JerusalemJerusalem is holy to three majorreligions, Christianity, Islam, and JudaismChristianity: This was the city where Jesus wascrucified, buried, and resurrected. And it was alsowhere Jesus ascended to heaven.Islam: The third most holy city to Muslims. This iswhere Muhammad ascended to heaven. The lacewhere Jesus ascended to heaven and whereMohammed ascended are only 700 yards from eachother.Judaism: The holiest city to the Jews, and have theoldest claim (Tenth Century B.C) Also the place wherethe Temple in Jerusalem used to stand.
Pre-CrusadesBy the 10th century, Europe and the Middle Eastwere divided into Muslim and Christian spheres ofinfluence. Jerusalem was controlled by the Muslims.Christian and Jewish followers were allowed to makepilgrimages to Jerusalem safely. In the 11thcentury, Christianity split between the RomanCatholic Church and the Byzantine Empire. Both theleaders excommunicated each other. Meanwhile, theMuslims decided to attack the Byzantine Empire.Because of the war, pilgrims were no longer allowedto travel safely. When the Muslims threatened totake Constantinople, the emperor of the Byzantinesrequested help from the Holy Roman Church
Pope Urban the Second
First CrusadePope Urban 2 answered the Byzantines call for help. He called on the Christian princes of Western Europe.
Council of ClermontThe noble race of Franks must come to the aid their fellowChristians in the East. The infidel Turks are advancing into theheart of Eastern Christendom; Christians are being oppressed andattacked; churches and holy places are being defiled. Jerusalem isgroaning under the Saracen yoke. The Holy Sepulchre is in Moslemhands and has been turned into a mosque. Pilgrims are harassedand even prevented from access to the Holy Land."The West must march to the defense of the East. All shouldgo, rich and poor alike. The Franks must stop their internal warsand squabbles. Let them go instead against the infidel and fight arighteous war."God himself will lead them, for they will be doing His work. Therewill be absolution and remission of sins for all who die in theservice of Christ. Here they are poor and miserable sinners; therethey will be rich and happy. Let none hesitate; they must marchnext summer. God wills it! “
First CrusadePriests and preachers alike spread the message of the crusades along the countryside. The Nobles gathered their knights and organized them into armies. However, a man named Peter the Hermit led thousands of peasants to Jerusalem. Many of these peasants had no idea where Jerusalem was. Europeans began to kill Jews.
Peasant’s CrusadeThe armies of peasants led by Peter the Hermit setoff to Jerusalem much earlier than the Popeplanned. The army lacked military discipline, andbecame increasingly chaotic, attacked anyone intheir way for food, even Christians.The “army” finally arrived at Constantinople.Alexios, the emperor of Byzantine, ferried them intoAsia Minor. They began pillaging thecountryside, when finally, a Turkish Army attackedand destroyed them.
First Crusade• The main Crusaders arrived at Constantinople in 1097.• They consisted of about 30,000 soldiers.• Alexios, wary from the trouble the Peasant’s Army gave him, did not want to lead the army.• However, in return for supplies, he made the leader of the armies swear fealty to him and any lands they won would be returned to the Byzantium Empire.
First CrusadeThe Crusaders fought their way down fromConstantinople to Jerusalem. By the time theyreached Jerusalem, they had about 12,000men left. They sieged the city from twosides, and did a direct assault. When one sidefell, the defenders fled in panic, letting theCrusaders from the other side enter as well.
The Sacking of Jerusalem After gaining entry to the city, theCrusaders laid waste to it’s inhabitants. Both Muslims and Jews were killed. It was said that the soldiers feet were painted red up to the ankles. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o Gj_bOX9yGo&feature=related 5:47
AftermathAfterwards, the Crusaders slit the landthey had won into 4 kingdoms, notgiving the land back to the Byzantines.They accused Alexios of not followinghis oath. The first crusade was the onlyreal Christian victory, and the land theyhad won would be taken back by theMuslims in 50 years.
Second Crusade 1147-1149The Crusades won the first Crusade largelythrough the disunity and poor organizationamong the Muslims. In 1147, however, theMuslims united, and captured one of theCrusader Kingdoms, Edessa. The entirepopulation of Edessa was enslaved or killed.This prompted the Pope Eugenous to callfor another Crusade.
LeadersIn the second Crusade, even thekings were caught up with thesacred frenzy. King Conrad ofGermany and King Lois of France ledtheir armies to retake the country ofEddessa.
FailureAs with the first crusade, all the talk ofdefending Christianity against itsenemies made the European populationattack the Non-Christians closer tohome.In Rhineland, mobs of people beganmassacring the Jewish population.
FailureOut of the 35 thousand, only a couplethousand survived the Turkish attackson Asia Minor.The survivors sieged the city ofDamascus, but had to surrender in 4days.
Crusader returning home
3rd Crusade (1189–1192)After the 2nd Crusade, Saladinrecaptured Jerusalem and the restof the Holy Land. The 3rd Crusade isalso known as the King’sCrusade, as it was led by 3 kings.
Richard the Lionhearted of England Philip Augustus of FranceFrederick Barbarossa ofthe Holy Roman Empire Even before they first set off, Richard and Phillip were enemies.
RoutesThe Crusading armies took two differentroutes. Fredrick, the ruler of the Holy RomanEmpire took his armies overland. His army’smarch was one of the most organizedoverland travel up to that date. He managedto cross Asia Minor which had beendisastrous for the other crusaders. His100,000 strong army greatly alarmedSaladin. However, while the army wasencamped by the Saleph River, the elderlyFredrick Barbossa drowned in the river.
Richard and PhillipRichard and Phillip travelled togetherby sea. They stopped for the winterin Sicily, where they had anargument. After they landed in theMiddle East, Phillip returned toFrance. Richard would face Saladinalone.
Richard the Lion-HeartedRichard marched slowly around the coast, keeping his armyorganized, and not letting the Muslims pick off at the army. Thisscored him a number of victories.However, Saladin then used a scorched earth strategy. Saladinstripped the land that Richard was about to enter from waterand all supplies. Richard, who had run out of food and water tofeed his army, was unable to siege Jerusalem. However, he andSaladin were able to negotiate a treaty. Jerusalem would remain under the control of the Muslims, butChristian pilgrims and traders would still be able to enter thecity.
Fourth Crusade6 years later, the crusaders were sent again. While ontheir way to Jerusalem, they decided to attackConstantinople, capitol of the Byzantine Empire, whichwas a Christian country………The crusaders looted the city for three days, and for alittle while, the Latin and Byzantines were reunited. TheGreeks reestablished control of the city soon after, butwould never have the same power. It did. All the fourth crusade accomplished was weaken thecountry that was the main protection from the EasternTurks.
The sacking of Constantinople
Fifth Crusade 1213-1218While the Christians were still fightingamong themselves, a new Muslimempire grew to power.The Egyptian Muslims took Jerusalemand the Holy land.
Fifth Crusade• Instead of going straight for Jerusalem like always, the crusaders tried something different• They tried attacking Egypt, and from there go to Jerusalem.• The crusaders had initial success, capturing an important city named Damietta. They began marching towards Cairo with a huge army.
Fifth CrusadeThe Egyptians began retreating back towards thecity, which lay on the banks of the Nile. Hasty to takethe city, the Crusader Generals overlooked an importantdetail, the Nile Flood.The Crusaders marched along the Nile, when they weretrapped from the flooding and a canal.Also, the crusaders did not take enough supplies withthem.This is when the Egyptians launched a counterattack, and the Crusaders had to retreat from the landof the Nile.
Sixth Crusade 1228-1229The Sixth Crusade was led by Fredrick the 2nd, leader ofthe Holy Roman Empire. Fredrick didn’t join the FifthCrusade, and was excommunicated by the Church.To repent, Fredrick set off on the Sixth Crusade withoutany other Christian support.The sixth Crusade involved very little fighting. Fredrickengaged the Muslim rulers of Jerusalem in negotiations.Surprisingly, the Muslims agreed to compromise. Theywould give up the control of Jerusalem, with theexception of some of their holy places. For the first timesince the First Crusade, the Christians were in the HolyLand.But then in 15 years the Muslims invaded again.
7th Crusade 1248-1250The seventh Crusade occurred in Egypt, in the sameplace the Fifth Crusade was fought.Both Crusader and Egyptian Army faced each otheracross a large canal.The Crusaders attempted to build a bridge acrossthe canal, while the Egyptians kept widening it.Finally, the Crusaders crossed 4 miles up thecanal, and attacked the Egyptians head on.The Egyptians won.