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The spanish empire

The spanish empire






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    The spanish empire The spanish empire Presentation Transcript

    • The Spanish Empire
      Jean Lowry
    • History of Spain
      The history of Spain involves all the other peoples and nations within the Iberian peninsula formerly known as Hispania, and includes still today the nations of Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal and Spain
      The Kingdom of Spain was created in 1492 with the unification of the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon
      It was the most powerful state in Europe and the foremost global power during the 16th century and the greater part of the 17th century
      The native peoples whom the Romans met at the time of their invasion in what is now known as Spain were the Iberians, inhabiting from the southwest part of the Peninsula through the northeast part of it, and then the Celts, mostly inhabiting the north and northwest part of the Peninsula
      The peninsula's economy expanded under Roman tutelage
      The first Germanic tribes to invade Hispania arrived in the 5th century, as the Roman Empire decayed
    • History of Spain
      The period of rule by the Visigothic Kingdom saw the spread of Arianism briefly in Spain
      The impact of Visigothic rule was not widely felt on society at large, and certainly not compared to the vast bureaucracy of the Roman Empire
      Medieval Spain was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians
      Despite the decline in Muslim-controlled kingdoms, it is important to note the lasting effects exerted on the peninsula by Muslims in technology, culture, and society
      As the Reconquista continued, Christian kingdoms and principalities developed
      By the 15th century, the most important among these were the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon
      The rulers of these two kingdoms were allied with dynastic families in Portugal, France, and other neighboring kingdoms
    • History of Spain
      Castilian(spanish) gained more and more prominence in the Kingdom of Castile as the language of culture and communication
      The Spanish Empire was one of the first modern global empires
      It was also one of the largest empires in world history
      Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries reached its height and declined under the Habsburgs
      The Habsburg dynasty became extinct in Spain and the War of the Spanish Succession ensued in which the other European powers tried to assume control of the Spanish monarchy
      Spain initially sided against France in the Napoleonic Wars, but the defeat of her army early in the war led to Charles IV's pragmatic decision to align with the revolutionary French
      Spain broke off from the Continental System temporarily, and Napoleon—aggravated with the Bourbon kings of Spain—invaded Spain in 1808 and deposed Ferdinand VII
    • Habsburg Spain
      Charles inherited the Castilian empire in America, the Aragonese Empire in the Mediterranean
      Charles became the most powerful man in Europe, his rule stretching over an empire in Europe unrivalled in extent until the Napoleonic era
      The Habsburg dynasty spent the Castilian and American riches in wars across Europe on behalf of Habsburg interests, defaulted on their debt several times, and left Spain bankrupt several times
      The Habsburgs' political goals were several:
      Access to the resources of the Americas and products of Asia
      Undermining the power of France and containing it in its eastern borders
      Maintaining Catholic Habsburg hegemony in Germany, defending Catholicism against the Protestant Reformation
      Defending Europe against Islam, notably the Ottoman Empire
    • Habsburg Spain
      Spain retook Naples in 1648 and Catalonian 1652, but the war came to an end at the Battle of the Dunes (1658)
      The French army under Viscount Turenne defeated the remnants of the Spanish army of the Netherlands
      Spain agreed to the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 that ceded to France Roussillon and Artois
      Spain still had a huge overseas empire, but France was now the superpower in Europe and the United Provinces were in the Atlantic
      The regency of the young Spanish king Charles II was incompetent in dealing with the War of Devolution that Louis XIV of France prosecuted against the Spanish Netherlands in 1667–68, losing considerable prestige and territory
      The final decades of the 17th century saw utter decay and stagnation in Spain
    • The Spanish Empire
      The Spanish Empire consisted of the territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania
      At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power
      In the 16th century, Spain settled the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean, and took over large areas on mainland North and South America overrunning the Aztecs and Incas
      The French occupation of Spain in 1808 under Napoleon cut off its American colonies temporarily, and a number of independence movements between 1810 and 1825 resulted in a chain of newly independent Spanish American republics in South and Central America
      After the death of Queen Isabella, Ferdinand as Spain's sole monarch adopted a more aggressive policy than he had as Isabella's husband, enlarging Spain's sphere of influence in Italy and against France
      Upon the settlement of Hispanola which was successful in the early 16th century, the colonists began searching elsewhere to begin new settlements
    • The Spanish Empire
      Under the Treaties of Utrecht, the European powers decided what the fate of Spain would be, in terms of the continental balance of power
      Spain's economic and demographic recovery had begun slowly in the last decades of the Habsburg reign, as was evident from the growth of its trading convoys and much more rapid growth of illicit trade during the period
      Following the war, the new Bourbon monarchy would take a much more cautious approach to international relations, built upon a family alliance with Bourbon France, and continuing to follow a program of institutional renewal
      At the beginning of the Philip V's reign and due to the War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish king Philip V initiated organizational reforms headed for a government more executive, giving priority to the direct decision of themonarch, opposite to the deliberative way of the polisynodial system of Councils
      Philip's government set up a ministry of the Navy and the Indies and created first a Honduras Company
    • The Spanish Empire
      The 18th century was a century of prosperity for the overseas Spanish Empire as trade within grew steadily, particularly in the second half of the century, under the Bourbon reforms
      Rapid shipping growth from the mid-1740s until the Seven Years' War, reflecting in part the success of the Bourbons in bringing illicit trade under control
      The first major territory Spain was to lose in the 19th century was the vast and wild Louisiana Territory, which stretched north to Canada and was ceded by France in 1763 under the terms of the Treaty of Fontainebleau
      The destruction of the main Spanish fleet, under French command, at the Battle of Trafalgar undermined Spain's ability to defend and hold on to its empire
      Napoleon's sale in 1803 of the Louisiana Territory to the United States caused border disputes between the United States and Spain
    • Sources
      History of Spain PDF
      Spanish Colonization of the Americas PDF
      Spanish Empire PDF