The Portuguese Empire<br />Jean Lowry<br />50607<br />
History of Portugal<br />Portugal's name derives from the Roman name PortusCale<br />Cale was the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal<br />The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and then by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula<br />The Roman conquest of what is now part of modern day Portugal took several decades: it started from the south, where the Romans found friendly natives, the Conii<br />They bribed Viriathus's ambassador to kill his own leader<br />Viriathus was assassinated, and the resistance was soon over<br />In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province<br />
History of Portugal<br />In the early 5th century, Germanic tribes invaded the peninsula, namely the Suevi, the Vandals and their allies, the SarmatianAlans<br />In 868, Count Vimara Peres reconquered and governed the region between the rivers Minho and Douro<br />In 1095, Portugal separated almost completely from the Kingdom of Galicia<br />During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal was a leading European power, ranking with England, France and Spain in terms of economic, political, and cultural influence<br />July 25, 1415 marked the beginning of the Portuguese Empire<br />A remarkable achievement was the turning of the Cape of Good Hope by Bartolomeu Dias in 1487<br />
History of Portugal<br />The richness of India was now accessible<br />The real goal of the expedition was to open sea trade to the empires of the east<br />The Portuguese became the first civilization to fully start the process we know today as globalization<br />A republican constitution was approved in 1911, inaugurating a parliamentary regime with reduced presidential powers and two chambers of parliament<br />It was during this restoration of the ‘old’ republic that an attempted reform was carried out in order to provide the regime with greater stability <br />The "Carnation Revolution" of 1974, an effectively bloodless left-wing military coup, installed the "Third Republic".<br />
Portuguese Empire<br />The Portuguese Empire was the first global empire in history<br />It was the longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires, spanning almost six centuries<br />Between 1580 and 1640 Portugal became the junior partner to Spain in the union of the two countries' crowns<br />Significant losses to the Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia during the 17th century brought an end to the Portuguese trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean<br />The origins of the Portuguese Empire, and of Portugal itself, lay in the reconquista: the gradual Christian reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors<br />Portuguese enter the Indian Ocean (1497–1542)<br />In 1505, Portuguese traders reached Ceylon<br />
Portuguese Empire<br />In April 1511 Albuquerque sailed to Malacca in Malaysia, the most important east point in the trade network where Malay met Gujarati, Chinese, Japanese, Javanese, Bengali, Persian and Arabic traders, among others, described by Tomé Pires as of invaluable richness<br />The Portuguese empire expanded into the Persian Gulf as Portugal contested control of the spice trade with the Ottoman Empire<br />The Portuguese explorer Simãode Andrade started bad relations with China, due to his pirate activities, raiding Chinese shipping, attacking a Chinese official and kidnappings of Chinese<br />Since the 16th century Chinese slaves existed in Portugal, most of them were Chinese children and a large amount were shipped to the Indies<br />
Portuguese Empire<br />In 1534, promoting settlement to overcome the need to defend the territory, John III organized the colonization of Brazil through land grants<br />In 1580, King Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal after a crisis of succession brought about by King Sebastian of Portugal's death during a disastrous Portuguese Ksar El Kebir attack on Morocco in 1578<br />The Dutch–Portuguese War began with an attack on São Tomé and Príncipe in 1597 and lasted until 1663<br />At the end of confrontations with the Dutch, Portugal was able to cling onto Goa and several minor bases in India, and managed to regain territories in Brazil and Africa, but lost forever to prominence in Asia as trade was diverted through increasing numbers of English, Dutch and French trading posts<br />
Colonial Brazil<br />Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until1815, when Brazil was elevated to United Kingdom with Portugal<br />Portugal and Spain, pioneered the European discovery of sea routes that were the first channels of interaction between all of the World's continents, thus beginning the process of globalization<br />On April 22, 1500, during the reign of King Manuel I, a fleet led by navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in Brazil and took possession of the land in the name of the king<br />In this early stage of the colonization of Brazil, and also later, the Portuguese frequently relied on the help of European adventurers who lived together with the aborigines and knew their languages and culture<br />At first, Brazil was set up as fifteen private, hereditary captaincies<br />
Colonial Brazil<br />The costs were transferred to private hands, saving the Portuguese crown from the high costs of colonization<br />The failure of most captaincies was related to the resistance of the indigenous peoples, shipwrecks and internal disputes between the colonizers<br />With the failure of most captaincies and the menacing presence of French ships in the Brazilian coast, the government of King John III decided to turn the colonization of Brazil back into a royal enterprise<br />The huge size of Brazil led to the colony being divided into two Estados (states) after 1621, when King Philip II created the Estado do Brasil, the most important colony with Salvador as capital, and the Estado do Maranhão, with capital in São Luís<br />
Colonial Brazil<br />Since the initial attempts to find gold and silver failed, the Portuguese colonists adopted an economy based on the production of agricultural goods that were to be exported to Europe<br />The period of sugar-based economy (1530-c.1700) is known as the "Sugarcane Cycle" in Brazilian history<br />Inland expeditions led to westward expansion of the frontiers of colonial Brazil, beyond the limits established by the Treaty of Tordesillas<br />The discovery of gold was met with great enthusiasm by Portugal, which had an economy in disarray following years of wars against Spain and the Netherlands<br />The conflicts over the Southern colonial frontiers led to the signing of the Treaty of Madrid (1750), in which Spain and Portugal agreed to a considerable Southwestward expansion of colonial Brazil<br />
Sources<br />History of Portugal PDF<br />The Portuguese Empire PDF<br />Colonial Brazil PDF<br />
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