hallway? How can I (or indeed should I?) set the conditions for ‘the fear’ to flourish in the digital hallways of the online school? It was on this last thought that I found myself deeply conflicted. While acknowledg- ing that my colleague was perhaps correct, fear is part of design teacher practice, I found myself wondering if this was a good thing. I wondered too what it may mean if online teaching is a less fear filled practice, and at the same time is (at least in my experience) as effective as onsite teaching. Thus, I loosely framed my initial re- search question as: ‘Is ‘the fear’ in fact necessary to good design teaching practice?’ Although I eventually set out to explore how the online design studio reshapes graphic design teaching more broadly, this question still gives me pause. It is how- ever, best left to research of a more cause-effect kind to take forward. This is a D Head This thesis examines the design studio, common to all art and design disciplines, and the focus of learning and teaching in design education (Schön, 1990). The design studio is both a learning space and a unique pedagogical method (Broadfoot & Bennett, 2003, p. 3) of learning-by-doing, which most scholars trace back to the antecedents of the modern design school: the Beaux Arts and the Bauhaus (Bender 1 SPACE ABOVE = 12pt 1 SPACE BELOW = 12pt
  • 45. me, the exemplar work displayed in that long ago hallway had a presence that was almost palpable, and was often capable of triggering ‘the fear’: a heady mixture of inspiration, envy, and anxiety. This conversation made me wonder, how could I help my online design students ‘feel the fear’ without such a hallway? How can I (or indeed should I?) set the conditions for ‘the fear’ to flourish in the digital hallways of the online school? It was on this last thought that I found myself deeply conflicted. While acknowledg- ing that my colleague was perhaps correct, fear is part of design teacher practice, I found myself wondering if this was a good thing. I wondered too what it may mean if online teaching is a less fear filled practice, and at the same time is (at least in my experience) as effective as onsite teaching. Thus, I loosely framed my initial re- search question as: ‘Is ‘the fear’ in fact necessary to good design teaching practice?’ Although I eventually set out to explore how the online design studio reshapes graphic design teaching more broadly, this question still gives me pause. It is how- ever, best left to research of a more cause-effect kind to take forward. This is an E Head This thesis examines the design studio, common to all art and design disciplines, and the focus of learning and teaching in design education (Schön, 1990). The design studio is both a learning space and a unique pedagogical method (Broadfoot & Bennett, 2003, p. 3) of learning-by-doing, which most scholars trace back to the antecedents of the modern design school: the Beaux Arts and the Bauhaus (Bender 1 SPACE ABOVE = 12pt 1 SPACE BELOW = 12pt
  • 46. Consistent indent No tab space
  • 47. Footnotes, page numbers, and bibliography can be in a smaller point size
  • 48. THERE ARE ONLY 5 WAYS TO ORGANIZE INFORMATION LATCH
  • 49. LOCATION ALPHABETICAL TIME CATEGORY HIERARCHY
  • 50. Your data is bivariate > use a table
  • 51. Your data is bivariate > use a table Your data is multivariate > use a chart
  • 52. Pick the Right Tool Bar Charts / compare items
  • 53. Pick the Right Tool Bar Charts / compare items Line Graphs / show trends over time
  • 54. Pick the Right Tool Bar Charts / compare items Line Graphs / show trends over time Pie Charts / emphasize proportions
  • 55. Pick the Right Tool Bar Charts / compare items Line Graphs / show trends over time Pie Charts / emphasize proportions Flowcharts / show process and connectedness
  • 56. Scale 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Skill Development 86% 77% 90% 96% 92% 89% 92% Goals and Expectations 75% 80% 83% 88% 92% 87% 88% Examination 74% 62% 72% 77% 79% 80% 78% Supervision 64% 65% 70% 80% 74% 72% 75% Infrastructure 52% 44% 60% 68% 67% 65% 74% Intellectual Climate 45% 34% 49% 54% 56% 55% 59% Overall Satisfaction 68% 69% 73% 87% 85% 78% 75%
  • 57.  
  • 58. Highlight what’s important
  • 59. 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 % 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 SKILL DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND EXPECTATIONS EXAMINATION SUPERVISION INFRASTRUCTURE INTELLECTUAL CLIMATE OVERALL SATISFACTION
  • 60. Don’t use an ellipse—it distorts the data Don’t use busy patterns or 3D effect Make sure colors are tonally contrasting
  • 61. Use one dataset per table
  • 62. Use one dataset per table Goal is to notice information, NOT the table structure
  • 63. Use one dataset per table Goal is to notice information, NOT the table structure Use thin lines and light background colors
  • 64. Use dashes or ellipses for missing data
  • 65. Use dashes or ellipses for missing data Tints help the eye read across or down
  • 66. Use dashes or ellipses for missing data Tints help the eye read across or down Use fonts with open counters and/or no serifs
  • 67. Thanks for listening, Godspeed!
  • 68. Any Questions?