New york city
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New york city Presentation Transcript

  • 1. New York City: The Crossroad of World Trade
    Jean Lowry
  • 2. Episode 3: Sunshine and Shadows
    Central Park was created by Frederick Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, according to Olmsted the park was “of great importance as the first real park made in this century-a democratic development of the highest significance”
    The terrace, Calvert Vaux’s masterpiece, was one of the first structures built in the park. Construction began in 1859, just months after the Lake was excavated and filled in December 1858
    General construction slowed during the Civil War, but the terrace, the architectural heart of the new park, remained a high priority
    The sandstone terrace with benches built into the walls is the site of the Angel of the Waters, one of the world’s most famous fountains
    The fountain celebrates the 1842 opening of the Croton Aqueduct, which brought fresh water from Westchester County into New York City
  • 3. Episode 3: Sunshine and Shadows
    The Brooklyn Bridge was initially designed by German immigrant John Augustus Roebling
    After amputation of his crushed toes he developed a tetanus infection which left him incapacitated and soon resulted in his death, not long after he had placed his 32-year-old son Washington Roebling in charge of the project
    The Brooklyn Bridge was completed thirteen years later and was opened for use on May 24, 1883
    In 1871 “Boss” William M. Tweed was known as being a corrupt politician
    “He became the “Grand Sachem” of Tammany Hall and had control over the political patronage in New York
    Tweed was convicted of stealing an estimate of $200 million from taxpayers through political corruption
    The panic of 1873 was started by the Northern Pacific railroad line went bankrupt and then the New York stock exchanged closed for 10 days
  • 4. Episode 3: Sunshine and Shadows
    Thomas Edison was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world
    His first power station was on Manhattan Island, New York
    In 1878, Edison formed the Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including J. P. Morgan and the members of the Vanderbilt family
    Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park
    The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed by Frederic Bartholdi was a gift to the United States from the people of France
    A robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata(a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence
  • 5. Episode 5: Cosmopolis
    IN 1919 streets of New York were filled with paradesdue to soldiers coming home
    Women had won the right to vote
    New York was becoming the skyscraper capital of the world
    The first Red Scare began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917 and the intensely patriotic years of World War I as anarchist and left-wing political violence and social agitation aggravated national social and political tension
    IN 1920 a horse drawn carriage pulled up to the House of Morgan and blew up, killing 40 people
    Limestone gouges that were made in the building can still be seen today
    F. Scott Fitzgerald was an American author of novels and short stories
    Works were the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age
    He was regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century
    Fitzgerald is considered a member of the “Lost Generation” of the 1920s
  • 6. Episode 5: Cosmopolis
    The Jazz Age was a movement that took place during the 1920s or the Roaring Twenties from which jazz music and dance emerged
    The birth of jazz music is often accredited to African Americans
    1920s youth used the influence of jazz to rebel against the traditional culture of previous generations
    With the beginning of large-scale radio broadcasts in 1922, Americans were able to experience different styles of music without physically visiting a jazz club
    Al Smith was an American statesman who was elected the 42nd Governor of New York three times
    In 1928 he was the Democratic U.S presidential candidate
    Smith was unpopular among certain segments, including Southern Baptists and German Lutherans who believed the catholic Church would dictate his policies
    Smith lost in a landslide against Herbert Hoover
  • 7. Episode 5: Cosmopolis
    John Jakob Raskob had supported Democratic presidential candidate Al Smith in the 1928 election
    Raskob left GM after the board supported Sloan, sold his GM stock, and used the proceeds to build the Empire State Building
    Raskob made Smith president of the Empire State Co., operators of the building, based on a promise to do business together the night Smith lost the presidential election
    During the Great Depression, Raskob's business interests were focused on the Empire State Building, which was in competition with the Chrysler Building to become the world's tallest building at the time
    The wall Street Crash of 1929 was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States
    The crash signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries
  • 8. A Merger that put New York on Top
    New York had two advantages: the location of its port and its growing capital markets
    The key to the city’s success was its leaders’ ability to envision the future path of the national economy and develop strategies to use New York’s advantages to ensure it was in a position to dominate that economy
    The building of the Erie Canal and the “Triangle Trade” allowed New York to control exports and commercial interests
    The ability to capture economic gains from commercial developments that began in other regions is a remarkable quality of New York
    New York ends up controlling its rivals, an indicator of this is that all three New York’s great Philanthropic foundations: the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Carnegie Corp. were a created with money from fortunes made outside New York
  • 9. The Great Transatlantic Migrations
    Between 1870 and 1914, tens of millions of Europeans and others crossed and recrossed international borders and sailed the North and South Atlantic
    The cumulative picture of movement is one of a swarming or churning of people back and forth across the Atlantic highway, fed by growing railroad networks on either side of it
    The total number of migrants will never be known precisely
    The United States received more than the rest of the New World, and probably the entire world, combined
    Contagious diseases swept away 10 percent, and occasionally 25 percent, of the passengers during a crossing
    In the 1850s mortality fell sharply, thanks to voluntary and government-imposed health and sanitary regulations and faster ships, which began to combine steam power and sails
  • 10. The Great Transatlantic Migrations
    After 1880 migration to the United States started changing not only according to national origins, as more South and East Europeans arrived, but more importantly it changed according to purpose: from settlement on farmland to wage labor in industry, construction, or mining
    Land-seeking migration, implying permanent resettlement, may well have been exceptional in the long history of transatlantic movements, even though it occurred in all four New World receiving societies
    Second, migration to the United States came from more places than did migration to Argentina, Brazil, or Canada
    The United States differed from the other New World receivers its possession throughout the period of a large area of cheap, accessible land governed by-land laws that encouraged smallholding
  • 11. The Great Transatlantic Migrations
    By 1890, many smallholders in the United States were complaining bitterly about their mortgages, cash shortages, and freight charges
    Wages in factories, on railroads, in construction, or in mines surpassed European levels while the cost of living was the same or lower
    European migrants, and soon their offspring as well, appeared in every part of the United States where land or labor was available
    Europeans kept to the North and the West , and they also kept southern black people from migrating north
    In 1914 the World War put a temporary stop to transatlantic migration, and although it resumed for a few years after the Armistice, the 1920s restriction laws and the 1930s Great Depression ended it permanently
  • 12. Sources
    Immigrants and Cities PDF
    Documentary on New York Episodes 3 & 5
    The Merger that put New York on Top article
    "Al Smith." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.
    "F. Scott Fitzgerald." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.
    "Thomas Edison." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.
    "Central Park." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.
    "Brooklyn Bridge." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.
    "Statue of Liberty." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.
    "Jazz Age." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.
    "John J. Raskob." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <>.