Dr. W. Edward
M. Edward Deming
was an American statistician, professor, author,
lecturer, and consultant
Born: October 14, 1900, Sioux City, Iowa, United
Died: December 20, 1993
Awards: National Medal of Technology and
Innovation, Shewhart Medal, Wilks Memorial Award
Education: Yale University, University of
Wyoming, University of Colorado at Boulder, Deming
received his electrical engineering degree from the
University of Wyoming and his Ph.D. in mathematical
Best known for the Plan Do Check Act
Early life and work
He was introduced to Walter shewhart at bell
laboratories in 1927.
He found great inspiration in works of Shewhart
Shewhart's idea of common and special causes of
variation led directly to Deming's theory of
Deming saw that these ideas could also be applied
processes by which enterprises are led and managed.
This key insight made possible his enormous
influence on the economics of the industrialized world
Shewhart had an "uncanny ability to make things
difficult." Deming thus spent a great deal of time both
copying Shewhart's ideas and devising ways to
present them with his own twist.
taught statistical process control (SPC) techniques to
workers engaged in wartime production during WW2.
Japan and Deming
Statistical quality control was introduced in Japan by
W. Edwards Deming,
a Deming‟s work on statistical quality control was
overlooked until it quickly revolutionized Japan‟s
industry in the 1950‟s, leading to an event commonly
known as Japan‟s “Post-War Economic Miracle.”
Japan‟s economic growth was based on the
realization of Deming‟s theories and the
profound increase in the quality of Japan‟s
Japan‟s top corporations still maintain a reputation
for high quality products.
Considered a Hero in japan.
Japan and Deming
In 1957 , he was invited by JUSE.
JUSE member sought an expert to teach Statistical quality
From June–August 1950, Deming trained hundreds of
engineers, managers, and scholars in statistical process
control (SPC) and concepts of quality
He also conducted at least one session for top
A number of Japanese manufacturers applied his
techniques widely and experienced heretofore unheard-of
levels of quality and productivity. The improved quality
combined with the lowered cost created new international
demand for Japanese products.
Deming declined to receive royalties from the transcripts of
his 1950 lectures, so JUSE's board of directors established
the Deming Prize (December 1950) to repay him for his
friendship and kindness.
Later work in US
Deming continued running his own consultancy
business in the United States.
In 1980, he was featured prominently in
an NBC TV documentary titled If Japan can...
Why can't we?
Ford Motor Company was one of the first
American corporations to seek help from Deming.
In 1982, Deming's book Quality, Productivity, and
Competitive Position was published by
the MIT Center for Advanced Engineering, and
was renamed Out of the Crisis in 1986
Concepts associated with his approach include:
1. 14 Points
2. 7 Deadly Diseases
3. Deming cycle (Plan-do-check-act)
4. System of Profound Knowledge
Total Quality Management
The American statistician Edward Deming developed
the revolutionary concept, now commonly referred to
“Zero Defect" production, concept of TQM.
The basic four cornerstones of Deming's TQM
defect prevention and
the importance of sharing quality responsibilities.
Teamwork and team effort .
1.Deming’s 14 Points on Total
First presented in his book Out of the Crisis:
1. Create and communicate to all employees a statement of
the aims and purposes of the company.
2. Adapt to the new philosophy of the day; industries and
economics are always changing.
3. Build quality into a product throughout production.
4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of
price tag alone; instead, try a long-term relationship
based on established loyalty and trust.
5. Work to constantly improve quality and productivity.
6. Institute on-the-job training.
7. Teach and institute leadership to improve all job
8. Drive out fear; create trust.
Strive to reduce intradepartmental conflicts.
10. Eliminate exhortations for the work force; instead,
focus on the system and morale.
(a) Eliminate work standard quotas for production.
Substitute leadership methods for improvement.
(b) Eliminate MBO. Avoid numerical goals.
Alternatively, learn the capabilities of processes, and
how to improve them.
11. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of
12. Educate with self-improvement programs.
13. Include everyone in the company to accomplish the
Deming Cycle or PDCA
Deming is perhaps best known for the "Plan-DoCheck-Act" cycle.
2.The Deming cycle or PDCA
Plan a change to the process. Predict the effect this
change will have and plan how the effects will be
Implement the change on a small scale and measure
Study the results to learn what effect the change had.
Adopt the change as a permanent modification to the
process, or abandon it.
3. The Deming System of
Deming advocated that all managers need to
have this, consisting of four parts:
Appreciation of a system: understanding the
overall processes involving suppliers, producers,
and customers (or recipients) of goods and
services (explained below);
Knowledge of variation: the range and causes
of variation in quality, and use of statistical
sampling in measurements;
Theory of knowledge: the concepts explaining
knowledge and the limits of what can be known.
Knowledge of psychology: concepts of human
4. Seven Deadly Sins
Lack of constancy of purpose
Emphasis on short-term profits
Evaluation by performance, merit rating, or annual
review of performance
Mobility of management
Running a company on visible figures alone
Excessive medical costs
Excessive costs of warranty, fuelled by lawyers who
work for contingency fees
Deming Chain Reaction
Costs decrease because of
less rework and mistakes
Capture market with better
quality and lower price
Stay in business and
provide more jobs
Deming philosophy synopsis
The philosophy of W. Edwards Deming has been
summarized as follows:
“Dr. W. Edwards Deming taught that by adopting
appropriate principles of management, organizations can
increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs (by
reducing waste, rework, staff attrition and litigation while
increasing customer loyalty). The key is to practice
continual improvement and think of manufacturing as a
system, not as bits and pieces.”
In the 1970s, Dr. Deming‟s philosophy was summarized
by some of his Japanese proponents with the following
(a) When people and organizations focus primarily on
quality, defined by the following ratio,
quality tends to increase and costs fall over time.
(b) However, when people and organizations focus
primarily on costs, costs tend to rise and quality declines
Some of his wise words :
“There is no substitute for knowledge”
“In God we trust; all others must bring data”
“The most important things cannot be measured”
“The most important things are unknown or
“Experience by itself teaches nothing”
“The problem is at the top; management is the
Research paper by Andrew mandel-
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