The movement of plates has caused the formation and break-up of continents over time. More than a billion years ago there was one big continent called Rodinia. Living creatures existed then but many have since become extinct.
About 600 million years ago, the large continent broke into 8 continents that later again came together to form another super-continent called Pangaea. Pangaea broke into Laurasia (which became North America and Eurasia) and Gondwana (which became the remaining continents).
Australia India Africa South America Europe and Asia North America Antarctica
The Japanese archipelago is located in an area where several continental and oceanic plates meet. This is the cause of frequent earthquakes and the presence of many volcanoes and hot springs across Japan.
The word “tsunami” is a Japanese word for a very large wave that can be created when earthquakes occur below or close to the ocean. “Tsu” means harbour and “Nami” is a wave.
The earthquake pushes the water up and to the sides
At my school in Japan we practiced to evacuate the school if there was an earthquake because in Japan there are so many of them. We use helmets to protect our heads from falling objects. The helmets were always stored under our chairs in the classroom.
In case of an earthquake, a man would use the speakers to tell us to evacuate or to hide underneath our desks. It could be really serious and scary!