Hybridity in Postcolonialism


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Hybridity in Postcolonialism

  2. 2. Hybridity • Creation of transcultural forms within the contact zone produced by colonization. • Hybridisation takes place in many form : cultural, political & linguistic (Pidgin & Creole) • Hybridity :  bringing together two cultures  offering the possibility of a third way/ “Third Space”
  3. 3. • Third Space of Enunciation by Homi Bhabha is a theory of identity or community realized through language or enunciation. • It explains about uniqueness of identity as a hybrid. • Concept of Third Space Theory can be found in :  Music : (“Shang Shang Typhoon (a music group) mixes Western rock, jazz and reggae with Japanese enka ballads, folk, Okinawan melodies,  Bollywood films :  Novels : The Satanic Verses
  4. 4. Salman Rushdie • Indo – Englishman novelist & essayist • Likes to combine magical realism, historical, satire, post colonialism & concerned with connections, disruptions, migrations between East and West. • His writing reflects on national identity.
  5. 5. • Argues that hybrid writing is necessary – „English is no longer an English language‟ • Represented in many ways such as the use of South Asian words & location
  6. 6. The Satanic Verses • Rushdie‟s fourth & controversial novel. • Hybridity is centered through the protagonist characters who fall out of a plane an land on a beach on the south coast of England. • Their dramatic arrival symbolizes recent post colonial invasions of England and Englishness as a unitary identity.
  7. 7. • it explores effects of people being produced by more than 1 culture • i.e people as the products of globalization, an ever integrating world system of politics, economics, culture & identity.
  8. 8. • texts are rich with ambivalences, contradictions, bizarre juxtapositions of modern life ( reference to western TV images & Indian literature) • Explores the different consequences of the hybridising process of contemporary society.
  9. 9. Into The Satanic Verses • Pagan verses which were temporarily included in the Qu‟ran by Prophet Muhammad. • 2 protagonist Indian Muslim characters : Gibreel Farishta & Saladin Chamcha. • The characters transformed into Archangel Gibreel & Devil • Farishta – real „authentic‟ Indian • Chamcha – celebrating hybridity, a real brown – Englishman.
  10. 10. • The novel suggests that neither alone are ‘true’, that both are equally real and equally fabrications. If The Satanic Verses is anything, it is the migrants’ view on the world. It is written from the very experience of uprooting, disjuncture and metamorphosis..that is the migrant condition and from which I believe can be derived a metaphor for all humanity. (Rushdie, quoted in Bhabha, 1990:16)
  12. 12. 1. The locations which are in England and South Asia Stresses the similarities between these distant places rather than the coherence and unity of bounded space.
  13. 13. 2. The mentioned cultures in the novel  British history; the Norman conquest & the contemporary characteristics of British culture  The Indian history , mythology and movie stars - Creating a sense of hybridity for the reader: sometime you become part of the community , sometimes you know you’ve been left out – like the migrant both with and without.
  14. 14. the Norman conquest Indian history & mythology
  15. 15. 3. The languages used  Included Indian words, terms and names from Qur'an - The names of the characters which bring meanings in Arabic but simply appear as exotic signifiers to a reader who does not know the language Examples : “ JAHILIA “ “ CHAMCHA “ - A deeper sense of belonging is established - A sense of otherness, exclusion and difference evoked
  16. 16. 4. A geography for the readership of Rushdie’s work.  Different readers achieve different interpretations and readings of the text depending on their cultural backgrounds.  Each reader being included in some references and excluded from the meanings of others.
  17. 17. 5. The non-linear narrative which moves forwards and backwards through hundreds of years The mentioned period when Quran was dictated to Mohamed is mixed in with the contemporary events - Refusing to accept the secular progressiveness of history
  18. 18.  The combination of myth and reality between the characters - The existence of two main characters in which they have metamorphosed into chimerical beasts and wander around London with the people responding to them.
  19. 19. The Migrant Experience in the Satanic Verses  The transformation of the character , Saladin Chamcha - have sprung horns, awful and sulphurous bad-breath, powerful and incredibly hairy legs, feet replaced by hooves  The meeting with the similarly magical beings in an institution -A man-tiger or manticore ; head of a ferocious tiger with three rows of teeth, The Moaner Lisa, a woman who mostly water-buffalo, businessman from Nigeria with grown sturdy tails and a group of holidaymakers from Senegal turned into slippery snakes.  The emerged question on who is to be blamed upon the mutation that occurred -“ Who can be blamed ....” - “ They describe us ...” - “That’s all. They have the power of description, and we succumb to the pictures they construct..”
  20. 20. POSTCOLONIAL MUSICIANS (world music) Quick to respond to cultural meetings – unlike literature Expression of the voice of the marginalised Why MUSIC? Performed by all sorts of people across the world Represents the DIASPORAIC
  21. 21. HYBRID MUSIC – Raï ( Raï = opinion (Arabic) ) Emerged in Algeria > to express opinion and dissent > begun in early 20th century as a political form of expression North African + European musical traditions = raï sung in local dialect of eclectic rhythms, merging Arabic, African, flamenco, disco, hip hop and reggae Early 20th century: shikh (men) and shikha (women) > Later: cheb or chebba > For French-Algerians in France, the lyrics is on the problems and difficulties of being an immigrant
  22. 22. MUSIC represents DIASPORAIC and MIGRANT COMMUNITIES Bangra - Punjabi traditional wedding musical traditions  electronic techno beats Rock - African slaves + EuropeanAmerican E X A M P L E S Contemporary global lounge - French musician, Claude Challe’s Buddha Bar collections
  23. 23. AMBIVALENCE ABOUT THE NATURE OF HYBRIDITY Sembène Ousmane - Senegalese author - Xala - a book which later directed as film - published in 1974 - examines the postcolonial condition of his country in the figure of one man, El Hadji Abdou Kader Beye
  24. 24. XALA – a summary It is the dawn of Senegal's independence from France, but as the citizens celebrate in the streets we soon become aware that only the faces have changed. White money still controls the government. One official, Aboucader Beye, known by the title "El Hadji," takes advantage of some of that money to marry his third wife, to the sorrow and chagrin of his first two wives and the resentment of his nationalist daughter. But he discovers on his wedding night that he has been struck with a "xala," a curse of impotence El Hadji goes to comic lengths to find the cause and remove the xala, resulting in a scathing satirical ending http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0073915/plotsummary?ref_=tt_ov_pl
  25. 25. The remainder of the story charts his attempts to reclaim his manhood with trips to local healers and marabout *marabout - Muslim dervish, esp. in N Africa, often credited with supernatural powers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  26. 26. HYBRIDITY in XALA El Hadji’s attempts to be successful in both in his ‘westernised’ life and as a Muslim man -Businessman -Wears Europeanstyle suit - Speaks French - Drinks mineral water -A polygamous Muslim -Status measured in ability to support multiple wives