Expression of New MeaningsA need to express new meanings inlanguageshttp://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/linguistics/change.jsp‘’ English language evolves rapidly injust a few centuries ‘’Speakers adopt new words, sentence structures andsounds, spread them through the community andtransmit them to the next generation.
NEW THINGS• Differences between generations and the era• New technologies, industries, products andexperiences simply require new wordsExamples :Technology # PC – personal computerCPU – central processing unitsDisease # Bird fluAIDS
NEW EVENT• Common and spectacular events• Acknowledged by othersExamples :SUMMIT # Meeting between heads of stateSUPERBOWL # Spectacular sports eventsGRANDPRIX #
IDEAS THAT EVOLVE•Words for new ideasExamples :# Edutainment (education + entertainment)# Smog (smoke + fog )# Sitcom ( situation + comedy )• Adopted ideas from other societies along with wordsthat name them
Borrowed words- borrowed words soon to cease as borrowings once itbecomes common in use.Examples :# French words in use in English# French wordsDiscothequeAmateur UniqueDouble EntendreA la carte
JARGON• Special words and phrases which are usedby particular groups of people, especially intheir work• An outlandish, technical language of aparticular profession, group, or tradehttp://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/1914-/language/jargon.htm
LINGUISTIC ROLE OF JARGONExamples1. Medical profession :Agonal – used to describe a major negativechange in a person’s condition, usuallypreceding immediate death2. Computer programmers:Bug- a mistake or problem in a computerprogramhttp://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/1914-/language/jargon.htm
SOCIAL ROLES OF JARGON1. ARGOTWords and expressions which are used by small groupsof people and which are not easily understood by otherpeopleA specialized vocabulary or set of idioms used by aparticular social class or groups, especially one thatfunctions outside the lawJargon may play the roll of an argot to keep othersfrom understandinghttp://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/argoterm.htm
SOCIAL ROLES OF JARGON2. EUPHEMISMA word or phrase used to avoid saying unpleasant oroffensive wordJargon may be intended to make objectionablemeanings less objectionableExamples:• senior citizen for old person• preowned car for used car• pass away for die
SOCIAL ROLES OFJARGON3. IN-GROUP MARKERSEnabling members of the occupationalgroup to announce themselves as such, andto recognise each other by how they talk.
• Child learners favor the more regular form ofwords• dreamt – dreamed, lit – lighted, fish – fishes• Adult too, cannot be expected to know theirlanguage perfectly• They extend the general rule:strived, lighted (past participle)morphology