FOUR MAJOR PHASES1. Clarification of the aims of thelesson2. Presentation of advanceorganizer3. Presentation of newinformation4. Checking students’understanding
Examples and Types of advance organizers1. Expository - describe the new content.2. Narrative - presents the new information in the form of astory to students.3. Skimming - used to look over the new material and gain abasic overview.4. Graphic organizer - visuals to set up or outline the newinformation.5. Concept mappinghttp://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Advance_organizers
The structuring of knowledge via disciplineswill :1) organise information about topics2) dividing information into variouscategories3) show the relationship between thecategory of information
David Ausubel (1963), an educationalpsychologist, explained that at any point oftime, a learner has an existing“organization… and clarity of knowledge in aparticular subject matter field.”
He called this organization a cognitive structurewhich can determine a learner’s ability to deal withnew information and ideas In cognitive structure, prior learning is important Prior learning is the knowledge that studentsacquired outside from the classroom Meaning can emerge from new materials only if it isconnected to cognitive structures of priorlearning.Ideas should be presented in aclear, precise way.
• In order for this process of learning to happenAusubel said the teacher should create twoconditions:1. Present learning materials in a potentiallymeaningful form, with major and unifying ideasand principles, consistent with contemporaryscholarship, high-lighted rather than merelylisting as facts;
2) Find ways to anchor the new learning materials tothe learners’ prior knowledge and ready thestudents’ minds so that they can receive newinformation Advance organizer was the major teaching strategyproposed by Ausubel Advances organizers provide a device to helplearners to preview and link new information toprior knowledge
It is designed to provide students with acognitive structure for comprehendingmaterial presented through lectures, readings, andother media.
It explains how information should bepresented to students Important to teachers because it providesways for thinking about how mind works andhow knowledge is acquired,organized,andrepresented in the memory system.
• Types of knowledge:- Declarative Knowledge is knowledge aboutsomething-Procedural Knowledge: knowing how todo something- Conditional knowledge: is knowing when to use orapply particular declarative or proceduralknowledge
- Factual knowledge : is knowingabout the basic elements of a topic- Conceptual knowledge : is knowingabout the interrelationships amongthe basic elements- metacognitive knowledge ;knowing about knowing
• What is the main aspect that a teachershould focus on before teaching?• PRIOR KNOWLEDGE• The research on the influence of priorknowledge for learning to read, learning touse new information and learning to writehas been conducted.• Through the research the importance of priorknowledge for learning new information andnew skills has arose
Teachers should help students to use their priorknowledge What are the procedures that teacher can used tomake their students use their prior knowledge??-Induction or establishing set> Is a technique used by teacher at thebeginning of a presentation to preparestudents to learn and to establish acommunicative link between the learnersand the information about to be presented
>This set helps students to retrieveappropriate information and intellectualskills from long term memory and get itready for use as new information.(recall)- students activate their prior knowledge byproviding cues> cues provide hints about what thestudents are about toexperience or learn- Using advanced organizer> to help make informationmeaningful to students byrelating prior knowledge to the newlesson
- Teacher clarity> teacher`s presentation variable- verbal fluency- amount of information- knowledge structure cues- interest- vagueness- Teacher always having problem with vagueness andlack amount of information
To overcome it :- make sure the content is thoroughlyunderstood- practice and commit the keys ideas- follow the written notes very carefully
Ashcroft (2006) defined memory as themental processes associated with acquiringand retaining information for later retrievaland the mental storage system that enablesthese procesess He calls this as information processing model
Under this model there are three components> sensory memory> short term working memory> long term memory
Sensory memory – new information enters the brainand memory system from the environment throughone of the senses : sight, hearing, touch, smell, feel(not last for a long time) Short term working memory – is the place in themind where conscious mental workdone(mathematic) Long term memory – is the place in the mind whereinformation is stored and ready for retrieval whenneeded.
PlanningpresentationChoosingobjectives andcontent for thepresentationDiagnosingstudents’ priorknowledgeSelectingappropriate andpowerful advanceorganizerPlanning for useof time andspace
Choosing Objectives and content Objectives for presentation lessons consists those aimed atthe acquisition of declarative knowledgePower and economy• Concepts in selecting content to be included in presentation• Only the important and powerfulconcepts should be taughtPower• Staying away from verbal clutter andminimize the amount of informationEconomy
Conceptual Mapping• Show the relationship among ideas• Clarify the kinds of ideas to teach• Provide students with a picture for understanding therelationship among ideas• Steps involved in conceptual mapping:- Identify the key ideas associated with a topic- Arrange the ideas in some logical pattern
Diagnosing Students’ prior knowledge Estimation of teachers on their students existing cognitivestructure and their prior knowledge of a subjectCognitive Structure• Meaningful materials > finding ways to connect it to whatstudents already know• Their existing ideas on the topics
Intellectual Development• Learners go through developmental stages ranging from verysimple and concrete structures to complicated structures.• Teacher need to consider students intellectual developmentwhen planning a presentation• Problems that arise in applying the developmental theories :1. Teachers cannot provide concrete solutions- Development is uneven and does not occur precisely at any givenstage2. Ways of measuring the developmental level of students- Teachers must rely on informal assessments
Selecting appropriate and powerfuladvance organizers• The ‘’intellectual scaffolding ‘’ for subsequent learningmaterial• Scaffolds for new information• Help students see the ‘’big picture ‘’ of the things to come, ina presentation• Contains familiar materials for students
Example :A science teacher is about to present information about foods the bodyneed to function well.- Stating the objectives for the lesson- Asking students to list the food they ate yesterday- Present the Advance Organizer :‘’ I want to give you an idea that will help you understand thedifferent kinds of food you eat by saying that they can beclassified into five major food groups: fats, vitamins,minerals, protein and carbohydrates.’’
Planning for use of time and space2 important concerns :- >> Ensuring the allocatedtime matches the aptitudesand ability of the students->> Motivating students toremain attentivethroughout the lessonTime->> Equally important for apresentation lesson->> ‘’Row-and-columnformation of desks ‘’Space Effective presentations depend on theeffective management of time and space
Row-and-column formation ofdesksSeating for Lectures or Demonstrations
Horseshoe or "u" shapeSeating for GroupDiscussion
Seating for GroupActivitieshttp://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/classmgt/classmgt_b.htm
Adapting Presentation For DifferingStudent Abilities• Illuminate ideas and concepts• The Enhancing Teaching with TechnologyMake ready use ofpictures andillustrations• Help to connect new information to the priorknowledge• Make information meaningful to all studentsUse Varying Cuesand Examples• Explaining ideas in concrete and abstract forms• Meet the needs of students of differing levels ofintellectual developmentBe more or lessconcrete
Syntax of Presentation LessonClarifying the aimsPresenting advance organizerPresenting new informationMonitoring & checking students
1. Clarifying the aimsTo increase students’ participation inlesson:a) Gain attentionb) Explaining goalsc) Establishing sets
a) Gaining attention Gain and maintain students’ attention toprocess and store new information. Gain attention through: Surprise Curiosity Making sure aims are clear establishing set.
b) Explaining goals Students needs reasons for participation Hence, teacher provide abbreviated versionsof LP. Benefits encourage students create awareness on the content of lesson motivates to exert more effort draw prior knowledge
c) Establishing set and providing cluesBrief review of yesterday’s lesson Help to start the lesson Gain concentration of students Motivators for lessonparticipation
2. Presenting advance organizer• Teachers should make sure advance organizer is set off sufficiently fromintroductory activities. Students understand it precise and clear• Effective to use : chalkboard, newsprint chart, overhead projectorand power point.
3. Presenting learning material• Simple and clear ( consider power and cost)• In presenting material, should consider:i. Clarity- clear and specific- achieved through planning, organization, lots ofpractice.ii. Explaining links and examples- links are conjunction and preposition.- helps to see the logics and relationship ofpresentation.- give examples.
iii. Rule – Example- Rule – Techniques- Step 1 : State rule- Step 2 : Provide example- Step 3 : summarize and restate original rulesiv. Signpost and Transitions- used in longer presentation- help to locate important points for learner.- transitional stimuli help to highlight the relationshipamong ideas and display internal organization ofinformation.v. Enthusiasm- presentation should apply techniques and strategies fromperforming arts and lead to acquisition of importantpoints.
4. Monitoring and checking forunderstanding and extending studentthinking.• Checking for understanding use informal methods :- verbal and non verbal cues ask students to make direct responses choral response (answer in unison)• Extending student thinking ask questions and group discussion- able to integrate new knowledge with priorknowledge.- build complete knowledge structures.- understand complex relationships.
Making presentations interactiveA. Use by teachers• Multimedia – integrating more than one media.• Requires to make clear decisions about content,information ,correct use of advance organizers andexamples and planning for the visual aspect.B. Use by students• Achieve multiple learning objective.• Highly motivated.• Learn how to use technology.• Improve self-directedness.
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATIONWHEN?• After the presentation• Post-instructional taskWHY?• Transmission of new information is checked• Make sure the students retain the informationHOW?• Test for students’ knowledge acquisition and retention• Paper-and-pencil tests and selected response test items