B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) conducted research on animal and human behavior. In the early 1960s he began work on behavior modification, which is based on the belief that our voluntary behavior is shaped by reinforcement immediately following the act. He focused on rewards more than punishment, because he found that led to more successful results in behavioral change. His theory was met with a great deal of criticism, including in Anthony Burgess' novel, A Clockwork Orange , because many believe that behavior that is “programmed” without a conscious choice robs mankind of its humanity. Andrius, John. &quot;The Skinner Model of Discipline.&quot; Charles, C.M. Building Classroom Discipline.
The four methods discussed on these slides are frequently found being used in the classroom, with generally positive results.
Although initially rewards should be given each time a child performs in a desired fashion, they must be decreased as the child matures or he/she may become unwilling to do anything without a tangible reward for the effort.
Congruent communication means being harmonious with students' feelings about the situation and themselves. Sane messages refer to communication about the situation at hand, rather than the student's character or behavior. Teachers should confer dignity on their students by respecting them as equals. Always use the “I” rather than “you” when expressing feelings or perceptions. Genuine discipline is achieved through many small steps that lead to a genuine change in the student's attitude and behavior. Charles, C.M. Building Classroom Discipline Notes on Haim Ginott's Theory of Congruent Communication .
These words ring true in every teaching situation, and teachers should make a point of remembering how much they influence the class environment.
In autocratic classrooms, teachers make all the decisions. In democratic classrooms, students play an active role in the decision making process. Dreikurs recommends always speaking in positive, not negative terms; encouraging students to strive for improvement, not perfection; emphasize students' strengths while minimizing weaknesses; help students learn from mistakes; encourage indepence and responsibility; show faith in the students and help them overcome obstacles; show pride in the students' work; be optimistic and enthusiastic and use encouraging remarks. Charles, C.M. Building Classroom Discipline. &quot;The Social Discipline Model of Rudolf Dreikurs.&quot; Discipline Models . Middle East Technical University.
Explain why rules are needed. Teach the specific rules. Check for understanding. Explain how students will be rewarded for following the rules. Explain why there are corrective actions for breaking the rules. Teach the corrective actions and how they are applied. Check again for understanding. Charles, C.M. Building Classroom Discipline Reins, Kevin J. &quot;Learning Module.&quot;
Students must respect the rights of those around them. Classrooms should foster a sense of community and not be dominated by the teacher or the students. Students should be treated with dignity and respect. Students who consistently experience realistic consequences for misbehavior learn that they have positive control over their own lives. Students who are bribed, rewarded or punished become dependent on others for approval. Charles, C.M. Building Classroom Discipline. &quot;McREL Products - The Metamorphosis of Classroom Management.&quot;
Kohn believe the tradtional method of teaching is failing our students. They are being taught to perform on tests, rather than exploring new ideas, using creative problem solving and exploring subjects on deeper levels. Teachers should be facilitators to help students further explore their own thoughts. Charles, C.M. Building Classroom Discipline. &quot;Unconditional Parenting: A Radical Parenting Style of Loving Unconditionally.&quot;
20th & 21st Century Classroom Pioneers
2 20 th and 21 st Century Classroom Management Pioneers Anita Clare Volk EDU 450 Grand Canyon University
Since the dawn of education, teachers have struggled to find effective ways to manage their classrooms. Some methods were cruel, and are completely unacceptable by today’s standards of discipline.
This presentation will introduce the following pioneers in Classroom Management: <ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Haim Ginott </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolph Dreikurs </li></ul><ul><li>Lee & Marlene Canter </li></ul><ul><li>Barbara Coloroso </li></ul><ul><li>Alfie Kohn </li></ul>
B.F. Skinner Theory: Behavior Modification Skinner believed that behavior is formed by the consequences of what happens immediately after an action. Positive reinforcement (or rewards) can shape students’ behavior in the right direction. Behavior weakens when not followed with positive reinforcement. It is also weakened by punishment. In early stages, constant reinforcement is necessary. Later, only occasional reinforcement is required.
<ul><li>Skinner defined four types of Positive Reinforcers commonly used in schools: </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social reinforcers can be verbal or nonverbal . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal reinforcers consist of praise, recognition and encouragement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal reinforcers include smiles, pats on the back, thumbs up, etc. </li></ul></ul>2. GRAPHIC Graphic reinforcers can be stamps, checks, happy faces or other special symbols that are given in recognition of good performance.
<ul><li>3. ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity reinforcers are any activities that students prefer to do in school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The options vary depending on age and may include playing a , getting extra recess time, working on a special project or being excused from a quiz or homework. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. TANGIBLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible reinforcers are objects that students can earn as a reward for good behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can consist of snacks, pens, stickers, bookmarks or other “prizes.” </li></ul></ul>
Haim Ginott How can I be most helpful to my students right now? Teachers are very influential and set the stage for students' positive behavior. The essence of discipline lies in finding effective alternatives to punishment. Communication can foster a positive relationship between teachers and students. Theory: Congruent Communication
Ginott's Key Concepts: 1. Use congruent communication 2. Send sane messages to students 3. Promote self-discipline 4. Accept and acknowledge students without demeaning them 5. Emphasis on the exchange of interactions between teachers and students.
Rudolph Dreikurs Humans are social beings and their basic motivation is to belong. <ul><li>Theory: Human Needs & Democratic Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>When students are unable to attain the genuine goal of belonging, they turn to mistaken goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to get attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking revenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying inadequacy </li></ul></ul>
Main Tenets of Democratic Teaching: Help students acquire a social interest so they learn the advanage of contributing to a group Teachers should offer encouragement, not just praise Punishment is counter-productive Consequences must be applied consistently
Students desire to be part of a community. It is necessary that teachers create that environment. Providing students with roles within the classroom, including leadership, will help foster a community environment. Encouragement will be more beneficial to students and the learning environment than praise. Encouragement of one student may be a motivating factor for another student.
Lee and Marlene Canter Theory: Assertive Discipline Systematic and objective way of ensuring a teacher-controlled classroom. Teachers are demanding but treat everyone fairly. Discipline plan clearly outlines expectations as well as positive and negative consequences.
No pupil should prevent a teacher from being able to teach and a student from being able to learn. Teachers should act assertively in dealing with behavior right away, rather than passively dealing with it later. Students actually want teachers to control their behaviors.
Three teacher response styles in the classroom: Non-assertive, Hostile and Assertive Non-assertive – The teacher is passive in response to student behavior; expectations are not clearly communicated; no solid leadership is provided; and inconsistent response to student behavior. Students can be confused by this style. Hostile – Teachers meet their own needs in class, but do so at the cost of the self-esteem of the students; uses discipline to control students instead of empowering them to use proper behavior; views the class as Teacher vs. Students. Assertive – Teacher clearly explains expectations and follows through consistently; explains what behavior is acceptable and unacceptable; the consequences of different behaviors is made clear to students.
Barbara Coloroso Theory: Responsibility & Inner Discipline Students can develop self-discipline if treated with respect, given responsibilities and choices, and are allowed to experience reasonable, realistic consquences for those choices. Children need to be taught how to think, not just what to think. Our children are counting on us to provide two things: consistency and structure. Children need parents and teachers who say what they mean, mean what they say, and do what they say they are going to do.
<ul><li>Teachers help students learn self-control by taking the following steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show students what they have done wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give students ownership of the problems involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest strategies for solving problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure students’ dignity remains intact. </li></ul></ul>When students seriously misbehave, they should be taken through a process of restitution , resolution and reconciliation . Restitution – Doing what is necessary to repair the damage done. Resolution – Identifying and correcting the misbehavior so it won’t happen again. Reconciliation – Establish healing relationships with people who were hurt by the behavior.
Alfie Kohn Neither threats nor bribes work very well, you know, especially over the long haul. At best, they produce only temporary obedience. And in the process they do a lot of harm—for example, by teaching children they have to jump through hoops for us to love them. Theory: Classroom Learning Communities
How to develop a greater sense of community in the classroom: Show respect for students Help students connect Use classroom meetings Provide classwide and schoolwide activities Reflect on academic instruction
To help students become ethical people, as opposed to people who merely do what they are told, we cannot merely tell them what to do. We have to help them figure out--for themselves and with each other--how one ought to act. That's why dropping the tools of traditional discipline, like rewards and consequences, is only the beginning. It's even more crucial that we overcome a preoccupation with getting compliance and instead involve students in devising and justifying ethical principles. -Alfie Kohn
Works Cited "McREL Products - The Metamorphosis of Classroom Management." McREL: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning . U.S. Dept. of Education. Web. 19 Aug. 2011. <http://www.mcrel.org/pdf/noteworthy/learners_learning_schooling/dtable.asp>. "Unconditional Parenting: A Radical Parenting Style of Loving Unconditionally." Your Positive Parenting Ally, Practical Advice and Deep Insights . Positive-Parenting-Ally.com. Web. 20 Aug. 2011. <http://www.positive-parenting-ally.com/unconditional-parenting.html>. Andrius, John. "The Skinner Model of Discipline." Teacher Matters. Web. 19 Aug. 2011. <http://www.teachermatters.com/classroom-discipline/models-of-discipline/the-skinner- model.html>. Notes on Haim Ginott's Theory of Congruent Communication . The Chinese University of Hong Kong Graduate School. Web. 19 Aug. 2011. <www2.cuhk.edu.hk/paths/s3training/S3_Notes8.PDF>. "The Social Discipline Model of Rudolf Dreikurs." Discipline Models . Middle East Technical University. Web. 20 Aug. 2011. Reins, Kevin J. "Learning Module." People.usd.edu . University of South Dakota. Web. 20 Aug. 2011. <http://people.usd.edu/~kreins/learningModules/AssertiveDiscipline.htm>. Charles, C. M., Gail W. Senter, Paula Cook, VanWie Eileen. Kalberg, and Terrell Brown. Building Classroom Discipline . Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2011. Print.