Syntax assignment

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syntax n morphology

syntax n morphology

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  • 1. Adverb / Adverbe<br />An adverbs is an invariable word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs can provide additional information about time, manner, place, frequency, or quantity. They explain when, how, where, how often, or to what degree something is done. Nearly every French word that ends in -ment is an adverb, usually of manner. Its English equivalent ends in –ly.<br />English ADVERBFrench ADVERBEGenerallyGenerelementCurrentlyActuallement<br />The placement of French adverbs can be difficult. Whereas in English their placement is sometimes arbitrary .The placement rules for French adverbs are much stricter. For instance, when the adverb is modifying a verb, it is placed after the conjugated verb:<br />English ADVERBFrench ADVERBEWe ate wellNous avons bien mangeI watch TV often in the eveningJe regarde souvent la tele le soir.<br />When the adverb is modifying an adjective or another adverb, it is placed in front of the word it is modifying:<br />English ADVERBFrench ADVERBEWe ate very wellNous avons tres bien mangeI am deeply movedJe suis profondement emu<br />Noun / Nom<br />A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Both English and French nouns have a gender and occur in form of singular or plural noun. Generally, the English language uses natural gender rather than grammatical gender. The gender of a word is usually based on its biology. In French, each noun has gender; masculin. Words ending with e are feminin word. They are either masculine or feminine. The gender of some nouns makes sense such as homme (man) is masculine, femme (woman) is feminine but others do not. That is because there are no specific way to state the gender of each noun. <br />ENGLISH NOUNFRENCH NOMMASCULINEFEMININEMASCULINFÉMININwaiterwaitressaideaidemanwomanhommefemmeroomchambrechair-chaisepenstylo-television-télévision<br /> <br />Pronoun / Pronom<br />A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun which has been mentioned earlier in a piece of text or sentence.<br />Singular English PRONOUNSingular French PRONOMPlural English PRONOUNPlural French PRONOMIJe/j’WeNousYou*Tu / VousYouVousHe/SheOnThey*IlsThey (f)Elles<br />(Personal pronouns of English and French)<br />*Tu / Vous<br />As English you refers to both singular and plural nouns, tu refers to singular noun only. However, both tu and vous can be used to replace singular noun. Tu is used in referring to one person of equal age and status such as one teenager to another. Vous is used in all cases when you refer to more than one person and also in cases of children to adults or adults to each other when they do not know each other or have a formal relationship. For examples:<br />
    • Tu vas à l'école aujourd'hui? = Are you going to school today? (a brother talking to his sister)
    • 2. Vous allez chez le médecin. = You are going to the doctor. (a mother to her two children)
    • 3. Vous vouliez me parler? = You wanted to speak to me? (a subordinate to his boss)
    *Ils<br />Ils refers to more than one male (or masculine nouns) or any mixed group in which at least one member is male (or a masculine noun). Elles refers to more than one female (or feminine nouns) in which no males (or masculine nouns) are included. For examples:<br />Ils croient que les filles sont bêtes. = They believe that girls are silly. (a group of five school boys)<br />Ils ont séché les cours. = They skipped school. (four girls and one boy)<br />Elles jouent au basket. = They play basketball. (five girls)<br />Adjective / Adjectif<br />Adjective describes or modifies another person or thing in the sentence. In English, adjectives virtually always precede the nouns they modify. However, in French adjectives may be placed before or after the noun, depending on their type and meaning.<br />Most descriptive adjectives in French are placed after the noun they modify.  These types of adjectives include shape, color, taste, nationality, religion, social class, and other adjectives that describe things like personality and mood. For examples:<br />ENGLISH ADJECTIVESFRENCH ADJECTIVESRound tableUne table rondeMiddle-class familyUne famille bourgeoiseAmerican womanUne femme Americaine<br />(Placement of French adjective after the noun)<br />In French, all non-descriptive adjectives are placed before the noun. For examples:<br />(Placement of French adjective before the noun)<br />Conjunction / Conjunction<br />In French there are two types of conjunctions. The first is coordinating conjunction which joins words and groups with equal value (has same nature or function). In the case of individual words, this means that they must be the same part of speech whereas if they are clauses, there must be similar tense.<br />e.g. J’aimeles pommes, les bananes, et les oranges.<br /> I like apples, bananas and oranges.<br />Pommes, bananes and oranges are all fruits (nouns). This conjunction does not emphasize on the principles of verb when using conjunctions as in English. In English, when using conjunction it is important to ensure that the verb must agree with the subject. For example, if both subjects are singular, the verb which follows the conjunctions must be in the singular form.<br />E.g. Either his father or his mother is ill.<br />In French each conjunction must receive a secondary accent and each string must form a prosodic group. Besides that, the number of constituents that can be conjoined is unbounded which is contrary to English binary construction.<br />e.g. Il veut ( et chanter et danser)<br /> He wants and to-sing and to-dance. (VP)<br />The next is subordinating conjunction which joins dependent clauses to main clauses. A dependent clause cannot stand alone because its meaning is incomplete without the main clause.<br />e.g. J’ai dit que j’aime les pommes.<br /> I said that I like apples.<br />The main clause is j’al dit. J’aime les pommes is incomplete without j’aidit, I might not in fact like apples but I said I did.<br />Preposition / Préposition<br />Prepositions are placed in front of nouns in order to indicate a relationship between the noun and verb, adjective and noun that precedes it.<br />e.g. Je parle a Jean<br /> I’m talking to Jean<br />In French, the noun that follows the preposition is an indirect object. The noun also can be replaced by an object pronoun. In English, many verbs require a certain preposition in order for the meaning of the verb to be complete such as “to look at”. It is also the same in French but the prepositions required by the ones required by their counterparts. In addition some verbs that require a preposition in English do not take one in French and vice versa.<br />e.g. pre’fe’rer (no preposition)<br /> to prefer (needs preposition)<br />Determiner / Déterminant<br />Determiner consists of articles possessive pronouns and quantifiers. In English, determiners do not have to agree with the noun’s gender like French does. For examples:<br />English Indefinite ArticleFrench Indefinite ArticleA chicken Un poulet (m sing.)An appleUne pomme (f sing.)Books (no det.)Des livres (pl)<br />English Definite ArticleFrench Definite ArticleThe / That / This manCe garçonThe / That / This womanCette femmeThese / Those peopleCes personnes<br />4.0 Conclusion<br /> Both English and French do have similarities in terms of syntax and morphology but the most obvious difference is that French is a language which the grammar elements are restricted to genders. In a grammatical sentence, French sentence must obey the grammatical rule that each part of speech has to agree with genders including the noun, pronoun, verb and adjective. Other than that, in terms of word formation and syntactic structure, French and English can be considered as quite similar to each other that this assists English speaking learners to learn French.<br />