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  • 1. CAREER CHALLRNGETim Huggins is the different from employees disagreed concocted in the jobnew director of human responses from their and claimed that their analysis.resources of Sprowl supervisors jobs were complicated Tim was worried thatManufacturing, a about these jobs. and constrained by the job analysisdivision of The fact that limited resources.They program was gettingthe MBTI Corporation. supervisors viewed the complained ‘ that work totally out of hand. HeTim wanted to start a jobs differently from areas were hot, stuffy, had to dojob analysis program those doing the work and uncomfortable. something about it.immediately. Six fueled Tim’s desire to These disagreements Everyone was gettingweeks after he took do a job analysis. He soon E became the up in arms over aover; job analysis wanted to study and basis for some a open program Tim felt wasquestionnaires (six specifically define the hostility between necessary.pages each) were given jobs so that supervisors and Should a manager liketo employees. The misunderstandings, workers. Tim, who knows a lotresults were puzzling. arguments, and false Finally, Nick Mannis, about HRM, but whoResponses from e the expectations could be machinist, confronted was notoperating employees kept to a minimum. a supervisor, Rog trained in the specifics(machinists, lift The supervisors listed Wilkes, and threatened of job analysis,operators, job duties as simple to punch him over the undertake this kind oftechnicians, and routine. The “lies” Rog and other program?draftspeople, operating supervisors hadand mechanics) werequiteOrganizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too largefor any single person to accomplish. Consequently, the organization must have a systematic way todetermine which employees are expected to perform a particular function or task that must heaccomplished. The cornerstone of the organization is, therefore, the set of jobs performed by itsemployees. These jobs, in turn, provide the mechanism for coordinating and linking the various activitiesof the organization that are necessary for success. As a result, studying and understanding jobs throughthe process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program.job analysis provides answers to questions such as these:How much time is taken to complete important tasks?Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job?How can a job be designed or structured so that the employee’s performance can he enhanced?What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job?What kind of person (in terms of traits and experience) is best suited for the job?How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in thedevelopment of HRM programs? This chapter claries the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM programand specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a obanalysis program are highlighted. Finally,
  • 2. the importance of job analysis in the design of jobs is discussed. The chapter showsthat job analysis is a necessary part of HRM and in many respects is the foundationupon which all other 1-IRM activities must he constructed. As can be seen in thediagnostic model (see Exhibit 6—1), the nature of the work to be performed is oneof the fundamental inputs into all major HRM functions. This is another way ofsaying that how workers’ responsibilities and duties are segmented helps to shapeand determine virtually all other facets of organizational functioning. As such,understanding exactly what constitutes any particular job is critical to developingHRM activities that support the organization’s mission.Before considering the process and techniques involved in job analysis, on should THE VOCABULARYlearn the language of job analysis. Although many of these terms are often used OF JOP ANALYSISinterchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis, the expert will Usethem more precisely in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision inthe use of these terms is, in fact, required by federal and state legislation. it is therefore important for the HR manager to use each of them in a way that is consistent with such legislation.
  • 3. The following definitions are consistent with those provided by the U.S. Employment Service and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management:2 Job analysis. A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.3 Job description. The principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Job specification. A written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job. Tasks. Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client). Position. Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees. Job. Group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist Job family. Group of two or more jobs that have similar duties.THE STEPS IN The 1ob analysis process involves a number of steps, which are outlined in ExhibitJOP ANALYSIS 6—2. As it appears in the exhibit, the process assumes that the job analysis is being conducted in an ongoing organization; in other words, an organization that is already in operation as opposed to a new venture. Step I provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization charts and process charts (discussed later) are used to complete step I. Step 2 encourages those involved to determihe how the job analysis and job design information will be used. This step is further explained in the next section. Since it is usually too costly and time-consuming to analyze every job, a representative sample of jobs needs to be selected. In step 3, jobs that are to he analyzed are selected. Step 4 involves the use of acceptable job analysis techniques. The techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job. The information collected in step 4 is then used in step 5 to develop a job description. Next, in step 6, a job specification is prepared. The knowledge and data collected in steps 1 through 6 are used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity. As shown in Exhibit 6—2, these include activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, and compensation. The information gathered during job analysis is essential to each of these. As is also shown in the exhibit, the information gathered is used in job design and redesign, which are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Job analysis provides information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to he both productive and satisfied. Finally, information from job analysis can be used in an organization’s follow—up evaluations of its job design. At this step, it is important for an organization to evaluate its efforts and determine whether the goals of productivity and satisfaction are in fact being achieved.
  • 4. THE USES OFHR managers, specialists, and managers in general know that job analysis has manyJOP ANALYSIS Tuses. Some of these individuals now believe that there is no longer even a choice A aboutwhether job analysis should be conducted. Administrative guidelines accompanyingvarious civil rights and EEO laws and judicial recommendations are clear. The questionhas become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether toconduct such an analysis at all.5 In terms of staffing and selection activities, job analysisplays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures(1978), a set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discriminationpractices. The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating orassessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures. In addition, job analysis iscritical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws, includingthe Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Jobanalysis is linked with these discrimination laws through rulings from numerous SupremeCourt decisions. The quality of job analysis conducted by an organization is frequently aprimary determinant of whether it has acted properly. On the basis of these court decisions, a good job analysis must provide thefollowing if it is to be viewed favorably: 1. It should yield a thorough, clear job description. 2. The frequency and importance of task behaviors should be assessed. 3. It must allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job. 4. It must yield information about the relationship between job duties and these KSAOs. That is, it must clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty. In addition to helping organizations satisfy their legal requirements, job analysis is closely tied to HRM programs and activities. It is used extensively in each of the following areas:
  • 5. 1. Recruitment and selection. job analysis information helps recruiters seek and find the right persons for the organization. And, to hire the right person, selection testing must assess the most critical skills and abilities needed to perform a jo6. This information comes from job analysis. HRMEMO 2. Training and career development. Knowing the skills necessary for jobs is essential to building effective training programs. Moreover helping people to Line managers, busy with move efficiently from one career stage to another can only be accomplished with their day-to-day information from job analysis. responsibilities, may not always be able to find 3. Compensation. Compensation is usually tied to the duties and time to conduct job responsibilities of a job. Thus, proper compensation demands accurate analyses. In cases like assessments of what various jobs entail. these, HR managers will 4. Strategic planning. More and more, managers are beginning to realize that need to convince line job analysis is another important tool in an organization’s overall strategic managers that their cooperation is critical. planning efforts. Effective job analysis can help organizations to change, eliminate, or otherwise restructure work and work flow processes to meet the changing demands of uncertain environments. It should be obvious from this list that the potential uses of job analysis cover the entire domain of HRM activities. It is, in fact, difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire, train, appraise, compensate, or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis. But the value of job analysis doesn’t end with HRM. Managers involved in virtually all aspects of planning, organizing, controlling, and directing in the organization also benefit from job analysis information.WHO SHOULD The steps spelled out in Exhibit 6—2 suggest that care and planning are important features ofCONDUCT THE any job analysis. Part of that planning should involve carefully choosing the people who willJOP ANALYSIS? conduct the analysis. If an organization has only an occasional need for job analysis information, it may hire a temporary job analyst from outside. Other organizations will have job analysis experts employed full-time. Still other organizations will use supervisors, job incumbents, or some combination of these to collect job analysis information. Each of these choices has strengths and weaknesses. For example, job incumbents are a good source of information about what work is actually being done rather than what work is supposed to be done. In addition, involving incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of the analysis. On the other hand, job analysis should describe the work activities of a job independent of any personal attributes of a given job incumbent. Because incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work, this objectivity might be difficult to achieve when incumbents conduct the job analysis. Thus, the choice of who should analyze a job depends on many factors, including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed, how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst, and the ultimate intended purpose of the results of the analysis.9 Regardless of who collects the information, the individuals should thoroughly understand people, jobs, aid the total organizational system. They should also have considerable knowledge about how work is expected to flow within the organization.
  • 6. HR JOURNAL REENGINEERING: THE STRATEGIC JOB ANALYSIS CHALLENGS A 1990 Harvard Business Review article entitled, company was able to eliminate 100 “Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate, Obliterate: unnecessary field office positions. introduced managers to the concept of reengineering. Similar efforts to streamline operations According to its author, Michael Hammer, the heart of and make bureaucracy more efficient reengineering is the need for organizations to break and less cumbersome are promised by away Toyota Motor Corporation, the world’s from their traditional rules about work and from the fourth largest automobile manufacturer assumptions that underlie how that work is efficiently with 2001 sales of U.S.$ 106 billion and accomplished. This requires a complete redesign of 215,000 employees. The initiative existing work into jobs that previously didn’t exist. focuses on creating and implementing a Specifically, new global standard for manufacturing reengineering designs jobs around outcomes rather than which will attempt to realize new tasks .This means that a single individual will be synergies between the company’s IT and responsible for performing all aspects of a process rather production systems. The project will be than a limited subset of tasks. aimed at Toyota’s North Mutual Benefit Life Insurance implemented a complete American parts supply network that reengineering program several years ago. Their job includes 1,500 Lexus and Toyota dealers analyses and its 450 suppliers. In order to make indicated that the application process included 30 this project a reality, the company will separate steps that spanned five different departments. need to redesign several existing jobs to Typical support these new initiatives. Job turnaround time was between 5 and 25 days, with most analysis is likely to play an important of the time spent passing the application between role in this change process. departments. In response to this inefficiency, the company created a new job titled case manager. A case manager became responsible for the entire application Sources: Michael Hammer (November—December 2001), “The New Business Agenda Strategy & process for any given individual. The reengineering Leadership, pp. 42—43; john Teresko (January 00 I), doubled the volume work that was being completed; at “Toyota’s New Challenge,” Industry Week, pp. 71— the same time, the 74; Michael Hammer (July—August 1990),”Reen6gineering Work: Don’t Automate, Obliterate’ Harvard Business Review, pp. 04--I 12; John Thackray (June 1993), “Fads, Fixes, and Fiction,’ Management Today, pp. 40—42; David Warner (October I 993), “Bureaucracy, Heal Thyself,” Nation’s & Business, pp. 66—68.The job analyst has to select the best methods and procedures available to conduct the analysis.However, even before this selection is made, an overview of the organization and its jobs is USETHErequired. An overview provides the job analyst with an informed picture of the total arrangementOFof departments, units, and jobs. Additionally, this overview will provide the job analyst with aCHARTSbetter understanding of the flow of work through the organization.To gain these useful insights about the structure and process of the organization, two types ofcharts are especially helpful. An organization chart presents the relationships among departmentsand units of the firm. The line functions (the individuals performing the work duties) and stafffunctions (the advisers) are also spelled out. A typical organizational chart will yield informationabout the number of vertical levels in the organization, the number of different functionaldepartments, and the formal reporting relationships that exist.
  • 7. A second type of chart, the process chart, shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other.1° Thus, rather than simply showing the structural relationships among job titles (as iii aMETHODS OF typical organizational chart), the process chart shows the flow of activities and work necessaryDATA to produce a desired product or service.COLLECTION There are four basic methods, which can he used separately or in combination, of collecting job analysis data—observation, interview, questionnaires, and job incumbent diaries or logs. In each of these methods, the information about the job is collected and then the job is studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (person presently working on the job). This type of job analysis is referred to as job- oriented. On the other hand, a job can be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (such as computing, coordinating, or negotiating). This is referred to as work-oriented job analysis. Both of these orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as long as they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job. The four methods—or any combination of them—must focus on critical information. Since time and cost are considerations, managers need to collect comparable, valid data. Consequently, some form of core information is needed no matter what data collection method is used.12 A professional job analyst typically conducts extensive interviews with incumbents and supervisors, collects records about the job, and, if feasible, directly observes the job incumbents performing the job. A questionnaire called the job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the basic core information for use with any job analysis method—observation, interview, questionnaire, or incumbent diary or log. It permits the job analyst to collect information that provides a thorough picture of the job, job duties, and requirements. Job incumbents are asked to complete the JAIF. These answers (of course, some questions may not be answered or can’t be answered because the job incumbent doesn’t know the answer) are then used to specifically structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented. Exhibit 6—3 presents a portion of one type of JAIE Differences among job incumbents should he considered during the analysis of JAIF information, in addition to the actual job analysis. The job analyst should not assume that all incumbents or their supervisors will view a job in the same way. A safeguard against developing a distorted picture of a job is for the job analyst to collect information from a variety of incumbents. The job analyst should probably try to get information from males and females, older and younger workers, and high- and low-performing incumbents (the research is mixed about whether there will he differences between them in terms of their view of the job). ‘ Finally, the job analyst should not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job. This is important because research indicates that too little knowledge about a job can lead to inaccurate job descriptions. 1-Observation Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual, standardized, and short-job cycle activities. jobs performed by an inventory stockroom employee are examples of these. The job analyst must observe a representative sample of individuals performing these
  • 8. EXHIBIT 6-3 JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title _______________________ Code _________________ Date__________________ Class Title _________________________ Department __________________________________ Your Name _________________________ Facility______________________________________ Supervisors Title _____________________ Prepared by __________________________________ superior s Name_____________________ Hours Worked _____ _________ to ________________ AM AM PM PM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? What was your last job? If it was in another organization, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? 4. II you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties:-Hiring -Developing -Directing -Disciplining-Orienting -Coaching -Measuring performance -Terminating-Training -Counseling -Promoting -Other ‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬-Scheduling -Budgeting -Compensating 6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties—Please briefly describe what you do and, if possible, how you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult. a. Daily duties— h. Periodic duties (please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)— c. Duties performed at irregular intervals— d. How long have you been performing these duties? e. Are you now performing unnecessary duties? If yes, please describe. f. Should you be performing duties not now included in your job? If yes, please describe.
  • 9. EXHIBIT 6-3 CONCLUDED 8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background.a. ________ No formal education required d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent.b. _______ Less than high school diploma e. ______ 4-year college degree.c. High school diploma or equivalent. F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree and/or professional license. List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. 9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job. a. _______ None. e. _______ One to three years. b. ______ Less than one month. f. ______ Three to five years. c. _______ One month to less than six months. g. _______ Five to 10 years. d. ______ Six months to one year. h. ______ Over 10 years. Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job. 10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy, alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.) Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job. 11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently. Equipment Rarely Occasionally Frequently a. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ b. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ c. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ d. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________
  • 10. jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as thework of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician. The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant jobbehaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He orshe must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed.2-1lnterviews Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably thetechnique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face toface with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interviewserves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from thejob analysis will be used.Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with asupervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used ininterviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared.Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitationsis also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questionsand the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There isalso a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted bythe interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are notpractical.163-uestionnairesThe use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effectiveway to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is astructured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, workingconditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbentsto describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use theirown words and ideas to describe the job. The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Jobanalysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for aquestionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: • Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms. • Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their responses would be used. • Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language to make a point or ask ‘a question. • Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.
  • 11. 4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties, frequency of the duties, and when the duties are accomplished. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log. Unfortunately, most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log. If a diary or log is kept up to date, it can provide good information about the job. Comparisons on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis can be made. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties. The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe, such as those performed by engineers, scientists, and senior executives. Which Method to Use? Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination, there is no general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. Many experts agree that, at very least, interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method.’7 In addition, the various methods may not be interchangeable; certain methods seem to be better suited to a given situation than other In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to another, most organizations base their choice on their current needs.’9 In other words, the choice of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and budget constraints. Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses, many organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach.2° In this approach, the job analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation. Next, a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered. Finally, a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. There might, for example, be variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors, by incumbents at different geographic locations, or by members of different departments. Regardless, differences in how the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true nature. Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will, of course, be relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, it does offer one distinct advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job analysis information. The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in generalSPECIFIC terms. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularityQUANTITAVE across many types of organizations. When they arc used properly, these specific techniques canTECHNIQUES provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are being accomplished and what knowledge, skills, abilities, and other human characteristics (KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are functional job analysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the management position description questionnaire.
  • 12. EXHIBIT 6-4025.062-010 Meteorologist (profess. & kin.) DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBSAna1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air andsurface and upper-air stations, satellites, and radar to surface traffic moving to overseas destinations. Supervisesprepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight,Studies and interprets synoptic reports, maps, documentation, waybilling, assessing charges, andphotographs, and prognostic charts to predict long- and collecting fees for shipments. Negotiators with domesticshort-range weather conditions. Issues weather customers, as intermediary for foreign customers, toinformation to media and other users over teletype resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements.machine or telephone. Prepares special forecasts and Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract forbriefings for those involved in air and sea transportation, reciprocal freight-handling agreements. May examineagriculture, fire prevention, and air-pollution control. invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariffIssues hurricane and severe storm warnings. May direct and customs regulations. May contact customs officials toforecasting services at weather station. May conduct basic effect release of incoming freight and resolve customsor applied research in meteorology. May establish and delays. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitatestaff observation stations. billing of shippers and foreign carriers.166.117-014 Manager, Employee Welfare (profess. & 187.167-094 Manager, Dude Ranch (amuse. & rec.)kin.) employee-service officer; manager, welfare. Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on advertising, publicity, guest rates, and credit. PlansDirects welfare activities for employees of stores, recreational and entertainment activities, such as camping,factories, and other industrial and commercial fishing, hunting, ‘horseback riding, and dancing. Directsestablishments: Arranges for physical examinations, first activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse. & rec.).aid, and other medical attention. Arranges for installation Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records.and operation of libraries, lunchrooms, recreational Directs other activities, such as breeding, raising, andfacilities, and educational courses. Organizes dances, showing horses, mules, and livestock.entertainment, and outings. Ensures that lighting issufficient, sanitary facilities are adequate and in goodorder, and machinery safeguarded. May visit workers’homes to observe their housing and general living 732.684-106 Shaper, Baseball Glove (sports equip.)conditions and recommend improvements if necessary. steamer and shaper.May assist employees in the solution of personnel Forms pocket, opens fingers, and smoothes seams toproblems, such as recommending day nurseries for their shape baseball gloves, using heated forms, mallets, andchildren and counseling them on personality frictions or hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form toemotional Maladjustments. open and stretch finger linings. Pounds fingers and palm of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to184.117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind.) foreign smooth seams and bulges. and form glove pocket.agent. Removes glove from form, inserts hand into glove, andCoordinates activities of international traffic division of strikes glove pocket with fist while examining gloveimport-export agency and negotiates settlements between visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit.foreign andFunctional job analysisFunctional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research onanalyzing and describing jobs. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as amechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles(DOT),22 which was the primary source used by the U.S. Employment Service for descriptiveinformation about jobs. Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than20,000 jobs. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. If someone is interested in ageneral description of a job, the DOT serves as a good starting point.Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. The first three digits of any one of these listings(for example, rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code, title, and industry. The next three digits(062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment overdata, people, and things. The lower the numbers, the greater the responsibility and judgment. The finalthree digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group
  • 13. having the same degree of responsibility and judgment.2DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job. FIA can thenbe used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.
  • 14. EXHIBIT 6-5 Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA ) Organizational ExamplesPEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINERIA: Taking instructions—helping Stays within assigned territory. Delivers requested programs. Sends product samples to Answers trainees’ questions. customers. Asks trainees for feedback.1B: Serving Asks questions to assess needs of Directs trainees to additional2: Exchanging information customers. resources.3A: Sourcing information Refers customer to production Persuades trainees of importance3B: Persuading manager. of topic.3C: Coaching Convinces customer to purchase Checks on and helps trainees3D: Directing product. Gives encouragement to posrprogram.4A: Consulting new assistant salesperson. Creates entertaining class4B: Instructing lightens mood with customer environment. Defines and4(;: Treating when appropriate. clarifies key concepts.5: Supervising Informs customer a bout product Teaches trainees new computer6: Negotiating specifications. software. n/a7: Mentoring Demonstrates how product Evaluates learning of trainees.8: Leading works. Asks for larger budget from vice n/a president of human resource Structures job of assistant department. Advises new trainer salesperson. (in how to deliver a training Bargains over price with program. customer. Sets a vision as to why Counsels assistant salesperson on development is important. career issues. Models behavior for new salespeople.
  • 15. 4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 ;1EXHIBIT 6-6;0]INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF ACOMPLETED PAGEINFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITIONANALYSIS1.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRERate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by theworker 2 Occasionalas a source of information in performing his or her job. 3 Moderate4 Considerable5 Very substantial1.1.1 Visual Sources of Job Information1 4 Written materials (books, reports, office notes, articles, job instructions, signs, etc.)2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts, such as graphs, accounts,specifications, tables of numbers, etc.)3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information, for example, drawings,blueprints, diagrams, maps, tracings,photographic films, x-ray films, TV pictures, etc.)4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates, stencils, patterns, etc., used as sources of information when observedduring use; do not include here materials described in item 3 above)5 2 Visual displays (dials, gauges, signal lights, radarscopes, speedometers, clocks, etc.)6 5 Measuring devices (rulers, calipers, tire pressure gauges, scales, thicknessgauges, pipettes, thermometers, protractors, etc., used to obtain visualinformation about physical measurements; do not include here devices described in item S above)7 4 Mechanical devices (tools. eqöiprnent, machinery, and other mechanicaldevices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation)8 3 Matcrials in process (parts, materials, objects, etc., which are sources ofinformation when being modified, worked on, or otherwise processed, such asbread dough being mixed, workpiece being turned in a lathe, fabric being cut,shoe being resoled, etc.)9 4 Materials not in process (parts, materials, objects, etc., not in the process of being changed or modified,which are sources of information when being inspected, handled, packaged. distributed, or selected, etc., suchas items or materials in inventory, storage, or distribution channels, items being inspected, etc.)10 3 Features of nature (landscapes, fields, geological samples, vegetation, cloudformations, and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information)11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures, buildings, dams, highways,bridges, docks, railroads, and other “man-made” or altered aspects of theindoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to providejob information; do not consider equipment, machines, etc.. that an individual uses in his or her work, ascovered by item 7)Noie:Th,s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements. Other PAQ pages contain questionsregarding mental processes,work output, relationships with others, job context, and other job characteristics.Source Position.
  • 16. questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to completeproperly, it is often filled out by a trained job analyst. The job analyst must decide whether each itemapplies to a particular job. For example, measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for thejob being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6.The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections: 1. Information input. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information? 2. Mental processes. What reasoning, decision-making, and planning processes are used to perform the job? 3. Work output. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job? 4. Relationship with other people. What relationships with others are required to perform the job? 5. Job context. In what physical and social context is the job performed? 6. Other job characteristics. What activities, conditions, or characteristics other than those described in sections 1 through 5 are relevant?Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1)decision ma king, (2) communication, (3) social responsibilities, (4) performing skilled activities, (5)being physically active, (6) operating vehicles or equipment, and (7) processing information. These scorespermit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs. Like other job analysis techniques, the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages. One of its biggestadvantages is that it has been widely used and researched. The available evidence indicates that it can bean effective technique for a variety of intended purposes.27 It is reliable in that there is little varianceamong job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences inabilities required for jobs.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be thosethat are compensated at higher rates. A major problem with the PAQ is its length. It requires time and patience to complete. In addition,since no specific work activities are described, behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actualtask differences in the jobs. For example, the profiles for a typist, belly dancer, and male ballet dancermay be quite similar, since all involve fine motor movements.29 Some research suggests that the PAQ iscapable only of measuring job stereotypes.3° If this is true, then the PAQ may he providing little morethan common knowledge about a job. That is, ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makesup the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs.
  • 17. Management Position Description QuestionnaireConducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of thedisparity across positions, levels in the hierarchy, and type of industry (for example, industrial, medical,government). An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control DataCorporation. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ). The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. itis designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work, and it is intended for use across mostindustrial settings. The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections. Items were grouped intosections inorder to reduce the time it requires to complete, and to help with the interpretation of responses: 1. General information. 2. Decision making. 3. Planning and organizing. 4. Administering. 5. Controlling. 6. Supervising. 7. Consulting and innovating. 8. Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7). 9. Coordinating. 10. Representing. 11. Monitoring business indicators. 12. Overall ratings. 13. Knowledge, skills, and abilities. 14. Organization chart. 15. Comments and reactions. Although the FJA, PAQ, and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs, manyother methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. The common metricquestionnaire (CMQ),33 which is completed by an incumbent, is a job analysis instrument with severalpotential advantages over existing measures. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for manyjobs; they are more behaviorally concrete, thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs; andthe CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions, which may increase the number ofintrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made.
  • 18. Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe, focusing onalternative quantitative methods. In Germany, for example, several techniques have the common goal ofanalyzing and describing work at the task level,independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. Thus, these approaches are expected to he wellsuited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing. Finally, it is worth noting that the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and TrainingAdministration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. In cooperation with several other sources offunding, the Department of Labor’s recent creation, the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network),was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations, worker KSAOs, and workplacerequirements in the country.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs andwork, the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersomeDictionary of Occupational Titles.As previously mentioned, the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs providedby a systematic job analysis. Simply stated, a job description is a D written description of what the jobentails. It is, however, difficult to overemphasizeow important thorough, accurate, and current job descriptions are to an organization. Many changesoccurring in recent years have increased the need for such job
  • 19. RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITIONDESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ)I (I iehic . IrgaIll/atlonil goals. tattat.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1, .1 tit an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r.i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii.lie purposes (It these oiU,lCts lily ITi(II.I(IU (liii hut. t molts as:• lnhmrmuiimg• Receis mug Information• lntlueimciimg• Promoting• Selling• Directing• (‘oordiiiitimig• I iltilarati ii g• NegotiitmiigDIRECTIONS:1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the oppositeas hi IIl1)W,:For each contact checked, print a (0111- her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh Itie a lii a part oh VII or(sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is. Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r pISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice.o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position.I -- minor part imt the position.2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon.3-A substantial hart ut the position.4-. crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon.STEP .3If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W.226STEP IMark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contactsInternal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111.STEP 2
  • 20. CONTINUED1 srEP2STEI ICoNTACTS I PURIOSF Influence Share infornation I )irrct and/or others re,,i rd og p.1st, to .tct or otegra te the iii n decide n a INTERNAL, p resent, or ant ci n at flCt (list s, pa ted icti VitW5. ((I’ sten t act cIt es or ni th nit object decision of others decisions yes 1’.xeciitive or senior V1CC I president and above .89 I6 I ISVice president 16)) 16fi 1S4Genera l/regii ma I ma niger, director, or I ‘6 1 7 161 169 I 85executive consultant Deparmient/district manager, or senior consnlraiit 162 I0 I ‘X 186 Secto mn/branch na nager m 0l?%LiItailt 163 171 I’9 IUnit flianager 164 I2 ISO 188 Exempt employees 168 I 181 189Nonexenipt employees 66 I 182 190 Provide. Promote the obtain. . Sell p r id Negotiate . ( ir exchange orga iii ,,at ii iict s/ contracts, EXTERNAL. iii formation i ni or . sertlements, ir its po Id ucts! services etc. ads’ice services Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data genera IJ.— regional manager 191 198 20.8 212 219Customers at a level lower than .t amtrol Data general! regional manager ,Representatives of nia)or suppliers, for 192 199 206 213 220e.iniplr. joint ventures, subcontractorsfor major contracts — Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( .oittrol Data with parts 193 200 207 22 I or services 215 94 2(11 208 222 Representatives of 216 195 202 209 22.) nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations I id iv id ual s such as applicants, stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi 224 96 20.3 211) II nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors, government . inspectors. etc. I9 204 21 I 2 IX 22
  • 21. HRMEM0. Can process changes yieldsavings? Ask Navis tarinternational Corporation, aleading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projectswith high strategic fit andeconomic impact for the’s working! After completing200 projects, Navistar realized an average of $200,000 perprojectSource: Mark Frigo and Heather Kos(August 1999).Navistar’s DreamTeam Strategic Finance, pp. 38—45.descriptions. These changes include (1) the incredible number of organizational restructurings that haveoccurred (e.g., downsizing); (2) the need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and rewardemployees; (3) the accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments; and (4) new,more stringent federal regulation of employment practices through legislation like the Americans withDisabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 199 1.6 Though some HR managers feel that technology andrapidly changing jobs will eventually decrease the need for job descriptions,37 it still seems unlikely thatthere are any relevant aspects of human resources that do not depend on accurate job descriptions.While there is no standard format for a job description, almost all well-written, useful descriptions willinclude information on:3i• Job title—title of the job and other identifying information such as its wage and benefits classification.• Surnmary—brief one- or two-sentence statement describing the purpose of the job and what outputs areexpected from job incumbents.• Equipment—clear statement of the tools, equipment, and informationhat required for effectively performing the job.ey• Environment—description of the working conditions of the job, the location of the job, and otherrelevant characteristics of the immediate workenvironment such as hazards and noise levels.• Activities—includes a description of the job duties, responsibilities, and behaviors performed on the job.Also describes the social interactionsassociated with the work (for example, size of work group, amount of dependency in the work).The job specification evolves from the job description. It addresses the question “What personal traits andexperience are needed to perform the job effectively?” The job specification is especially useful inoffering guidance for recruitment and selection. For example, suppose that you were looking for an HRprofessional to fill the position described in Exhibit 6—8. From the job specification, you would knowthat the successful applicant would have a college education and would already have at least six years ofexperience in HRM.Determining what skills, knowledge, or abilities are required for performing a particular job must he donesystematically. R. J. Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that shouldbe included on a job specification:391. All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance using sound job analysis techniques.2. A panel of experts, incumbents, or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing eachof the job tasks identified.3. The importance of each skill must, he rated.4. Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should he, identified. These include thingssuch as physical requirements and professional certification.5. Each skill that has been identified needs to he specifically linked to each job task. Any trait or skill thatis stated on the job specification should actually he re £ C i ml A .., i, F e,kltc A’t the
  • 22. 1;ciieral description of the 1obPerforms responsible administrative work managing personnel activities of a large state agency orinstitution. Work involves responsibility for the planning and administration of an HRM program thatincludes recruitment, examination, selection, evaluation, appointment, promotion, transfer, andrecommended change of status of agency employees, and a system of communication for disseminatingnecessary information to workers. Works under general supervision, exercising initiative andindependent judgment in the performance of assigned tasks.Job activitiesParticipates in overall planning and policy making to provide effective and uniform personnel services.Communicates policy through organization levels by bulletins, meetings, and personal contact.Interviews applicants, evaluates qualifications, classifies applications.ruits and screens applicants to fill vacancies and reviews applications of qualified persons.Confers with supervisors on personnel matters, including placement problems, retention or release ofprobationary employees, transfers, demotions, and dismissals of permanent employees.Supervises administration of tests.Initiates personnel training activities and coordinates these activities with work of officials andsupervisors.Establishes effective service rating system; trains unit supervisors in making employee evaluations.Maintains employee personnel files.Supervises a group of employees directly and through subordinates.Performs related work as assigned.General qualification requirementsExperience and trainingshould have considerable experience in area of FIRM administration. Six-year minimum.EducationGraduation from a four-year college or university, with major work in human resources, businessadministration, or industrial psychology., knowledge, skills, and abilitiesConsiderable knowledge of principles and practices of HRM selection and assignment of personnel; jobevaluation.ResponsibilitySupervises a department of three HRM professionals, one clerk, and one secretary.ferentiate clearly between essential and nonessential skills.40 Essential skills are those for whichalternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible. Nonessential skills can be accommodated bychanging the structure or work methods of the job. If disabled people could accomplish the jobsuccessfully after such accommodation, then it should be done.Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Managementhe HR Journal appearing earlier in this chapter suggests that process and work engineering will be thestrategic HR challenge for the coming years. There are many signs that the fundamental nature of workmay be changing. Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a person’s job.instead,
  • 23. interdisciplinary or cross-functional teams comprised of pers6ns with extremely diverse backgrounds arebecoming increasingly common. Not surprisingly, therefore, one of the major complaints aboutreengineering is that once an organization’s processes have been reconstructed, new job responsibilitiesmay he poorly defined for the new environment.4’Despite these potential difficulties, organizations will have to continually adapt to rapidly changingbusiness environments. Thus, reengineering of one kind or another is likely in a majority of organizations.This inevitability creates a newproblem for the job analyst. While the job analyst has traditionally been charged with creatingdescriptions of jobs as they exist in an organization, the new job analyst will also have to describe jobsthat will exist in the future organization. As mentioned elsewhere in this text, there is a growingacknowledgment of the need to match human resource activities with an organization’s strategicplanning.42 An important part of this task vill he an ability for job analysts to write job specifications thataccurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement the future strategic initiatives of theorganization.4 In the future, job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static entity called a “job.”To the contrary, strategic job analysis will have to be capable of capturing both the present and thefuture.44Compounding the potential problems that reengineering can introduce, many work environments will alsooffer employees much greater flexibility in when and how they work. Organizations such as AT&T,Hewlett-Packard, and Pfizer have all implemented flexible working environments to meet the needs of anincreasingly diverse workforce. These programs include variations on traditional work such ascompressed work schedules, telecommuting, job sharing, and flexible hours.4 Although it is currentlyunclear whether these new work arrangements will lend themselves to accurate description through thequantitative methods covered in this chapter. it is safe to assume that effective organizational functioningwill require some type of job analysis to be competently conducted.4Job Analysis and Employee CompetenciesOver the past decade, some HR departments have increasingly analyzed jobs in a way that is consistentwith the changing nature of business and management practices. Much more general than traditionalknowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform one specific job, cwnpetencies are general attributesemployees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organizatioll as a whole. For example,cornpetencies might include anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential.” As jobs arereengineered, I QM programs arc implemented, and the value of teamwork is emphasized, manyorganizations are identifying, communicating, and rewarding a variety of broad-based competencies thatsuccessful employees should possess. Also termed “competency modeling,” such usage of competenciesin HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to achieve the following:• Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific jot? itself;• I)escribe and measure the organization’s orkforce in mdre general, competency terms; and —• I)esign and implement stathng programs focused around conipetencics(rather than specific jobs) as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job a ssign nwnts.4
  • 24. Once a thorough job analysis has been conducted and there are high-quality job JC descriptions and jobspecifications available, an organization can USC this information for designing or redesigning jobs. Thisinformation iS very useful for structuring job elements, duties, and tasks in a manner that will help toachieve Optimal perft) rmance and satisfaction.There is, however, no one best way to design a job. 1)ifferent situations call for different arrangements ofjob characteristics. In addition, approaches to job design place different emphasis on performance andsatisfaction as desired outcomes. In other words, certain methods of job design are primari lv interested inimproving performance; others are more concerned with satisfaction. Thus, it is unlikely that any oneapproach will fully satisfy all of the goals’of a manager. This means that the choice of job design willinvolve making trade—offs based on the more critical needs of the organization.45Perspectives on the design of work can he classified into four major categories:I) the perceptual-motor approach, (2) the biological approach, (3) the mechanistic approach, and (4) themotivational approach.49 Both the perceptual-motor approach and the biological approach have theirroots in human factors engineering. Their major focus is on the integration of human and machinesystems. Thus, they emphasize equipment design and the proper match between machines aiid operators.The two remaining approaches more clearly highlight the potential trade-offs that must frequently hemade by organizations with regard to job design. They are also the two that have received the mostattention in literature. The mechanistic approach is best exemplified by Taylor’sscientific management and the motivational approach by job enrichment.Scientific Management and the Mechanistic ApproachJob design was a central issue in F. W. Taylor’s model of scientific management. His use of job design isan excellent example of the rational approach and shows how certain perspectives focus more heavily onproductivity than on satisfaction. In 1911, he stated:Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea. The work ofevery workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance, and each manreceives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task whiji he is toaccomplish. . . This task specifies not only what is to be done hut how it is to be done and the exact timeallowed for doing‘The work of Taylor and the principles of scientific management initiated a great deal of interest insystematically studying the structure of jobs. The emphasis was clearly on structuring jobs so that theywere broken down into simple, repetitive tasks. Once learned, these tasks could he done quickly andefficiently.Although the principles of scientific management were formally introduced in the early I 900s and manycurrent methods of job design criticize the use of the repetitive-task structure, many of the principles arestill relevant today. Among these•re recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management, such as the‘dlowing:
  • 25. • Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. (Job descriptions and jobspecifications used iii recruitment and selectionshould achieve this.)• Employees should be trained to perform the job.• Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance and should be used to reward theperformance of employees.Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because these kinds ofrecommendations point toward improving organizational performance. It is assumed that thespecialization and routine nature of jobs designed according to scientific management principles will leadto higher levels of output and require minimal training before employees are able to master the work.Despite the appeal of these potential advantages, research has found that repetitive, highly specializedwork can lead to dissatisfaction among employees.S1 Thus, the gains in efficiency that scientificmanagement may offer can he offset by losses in satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism andturnover.Early strategies for overcoming some of the problems associated with jobs designed according toscientific management focused on job enlargement.52 Job en largement attempts to increase satisfactionby giving employees a greater variety of things to do. The expansion of the work is, however, consideredhorizontal, since the employees are not given more responsibility or authority in decision making. Rather,they are merely allowed to do a greater number of tasks. Thus, an enlarged job is not as specialized orroutine as a job designed according to scientific management, but it may not be any more meaningful.
  • 26. job Enrichment: A Motivational ApproachIn the past two decades, much work has been directed at changing jobs in more meaningful ways than jobenlargement was able to do. Rather than simply increasing the variety of tasks performed by an employee,job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth,recognition, and responsibility. Thus, enrichment differs from enlargement because the job is expandedvertically; employees are given responsibility that might have previously been part of a supervisor’s joh.The notion of satisfying employees’ needs as a way of designing jobs comes from Frederic Herzberg’stwo-factor theory of work motivation. His basic idea is that employees will be motivated by jobs thatenhance their feelings of self-worth.4Although there are many different approaches to job enrichment, the job characteristics model is one ofthe most widely publicized.55 This model is depicted in Exhibit 6—9. It shows that for a job to lead todesired outcomes it must Possess certain “core job dimensions.” These include• Skill variety—degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work,which involves the use of a number of anindividual’s skills and talents.• Task identity—degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole”and identifiable piece of work—that is, doing a job from beginning bo endwith a visible outcome. —• Task significance—degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the
  • 27. Source:Ado pied from J. Richard Hackman and R. G. Qldham (August 1976). “Motivation through the Design of Work:Test of a Theory.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, p. 256.*Autonomy—degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to theindividual in scheduling the work and in. determining the procedures to he used in carrying it out.• Feedback—degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job results in the individual’sobtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.If these core dimensions are present in a job, they are expected to create three critical psychological statesin job incumbents.’ The key psychological states that are necessary for motivation and satisfaction are:1. Experienced meaningfulness—degree to which the job incumbent experiences work as important,valuable, and worthwhile.2. Experienced responsibility—extent to which the job incumbent feels personally responsible andaccountable for the results of the work performed.3. Knowledge of results—understanding that a job incumbent receives about how effectively he or she isperforming the job.The more these three states are experienced, the more internal work motivation the job incumbent willfeel. To the extent that these three states are important to the job incumbent, he or she will then hemotivated to perform well and will be satisfied with the job.
  • 28. As presented in Exhibit 6—9, three job dimensions—skill variety, task identity, and task significance—AB contribute to a sense of meaningfulness. Autonomy is directly related to feelings of responsibility.The more control 1ob incumbents feel they have over their jobs, the more they will feel responsible.Feedback is related to knowledge of results. For job incumbents to be internally motivated, they musthave a sense of the quality of their performance. This sense comes from feedback.The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets offactors—( I ) core job dimensions, (2) psychological states, (3) personal and work-related outcomes, and(4) strength of needs. Since different people have different capabilities and needs, it is important to beaware of the potential for individual differences to moderate the linkages shown in Exhibit 6—9. If, forexample, a person dues not have a strong need for personal growth, then job enrichment will probablyhave less effect than it would for a person who values personal growth.Many job enrichment programs have been implemented in the United States and in other countries aroundthe world. After 20 years of research, however there are no clear answers about the effectiveness ofenrichment. Generally, studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensionsof the job characteristics model are more satisfying. On the other hand, the relationships between thecritical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood.’Research also suggests that increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimentaleffects on workers.Work-Family Balance and Job DesignOrganizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their workand family demands. Driving this work-family tension are a number of variables related to the changingdemographics of the workforce. For example, the number of women and single parents entering theworkforce is expected to increase. Often viewed as primary caregivers, these individuals vill continue toexperience stress as they attempt to balance career and family priorities. Another example of demographicchanges includes the increase in dual-career couples. In Some cases, caregiving responsibilities may heshared, leading both working spouses to require flexible work arrangements to meet family life and careercycle needs. The aging population will he another factor that requires a response from working-agecaregivers. As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age, this issue will grow in importance.How are organizations responding to these challenges? Although nor as dramatic as originallyanticipated, a trend is emerging in which some organizations are trying to accommodate diverseemployees’ needs by offering flexible work arrangements. Examples of flexible work arrangementsinclude job sharing, flextime, and telecommuting. It is believed that by allowing employees more controlover their work lives, they will he better able to balance their work-home demands. Many have arguedthat companies that offer and encourage participation in such famil— friendly work arrangements willreap one or more of the following benefits: higher recruitment and retention rates, improved morale,lower absenteeism and tardiness, and higher levels of employee productivity.
  • 29. “partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills.61 Companies such as CoreStatesFinancial, AT&T, Kraft, and Household International all have oh-sharing options available for theiremployees.Flextime is another type of flexible work arrangement in which employees can choose when to be at theofce.62 I—or example, employees may decide that instead (it working 5 days a week for 8 hours a day,they may prefer to work a 4—day!! 0— mr per day work schedule. With this schedule, the employees donot have to be at the of&e on Friday. 1o avoid peak rush hour, other employees might use their flex—time to arrive at and leave from work one hour later Monday through Friday. One research studyconcluded that flexible workweek schedules had a positive influence on employee performance, jobsatisfaction, and absenteeism. These authors also reported that flextiine programs should not be toounstructured and that they lose some of their effectiveness over time. Companies that offer fiextimeoptions include I lewlctr-Packard, Merrill Lynch, and Cigna.Telecommuting refers to the work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes part- or full-time, maintaining their connection and communication with the office through phone, fax, andcomputer.64 Though oftentimes resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinateaccessibility, one company has aken a methodical approach to implementing a telecommuting program.Pfizer Inc., a large health care company, took the following steps to establish their program:I. Chose a small division to pilot the telecommuting initiative.2. Limited the number of days to work at home to two per week.3. Opened the program to all employees of the division.4. Required interested employees to satisfy a formal proposal and performance standards.S. Required demonstration that the work could be accomplished off-site and that the employee couldsustain and/or enhance performance.Although organizations like Pizer and the other faniily-friendiy firms are movmg forward to attract,motivate, and retain employees with diverse nonwork needs,) organizations need to consider threeimportant issues when developing and implementing such flexible work arrangement options. First, everyattempt should be made to open these programs to all employees. The risk here is that if only certaine,roups are offered these options, then excluded group’ may feel discriminated against. Managers need tobe aware that excluded employees can create a backlash .!ainst work-family programs!’ Second, havingthe CEO of an organization anoiince these programs is not enough to effect change. Many career-mindedemployees do not take advantage of job sharing, flextime, or telecommuting for fear of being derailedfrom their career progression.66 In order to make these programs an accepted part of the organization,managers need to he trained and rewarded for encouraging their subordinates to use them without fear ofderailing their good standing within the firm. Third, organizations need to be mindful of the laws that mayimpact how these flexible work arrangement policies are developed and managed. oine applicable lawsinclude the Fair Labor Standards Act, workers’ compensation, J the Occupational Safety and Health Act!Job Design: The Next ChallengeIn the late I 980s and early 1 990s, European and Asian competitors of American corporations wererevolutionizing job design by turning away from the basic dc1i1t of scientific management and embracingthe quality management movementMore recently. self-directed teams hav become important ingredients in the success of manufacturersworldwide! And now, because of the competitive pressures that foreign business has placed on them,American orporations—including Chevron, Coca-Cola, Federal Express, General Electric, GeneralMotors, Motorola, Procter & Gamble, and Xerox, to name a few—are also implementing self-directedwork teams.’9 Countless others are reengineering their work processes, hoping to regain their competitiveadvantage.Regardless of the specific nature of redesign, many organizations have learned the hard way thatreengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees usetheir skills. The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’scompetency alignment process (CAP). CAP involves the systematic study, analysis, and assessment of
  • 30. jobs and the skills needed to perform them in the reengineered organization. To accomplish this goal,CAP determines current skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps. When a skill deficiencyexists for the reengineered organization, it can then be eliminated through a variety of programs includingtraining, redeployment, and outsourcing.7° Without these or similarly intense efforts, the reengineeringwill probably not succeed. Thus, job analysts and other HR professionals are a crucial link in thereengineering processes upon which so many corporations are staking their competitive future.This chapter has emphasized the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs. Eachpart of the diagnostic HRM model is in some way affected by job analysis. The job is the major buildingblock of anorganization. Therefore, it is essential that each characteristic of each job in an organization he clearlyunderstood.To summarize the major points covered in this chapter:. 1. There are six sequential steps in job analysis, starting with examining the total organization and the fitof jobs and concluding with the preparation of a job specification (see Exhibit 6—2).2. The uses of job analysis information seem endless. Strategic planning. recruitment, selection, training,compensation, and job design all benefit immensely from job analysis information..3. Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs. Training is required.4. Before conducting a job analysis, organization and process charts should be consulted to acquire anoverview of the organization.5. Four general job analysis techniques can be used separately or in combination observation, interviews,questionnaires, and job incumbent diaries or logs.6. The multimethod approach to job analysis uses acombination of these four general. methods. It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed veryfavorably from a legal respective.7. Functional job analysis (FjA) is used to describe the nature of jobs, prepare job descriptions, andprovide details on job specifications. The job is described in terms of data, people, and things.. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is a listing of over 20,000 jobs on the basis of occupational code,title, industry.9. The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a I95item structured instrument used to quantitativelyassess jobs on the basis of decision making, communication and social responsibilities, performing skilledactivities, being physically active, operating vehicles or equipment, and processing information.10. The management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) is a checklist of 208 items that assessesthe concerns and responsibilities of managers.11. Job design involves structuring job elements, duties, and tasks to achieve optimal performance andsatisfaction.12. job design was a concern of F.WTaylor, the famous industrial engineer and father of what is calledscientific management.I 3. job enrichment involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth, recognition, andresponsibility are satisfied.14. Reengineering is more than job redesign. It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through anorganization. Without adaptable job descriptions, however, it cannot succeed.
  • 31. What do you now think about Tim Huggins’s job analysis process? Do you see why some type oftraining in job analysis is required Tim really lacked sufficient training, and this lack was clearly revealedas the process got out of hand.. Using questionnaires requires preparation andconchcareful initial steps.Atrained job analyst knowsthat distribution ofquestionnaires without an explanation is bound to set off negative feelings.Timfailed to plan thoroughlywhat he wanted to do. He was a new boss, and thisalone was threatening tomany people.A new personludedhas to establish rapport o with emp’oyees before ir changing things. tiIn the case of Sprowl ai Manufacturing,Tim’s haste a and lack of preparation have now caused thesituation to T reach a boiling point. He a needs to backtrack andslow down. Perhapsdistributing memos, holdingTERMSopen discussions withinformal leaders, and using the expertise of trained job analysts can improve the atmosphere at Sprowl.What would you advise Tim to do about job analysis at this point?autonomycommon metric questionnaire (CMQ) competency alignment process (CAP) feedbackfunctional job analysis (FJA)jobjob analysisjob analysis information format (JAIF) job characteristics modeljob descriptionjob enlargementjob enrichmentjob family specificationmanagement position description questionnaire (MPDQ) niultimethod job analysis approachOccupational Information Network (0 *NET) organization chartPOSItiOnposition analysis questionnaire (PAQ)process chartskill varietystrategic job analysistasktask identitytask significance1. What are the six steps in the job analysis process?2. Job analysis is often referred to as the “cornerstone” of HRM. Do you agree? Why?3. How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in
  • 32. promotion? 64. As a current (or future) manager, how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-levelcustomer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? Iill youdescribe the job in terms of corn-petencies? Knowledge, skills, and abilities? Both? Explain your answer.5. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications?6. What is the difference between an essential and a nonessential skill? How are these related to theAmericans with Disabilities Act?. Describe the mechanistic and motivational models of job design.What is the emphasis of each?
  • 33. 8. Describe the major components of the job characteristics model of job enrichment.9. What is the ONET? How and when would a job analyst use the ONET? Do you think it will replace theDictionary of Occupational Titles? Why or why not?10. What challenges does the concept of reengineering pose for job analysis and human resourcesBased on Worthington v. City of New Has en, 1999 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 16104.The FactsPatricia Worthington was hired 1w the City of New Haven on December 23, 199 I, as an Account Clerk Iin its Tax Office. According to the City’s job description, the Account Clerk I position requiredbookkeeping,maintaining accounts, preparing payrolls and financial reports. checking receipts and vouchers, receivingpayments, and various other clerical duties. On February 3. 1992, Ms. Worthington. who had preexistingback, neck, and knee in)uries, fell at work. As a result of the fall, she suffered neck and lower back painwhen sitting For extended times. Following the accident, Ms. Vorthington requested threeaccommodations from the City: (1) an ergonomic chair with neck and back support, (2) replacement ofoverhead shelves with waist level shelves, and (3) modification of her job duties so that she avoidedstanding for long periods of time. Despiterecominendanons from her doctor for the ergonomic chair and letters froii ti’e Connecticut Bureau ofRehabilitative Services suggestinj a worksite evaluation, the City. repeatedly denied Ms. Worthington’s requests for accommodai ions based on a lack of funds. On May24, 1993, she filed a grievance with the City. After an investigation, the Cit agreed to provide Ms.Worthington with a more comfortable chair. On July 1 3, 1 993, she hled a grievance with the union,complaining that she was still required to stand for long periods of time. On April 13. 1994, Ms.Worthington filed a disability discrinnnation suit under the Americans with Disabilities Act in U.S.District Court for the District of Connecticut. Later in that same month, the City provided Ms.Worthington with an ergonomic chair. Following surgery for spinal problems aggravated by her fall atwork, Ms. Worthington ceased working on March 25, 1995, due to her disability.The Court’s DecisionTo recover under the ADA, a plaintiff must prove that he or she is a “qualified individual with adisability who canperform the essential functions of their job, with or without accommodations.” According to the AI)A, adisability is I) a physical or mental illpairmcilt that substantially limits one or more major life activities,(2) a record of such impairment, or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. The court foundthat Ms.Worthington had a physical impairment of hermusculoskeletal system that substantially limited her ability to walk and stand for long periods of time.Thus, Ms. Worthington had a disability under the ADA. Further, the court found that Ms. Vorthington didindeed possess the required education, experience, and skills for the Account Clerk I position. The courtexamined the City’s job description for Account Clerk I to determine if Ms. Worthingwn could performthe essential functions of the ob either with or without accommodations. The court found that the essentialfunctions of Account Clerk I involved preparation of payrolls and financial reports, maintenance (ifaccounts and parking tag books, and checking receipts and vouchers, which could all he performed withonly occasional standing. The City claimed that filling in for an employee who collected parking fineswhich involved standing for long periods of time was also an essential function of Ms. Worthington’s job.Howevei the court disagreed and awarded Ms. Worthington $150,000 in compensatory damages, holdingthat she was a qualified individual with a disability who could perform the essential functions of theAccount Clerk I position with reasonable accommodations.
  • 34. Human Resource ImplicationsOrganizations must carefully define essential andnonessential job functions in their job descriptions and be prepared to provide reasonableaccommodations requested by employees. According to the ADA, essential functions are the fundamentalhut not marginal duties of a job. A job duty is essential if (I) the position exists to perform the function,(2) there are a limited number of employees who are available to perform the function, and (3) theemployee was hired for an expertise or ability to perform aparticular function. In differentiating between essential and nonessential job functions in job descriptions,employers should also consider how much time an emplace spends performing a jot) duty and theconsequences of not requiring an employee to perform the duty.Ivan Robertson anc Mike Smith (November 200“Personnel Selection,” Journal 01 ( )ccupatumal andOrganizational l’sb)lnç”,’, pp. 441—472; Edward ‘F.Cornelius (198$). “Practical Findings from Job AnalysisResearch,” in Si d ne (,acl (ed. ), The Job A nalvsisHandbook /or I3usiness, Industry, and Got ‘er,nnent, Vol.I (New Yorl Wilev, pp. 48—68.Bureau of Intergovernmental Personnel Programs(1 973), “Job .-nalvsis: Developing and DcuinentingData” (Washington, DC: U.S. Government PrintingOf6ce(.1--lerhert 1-leneinan, Tiniothv Judge, and RobertHeneman (2000), Staffing Organizations, 3rd ed. (BurrRidge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin), pP 198—199.Jai Ghorpadc and Thomas J. Atchison (Summer 1980).“The Concept of Job Analysis: A Review and Some Suggestions,” Public Personnel ManagementJournal, pp. 134—144; and Ronald A. Ash and Edward L. Levine (November—December 1980), “AFramework for Evaluating Job Analysis Methods,” Personnel, pp.53—59.Gerard P Panaro (1991)), I-’anplovnu’nt Lan’ Manual (Boston: Warren, Gorham & Larnont), pp.3.27—3.33. Heneman, Judge, and 1-leneman, op. cit., pp. 198—1 99. Panaro, op. cit., pp. .3.27—3.33.S Robert •J. 1—larvey (1991), “Job Analysis,” in Marvin 1).1)unnerte and I eaetra M. Hough (eds.), Handbook ofIndustrial and Organizational Psvchokg,’, 2nd ed., Vol.2 (Palo Alto, CA: Cansulting Psychologists Press), pp.. 71—163.Harvey, op. cit., p. 3 I 2.Richard I. Henderson (1 989), CompensationManagement: R en ‘a ‘ding Performance, cth ed.(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall), p. 100.Ii John C;. Veres 111, ‘Toni S. Locklear, and Ronald R. Sims(1990), “Job Analysis in Practice: A Brief Review of theRole of Job Analysis in Human ResourcesManagement,” in Gerald R. Ferris, Kendrith M.Rowland, and M. Ronald Buckle’ (eds.), HumanResource Management: Perspectives and Issues, 2nd ed.(Boston: Allyn and Bacon), pp. 86—89.2 Henderson, op. cit., pp. 1 38—139.1.. Friedman and Robert J. Harvey (Winter 1986), “CanRecruiters with Reduced .Job Description InformationProvide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ)Ratings?” Personnel Ps’t’cholog’,’, pp. 779_7$9
  • 35. ‘‘ Patrick R. Conlev and Paul R. Sackett (August I 9S”),“Effects of Using Hi, versus 1.ow—Performing jobIncumbents as Sources of Job Analysis Information,”joiiriicil of Applied Psvcholoç’-v, pp. 434—437; andPatrick Ni. Wright, Chris Anderson, Kari Tolzman, andTorn Helton (August 1990), “An Examination of theRelationship between Employee Performance and JobAnalysis Ratings,” in Lawrence Jauch and Jerry Wall(eds.), Acalenzv of A lanagement Best PapersProceedinc’s (Academy of Management). pp. 229—303. Robert j. I larvcv and Susana R. Lotada— (August1988), “Influence of Amount of Job 1)escriptive Information on job An alysis Rating Accuracy,”Journal of Applied Psychology. pp. 457—461Harvey, op. cit., p.333.Edward L. Levine, Ronald A. Ash, I—Tardy hall, andFrank Sistrunk (june 1983), “Evaluation oh Job AnalysisMethods 1w Experienced Job Analysts,” Academy ofManagement Journal, pp. 339—348.Michael Prannick and Edward Levine (2002), /obAnalysis: Methods, Research, and Applications for1—lunian Resource Mi,iaienieni in the Nezi’ Millennium(Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press); Edward L. Levine,James N. Thomas, and Frank Sistrunk (1988),“Selecting a Job Analysis Approach,” in Sidney Gael(ed.), The Job Analysis Handbook for Business,industry, and Goi’ernnient, Vol. 1 (New York: Wiley),pp. 339—352.Benjamin Schneider and A. M. Kon (Spring 1989),“Strategic job Analysis,” l—Iu,nan ResourceManagement, pp. 53—54.Vcrcs, Locklear, and Sims, op. cit., p. 92.U.S. Department of Labor (1 991), Dictionan’ ofOccupational Titles, 4th ed. (Washington, DC: U.S.Government Printing Office); U.S. I)epartment of Labor(1977), Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed.(X’.islziiigton, 1)C: U.S. Governiiient Printing Office). N Pamela S. Cain and Donald j. Treiman(June 1981),“The Dictionary of Occupational Titles as a Source of Occupational Data,” American SociologicalReview, pp.353—378.24 Sidney F inc and Steven Cronshaw (1999), Iunctio,ialJ oh Analysis (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates); Sidney A. Fine and Maury Getkatc (1 995),13e,zcbmark Tasks for fob Analysis: Guide forFunctional fob Analysis (FJAScales (Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).N Sidney A. line (1 S’8 (, “Functional Job Analysis,” n Sidney (ael ed.), The fob Analysis Handbook for
  • 36. Business. 1ndustr, and (;OV(’rflhlielIt, Vol. 2 (New York:Wiley), p. 1029.‘ Ernest J. McCormick, Paul R. jeanneret, and Robert C. Mecham (August 1972), “A Study of JobCharacteristics and Job l)iniensions as Based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ),” Journal ofApplied Psychology, pp. 347—68; and Ernest j. McCornuck, Paul R. Jeannerer, and Robert C. Mechairi(1978), User’s Manual for the Position Analysis Questioniiaire System 11 (West Lafayette, IN: PurdueUniversity Press).27 Ernest J. McCormick, Angelo S. DeNisi, and James B.Shaw (February 1979), “Usc of the Position AnalysisQuestionnaire for Establishing the Job ComponentValidity of Tests,” Journal of Applied Psychology, pp.51—56.Robert C. Carter and Robert J. Biersner (1987), “JobRequirements [)erived from the Position AnalysisQuestionnaire and Validated Using Military AptitudeTest Scores,” journal of Occupational Psychology, pp.311—321.29 Wayne F. Cascio (1989), Managing Human Resources:Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill), p. 129.° Angelo S. [)eNisi, Edwin T. Cornelius Ill, and Allyn G. Blencoe (May 1987), “Further Investigation ofCommon Knowledge Effects on Job Analysis Ratings,” Journal of Applied I’sychology, pp. 262—268;and Robert J. Harvey and Theodore L. 1-layes (Summer 1986), “Monte Carlo Baselines for InterraterReliability Correlations Using the Position Analysis Questionnaire,” Personnel Psycholog pp. 345—357.‘ Walter W. Tornow and Patrick R. Pinto (August 1976), . “The Development of a Managerial jobTaxonomy: ASystem for Describing, Classifying, and EvaluatingExecutive Positions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, pp.410—418.32 Ronald C. Page (1988), “Management PositionDescription Questionnaire,” in Sidney Gad (ed.), TheJob Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry, andGovernment, Vol. 2 (New York: Wiley), pp. 860—879.Robert J. Harvey (1993), “The Development of theCommon-Metric Questionnaire,” ResearchMonograph, Personnel Systems and TechnologiesCorporation and Virginia Polytechnic Institute StateUniversity.3 Harmut Wachter, Brita rvlodrow-Thiel, and GiselindRossmann (1994), “Work Design and Computer-Controlled Systems: Job Analysis undr Automation— ATAA,” Logisti&. Information Management, pp.44—52.Norman Peterson, Michael Mumford, Walter Borman, Richard Jeanneret, and Edwin Fleishrtian (Summer2001), “Understanding Work Using the OccupationalInformational Network (0 NEI): Implications forPractice and Research,” Personnel Psi’cholog pp.451—492. ONET can be found on the Web at J. Sahi (FaIl 1992), “Pressing Reasons forAccurate job Descriptions,” Human ResourceProfessional, pp. 18—20.Sharon Leonard (August 2000), “The Demise of lob 1)escriptions,” HRMagazznc. pp. 184—I 85.jai Ghorpade (1 988), Job Analysis: A Handbook for the Human Resource I)irector (Englewood Cli Ifs,
  • 37. NJ:Prentice-Hall), pp. 93—] 34.Harvey, OP. cit., p. 383.Nancy Asquith and 1)aniel E. Feld (1994), EmploymentTesting Manual: 1994 Cumulative Supplement (Boston:Warren, Gorham, Lamont), pp. 3—6/3—7.41 1)anny C. Langdon and Kathleen S. Whiteside (May1996), “Redefining lobs and Work in Changing Organizations,” HRMagaine, pp. 97—101.42 Susan Jackson and Randall Schuler (2003), ManagingHuman Resources through Strategic Partnerships 8thed. (Mason, OH: South-Western), pp. 4—5; John E.Butler, Gerald R. Ferris, and Nancy K. Napier (1991),Strategy and Human Resources Management(Cincinnati, OH: South-Western).Timothy P. Summers and Suzanne B. Summers (1997), “Strategic Skills Analysis for Selection andDevelopment,” Human Resource Planning, pp. 14—19.° Schneider and Konz, op. cit., pp. 5 1—6.3.Torn Duffy (July 2001), “Alternative WorkArrangements,” Network World, pp. 39—40; Karen A.Edelman (October 1996), “Workplace Flexibility BoostsProfits,” Across the Board. pp. 56—57; and MiriamBasch Scott (September 1996), “Flexibility ImprovesWorkplace at Owens Corning, I)un & BradstreetInformation Systems,” Employee Benefit Plan Reviewpp. 30—31.Karen E. May (April 1996), “Work in the 21st Century:Implications ior ob Analysis,” Sandberg (March 2001), “UnderstandingCompetence at Work,” Harvard Business Review, pp.24—28; Heneman, Judge, and Henernan, op. cit., pp.184—1 86; jeffery Shippmann, Ronald Ash, Linda Carr,and Beryl Hesketh (2000), “The Practice of CompetencyModeling,” Personnel Psychology, pp. 703—740.‘ Michael A. Campion and Carol L. McClelland (June1993), “Follow-Up and Extension of theInterdisciplinary Costs and Benefits of Enlarged Jobs,”Journal of Applied Ps’cbolog’’, pp. 339—351.Michael A. Cainpion and Gina J. Medsker (1 991), “jobDesign,” in C. Salvendy (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Engineermg, 2nd ed. (New York, Wiley), pp.845—881.Frederick W. Taylor (1 911), The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Flarpcr & Row), p.21.Si David A. Nadler, j. Richard Hackman, and Edward E. Lawler III (1979), Managing ()rganiationall3cbai’ior (Boston: Little, Brown), p. 79.52 Ricky W. Griffin (1982), Task Design: An Integrative Approach (c;lenview, IL: Scott, Foresman), p.21.Griffin, OP. cit., pp. 31 —34.‘ Frederick Herzberg, B. Mausner, and B. Snyderman (1959), The Motivation to Work (New York:Wiley).j. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham (August1976), “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test ofa Theory,” Organizational Behavior and Human
  • 38. Performance, pp. 250—279; and .1. Richard Hackman,Greg R. Oldham, R. Janson, and K. Purdy (Summer1975), “A New Strategy for Job Enrichment,”California Management Review, pp. 57—71.56 Hackman and Oldham, op. cit., Pp. 250—279.‘ Nancy G. Dodd and Damel. C. Ganstec çy 1.996), “The Interactive Effects of Variety, Autonomy, andFeedback on Attitudes and Performance,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, pp. 329—347.8 Robert W. Rcnn and Robert J. Vandenberg (Summer1995), “The Critical Psychological States: AnUnderrepresented Component in Job CharacteristicsModel Research,” journal of Management, pp.279—303.Jia Lin Xie and Gary Johns (October 1995), “Job Scopeand Stress: Can job Scope Be Too High?” Academy ofManagement Journal, pp. 1288—1309.18760 Luis R. Gomez-Mejia, David B. Balkin, and Robert L. Cardy (2000), Managing Human Resources,3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall).61 Charlenc Solomon (September 1994), “Job Sharing: One job, Double Headache?” Personnel Journal,pp. 88—93.Gomez—Mejia et al., Managing Human Resources.‘ Boris B. Baltes, Thomas E. Briggs, Joseph V. Huff, Julie A. Wright, and George A. Neuman (August1999), “Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules: A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on Work-Related Criteria,” lournal of Applied Psychology, pp. 496—513.64 (;ornez-Mejia Ct al., Managing Human Resources.6 Sharon Leonard (July 2000), “The Baby Gap,”HRMagazine, pp. 368—370.66 Keith Hammonds, Roy Furchgott, Steve Hamm, and Paul ludge (September 1997), “Work andFamily,” Business Week, pp. 96--lOl.6’ Gillian Flynn and Sarah E Gale (October 2001), “The Legalities of Flextirne,” Work force, pp. 62—66.68 Jane Gibson and Dana Tesone (November 2001), “Management Fads: Emergence, Evolution, andImplications for Managers,” The Academy ofManagement Executive, pp. 122—1 33.“i Michael W. Piczak and Reuben Z. Hauser (May 1996), “Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide toImplementation,” Quality Progress, pp. 8 1—87.70 Nicholas F. Homey and Richard Koonce (December1995), “The Missing Piece in Reengineering,” Training and Development. pp. 37—43.Mary Watson was recently promoted to the position of regional sales manager for Today’s Fashion, anational chain of specialty clothing stores with 200 outlets across the country. Mary is the regionalmanager for the Pacific Coast, which is one of Today’s Fashion’s largest markets. She manages 35 outletsin California and Oregon; each of these outlets has a store manager who reports directly to Mary.Each outlet: has between three and five assistant store managers, depending on the number of specialtydepartments. Each assistant manager is responsible for one particular specialty department. Thesedepartments vary considerably in size and in the number of sales clerks reporting to the assistant manager.Because the chain’s success lies in being receptive to local customers tastes and buying habits, each storehas a different collection of merchandise, and several different combinations of departments can be foundin Mary’s region. The departments include casual wear, formal wear, shoes, cosmetics, and jewelry.Prior to being appointed to the regional sales manager position, Mary had been both a store manager andan assistant manager in a casual-wear department.While she was an assistant manager, Mary had oftenthought that she was responsible for many aspects of store management that other
  • 39. assistant managers were not held responsible for. In addition, she never really felt comfortable that herstore manager had clearly defined her areas of responsibility.Thus. despite the chain’s success, Mary feltthat there was considerable room for improvement in how Today’s Fashion was managed.As a result, oneof the first things Mary did after being appointed to the regional sales position was to initiate a jobanalysis for the job of assistant store manager.Mary had earned a BBA degree with a marketing emphasisfrom Wyoming State University. Although she had no formal training in job analysis, she was confidentthat she could construct an accurate and useful job description and specification for the assistant managerjob, primarily because of her personal experience with that position. However, rather than simply writingfrom her own experience, Mary interviewed three current assistant store managers from the outlet closestto her regional office in Sacramento. On the basis of these interviews and her own experience, Maryconstructed the job description and job specification shown in Exhibit I She hopes that these documentswill form the basis of a new selection program that she wants to implement for her region. She believesthat the best way to improve store management is to hire assistant store managers who are qualified toperform successfully.DISCUSSION QUESTIONSI. Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant store manager. Hasshe used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts?2. What kinds of factors about Today’s Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined moreseriously in order to improve her job analysis?3. Carefully read the job description and job specification that Mary prepared. Do they appear to bethorough? Do you think that they are adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How welldo you think these documents will work if Mary is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why?Job Title: Assistant Store ManagerReports to: Store ManagerGeneral Description of the Job.lanages the daily functions of a specialty department in the retail (iperatio s. The assistant storemanager has responsibilit v for customer service, supervision of saleselerks. training of new einph ivecs,inerchatidising, and maintenance of inventory.Principal Duties and Responsibilities• Assists customers in mcrrhandise sclecti ms, returns, and layaway as needed.2. (larilies any qiicstiu s or problems that a salesclerk encounters.S. Frains,cnordinates. directs, and supervises department salcsclcrks daily.4. Maintains inventory records.. Prepares the department for opening at the beginning of each day.Ensures that the department remains professionally organized and orderly.General Qualification RequirementsI—lzicati ,i:Minimum: Four-year college degree in marketing or related discipline from an accredited program.L x/wrieIuce:• Minimum: 5ux months to one year in a retail environment.2. Preferred: One to three years as a salesclerk for Today’s Fashion.Isiioivk’ilgc, skills, cilnliti’s:I . Basic math
  • 40. 2. Effective interpersonal skills. Good udgmeni and independent thought4. Self-starter/highly motivatedS. High integrity6. Good typing and computer skills•lvslcal reqiurelilents:Standing and walking required for more than 90 percent of work time.2. Ability to lift and can y boxes weighing approximately 15 pounds or less.Clark Kirby was justentering the office of the vice president of human resource management, Lois Yates. Clark had workedfor Gunther Manufacturing for 10 years in Los Angeles. After a short management training program,Clarkspent almost two years as•erating supervisor in a plant. After that, a position opened up in the HRdepartment. Clark hadmajored in personnel at California State University at Los Angeles and wanted to try HRM work. Hemoved up in the -department headquarters during the next seven years.Gunther was a growing firm. For a medium-sized operation, it had one of the fastest growth records in theindustry. Now Gunther as opening a new plant in e quickly expanding Tampa market.Lois had selected Clark to be the human resource manager for the Tampaplant.This was what Clark had been waiting for: achance to be on his own and to show what he could do for Lois, who had been very supportive of hiscareer, and for Gunther. He was very excited as heentered Lois’s office.Lois greeted him with, “Well, Clark, I hope you realize how much we arecounting on you in Tampa.Shortly you’ll be meetingyour new plant manager, Ed Humphrey.You’ll be workingr for him but responsible tome to see that Gunther’sHRM policies are carriedout.“The plant will be staffed initially with the followingemployees. These are, ineffect, your recruitingquotas:Managers 38Professional andtechnical 10Clerical 44Skilled employees 104Semiskilled employees 400You’ll receive a budget formaximum initial pay for this group shortly.“You and Ed shouldwork out the details.Youcan recruit some employeesfrom the home office andother plants, but excessive
  • 41. raiding is not allowed.Remember, too, thatGunther has an equalemployment opportunityproblem. Wherever possible, try to hire qualifiedminorities and women tohelp us meet our internalgoals. f“Your own HR officeconsists of yourself, one HR specialist to help you runthe empleyment office, andone clerical employee. Good cluck!” FClark quickly arranged afor a meeting with Ed, his vnew boss. Ed, about 50 gyears old, was a high school pgraduate who had started awith Gunther as a blue- ncollar employee when he uwas 18 years old.After 10years in various blue-collar Epositions, Ed became a fforeman. Eight years later he iwas selected as an assistant eto the plant manager. After eseveral years in this hposition, he was made one tIof three assistant plant nmanagers at a Gunther plant nin Chicago. He held thatposition until being given hthis new position of plantmanager at the Tampa plant.After introductions, C Clark and Ed talked. pClark Here are the figures t for employees that Lois gave e me. She also said we couldrecruit some people from p Gunther, but not to raidbeyond company policy. E Also. Lois said we needed to rr do an exceptional job ti recruiting minoritiesand u women because we have an a EEO problem. ti Ed Let’s get somethingstraight right off. You working for me now, not Lois. Here’s o a list of 20 manager I want F to take withme. It’s your a ‘job to persuade them tocome to Tampa with me. In in cases where my help mightpersuade some to comealong, call on me. But I’m very stressed now trying to get machinery ordered, the plant laid out, financingarranged, and so on. Call on me only When you must, understand?Oh, one more thing. That EEO *#/OX_you canforget that.The Tampa plant is going to be the mostefficient in the company, or else! And if that meanshiring the best workers and they all turn out to be white men, that’s tough, you get me? Keep me postedon what’s happening. Good to have you on board.
  • 42. After some thought,Clark decided to use job posting as a method ofattracting professional-technical and managerial employees at the LosAngeles office to the new plant in Tampa. He alsomade the personal contacts Ed asked for in recruiting managerial employees, and the skills inventory wasused to come up with more applicants. Clark contacted these also. He did not use job posting or the skillsinventory for clerical, skilled, or semiskilled employees. He knew that for Gunther, as with mostorganizations, these categories ofemployees rarely wish to(continued on next page)move to another location. I-Most companies don’t want t’to pay relocation costs for hthese categories of aemployment, either. r Clark went to Tampa andset up the employmentoffice at the new location. ‘ He ran an ad in Tampa’s F afternoon paper and placed a job listing with aprivateemployment agency for theHR specialist and clerk- atypist for his office.Then he a,hired these two employees pand set up the office to areceive walk-ins. He irprovided application blanks . band policy guidelines on nwhen selection would I proceed. Clark listed the available spositions with the U.S. vEmployment Service. Healso contacted private in agencies. He selected the hi private agencies after calling cc a number of HRmanagers w in the Tampa area in similar w businesses who were also hi members of the Society of tFHuman ResourceManagement.The HR a specialist notified all thevocational-technical schools, a junior colleges, and colleges t[Ii L.4in the Tampa area. Also, all high school guidancecounseling departmentswere notified. Clarkwondered what other media he ought to use to publicize the positions.Clark found out quickly, as you will find in thischapter, that recruftment is a little more complicated than he originally thought.Before an organization can fill a job vacancy, it must find people who not only are qualified for theposition but also want the job. This chapter descril)es the recruiting process as one of the ways that anorganization can deal with shortages in its human resources needs. Recruitment refers to organizationalactivities that iiifluence the number and types of applicants who apply for a job and whether theapplicants accept jobs that are offered. I Thus, recruitment is directly related to both human reour e
  • 43. planning and selection. En addition, recruiting often represents the first coti— tact between organizationsand prospective employees. As such, care should be taken to create a positive hrst impression with thesejob applications.Although recruitment can be quite expensive, organizations have not always treated it as systematically aother HR functions, such as selection. l)uring the coming years, however, the importance of recruitmentwill probably increase for many organizations. Even with a modest rise in recession-based unemploymentat the beginning of the 21st century. fears of a looming tight labor market in the United States continue toplague organizations of all sizes..2 I)riven by the inevitable retirements of baby hoomers and fewernumbers of young people entering into the work- force, the labor shortage has caused many companies todevelop retention strategies to hold onto their valued employees. For example, Hewlett—Packard Co. andCharles Schwab Corp. have preferred freezes or cut pay to avoid layoffs.4 Despite the fact thatorganizational layoffs reached a 10-year high at the end of the 1990s, experts anticipate a growingnumber of iabor shortages in high-skills areas.Exhibit 7—1 shows how the recruiting process is affected liv various factors in the environment. Therecruiting process begins with an attempt to find employees with the abilities and attitudes desired lw theorganization and to match them with the tasks to he performed. Whether potential employees viIl respondto the recruiting effort depends on the attitudes they have developed toward those tasks and theorganization on the basis of their past social and working experiences. Their percepnon of the task willalso he affecte.l liv the work climate in the organization and the Important interaction of the organizationas a recruiter and the employee as a recruit is examined in the next section.Government and Union Restrictionsgovernment regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have INFLUENCES 1direct impact on recruiting practices. As described in derail in (chapter 3, government agencies can anddo review the following information about recruiting to see1 [I organization has violated the law:• List of recruitment sources (such as employment agencies, civicorganizations, schools) for each job category.• Recruiting advertising.• Estimates of the employment needs k)r the coming ear.Source: Kenneth Sovereign (1999). Personnel Law. 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall),pp. 46—51; Gerord Panoro (1990), Employment Law Manual (Boston: Warren, Gorham, andLamont), pp. 1—10.• Statistics on the number of applicants processed by demographic category (sex, race, and SO on) and byjob category or level.• Checklists to show what evidence was used to verify the legal right to work.Although there is no guaranteed way to avoid legal entanglements associated with recruiting, Exhibit 7—2 provides some basic principles of sound recruiting practices.The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 has placed a major responsibility onemployers for stopping the floW of illegal immigration to the United States. The employer—not thegovernment—is the chief enforcer of the prohibition against the unauthorized recruitment andemployment of foreign-horn individuals. ’ Under the law’s “employer sanctions” arrangement, allemployers are required to screen every applicant’s eligibility for lawful employment and maintain recordsdemonstrating employment authorization.The IRCA is a complex piece of legislation, but its basic features fit into four broad categories:‘—i’ Employer’s duty not to recruit, hire, or continue to employ “unauthorized aliens.”2. Employer’s duty to verify the identity and work authorization of every new employee.‘L_3 Employer’s duty not to discriminate on the basis of citizenship or national origin._4. Amnesty rights of certain illegal aliens who are eligible to achieve temporary or permanent residentstatus in the country.Despite the difficulty that organizations have determining whether a worker is legally employable, the
  • 44. government is currently planning to step up its enforcement of the IRCA. Additional money will be spenton hiring more investigators, attorneys, and support staff, but some money will also he devoted toensuring that legal applicants are not discriminated against because of the stepped-up enforcementactivities.Labbr Market ConditionsAnother external environmental factor affecting recruiting is labor market conditions (these weredescribed in some detail in Chapter 2). If there is a surplus of Iabor at recruiting time, even informalattempts at recruiting will probably attract Post notices regarding the availability of a job.1. .lENT Publish a list of qualifications necessary to fill the job. Distinguish between essential2. qualifications and desirable ones.3. Do not rely only on word—of-mouth sources (if recruits. Use recruiting sources that will reach the greatest number of potential applicants in the job4. market. g wary of establishing qualifications that might directly or indirectly exclude members of5. protected groi.i PS.6. Be sure the job qualifications are applied to every applicant in a consistent manner.
  • 45. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, unemployment in the United States has recently hit record low levelsand, despite massive layoffs in some industries, experts are predicting no end to critical shortages ofskilled labor. These shortages are expected to be especially acute in high-tech industries such ascomputers and wireless communications. To remainmpetitive, organizations in these industries must find new innovative ways to identify, attract, and hirepeople withthe skills needed. Clearly, the Internet is one of the tools being used more and more frequently to satisfythese difficult recruiting goals.Recently, there has been another twist to Internet use in organizational recruitment and selection.Thetalent auction has arrived. The largest job posting site in the world,, has added anothercapability to its Internet services. Contract and temporary workers can now register at the website, andorganizations are given the opportunity to bid against one another for a given worker. A similar onlineauction site dedicated solely to high-tech talent can be found at littleresearch has been conducted to assess the success of these recruiting innovations, there appears to be aconsiderable organizational interest in the concept.It should be kept in mind that in spite of the meteoric e in the use of the Internet for recruitment and jobsearch activities,Web postings still only representapproximately 2 percent of all job listings. In addition, the unwary user should not be lulled into believingthat the Internet can easily replace other forms of recruiting. For example, it is difficult if not impossiblefor an organization to capture the degree of fit between an applicant’spersonality and the organization’s culture from an electronic resume alone.At the same time,organizations that do not begin to capitalize on the Internet might soon findthemselves at a competitive disadvantage. In addition, new developments occur almost daily that makethe Internet more effective. One way to stay current regarding online recruiting is to enroll in Internet-based courses that teach the latest in advanced online recruiting techniques. Such courses are availablefrom a variety of verdors, including content at Recruiting- Online includes the following “how-tos”: build a candidate database,manage contact with thousands of passive jobseeker candidates, take advantage of newsgroups andlistservs, find resumes of people with any skill set or in any location in the world, and obtain e-mailaddresses of employees at companies that are merging or downsizing. Chances are virtual recruiting ishere to stay.more than enough applicants. However, when full employment is nearly reached in an area, skillful andprolonged recruiting may be necessary to attract any applicants who fulfill the expectations of theorganization. Obviously, how many applicants are available also depends on whether the economy isgrowing. When companies are not creating new jobs, there is often an oversupply of qualified labor.An employer can find out about the current employment picture in several ways. The federal Departmentof Labor issues employment reports, and state divisi ofls of efriployrnent security and labor usually canprovide information about specific types of employees. There are also sources of information on localemployment conditions as they affect their members. Current college recruiting efforts are analyzed bythe Conference Board, A. C. Nielsen, and the Endicort Report, which appears in the Journal of CollegePlacement. Various personnel journals, the Month/-v Labor Review, and The Wall Street Journal alsoregularly report on employment conditions
  • 46. Composition of Labor Force and Location of OrganizationThe influence of FIRM law on activities was noted in Chapter 3. As the number of legal requirements hasincreased, it has become important for an organization to anal‫غ‬ze the composition of its workfor . Suchan analysis is done to determine whether the hrni’s employment practices are discriminatory.The location of the organization and the relevant labor market will play a major role in the CompoSitionof the workforce. That is, the number of African American, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, NativeAmerican, or Alaskan native employees in the workforce depends largely on the availability of theseminority employees in the relevant labor market.Regardless of the location of the organization, an aggressive diversity management program will beessential for organizations entering the 21st century. Due in part to skills shortages, progressiveorgamzations now ul7derstand that effective diversity management is an integral strategic tool forenhancing competitiveness. For diversity management to work, however, it must be valued by theorganization. But for those organizations such as Allstate Insurance with the foresight to embracediversity, the benefits can be tremendous in terms of outcomes ranging from higher1ItI’ tfl I I(’tP1 (11crc11l1r ci ticfntiin XINTERACTIONS After considering how external factors such as government, unions, labor market OFTHE RECRUIT conditions, composition of the workforce, and location of the organization restrict ANDTHE recruiting options, the next step in understanding the recruiting process is to consider the interactionbetween the applicants and the organization in recruiting.ORGANIZATION In Exhibit 7—2 (the diagnostic model), the nature of the organization and thegoals of the managers are highlighted, as is the nature of the task. The techniques used and sources ofrecruits vary with the job. As far as the applicants are concerned, their abilities and past work experienceaffect how they go about seeking a job.The Organization’s View of RecruitingSeveral aspects affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: the recruiting requirements set,organizational policies and procedures, and the organization’s image.Recruiting requirements The recruiting process necessarily begins with a detailed oh description andjob specification.’ Xithout these, it is impossible for recruiters to determine how well any particularapplicant fits the job. It should be made clear to the recruiter which requirements are absolutely essentialand which arc merely desirable. This can help the organization avoid unrealistic expectations for potentialemployees: An employer might expect applicants who stand first in their class, are presidents ofextracurricular activities, have worked their way through school, are good-looking, have 10 years’experience (at age 21), and are willing to work long hours for almost no money. Contrasting with thisunrealistic approach, the effective organization examines the specifications that are absolutely necessaryfor the job. Then it uses these as its beginning expectations for recruits (see the sections on oL analysis,job description, and job specifications in Chapter 6).Organizational policies and practices In some organizations,IIRM policies and prctices affect recruitingand who is recruited. One of the most significant of these is promotion from within. Fdr all practicalpurposes, this policy means that many nrganizations recruit from outside the organization only at theinitial hiring level.
  • 47. Most employees favor this approach. They feel this is tair to present loyal employ— ees and assures themof a secure future and a fair chance at promotion. Some employers also feel this practice helps protecttrade secrets. The techniques used for inrernal recruiting will be discussed later in this chapter.Is promotion from within a good policy Not always. An organization ma become SO stable that it is setin its vavs. The business does not compete effectively, or the government bureau will not adjust tolegislative requirements. In such cases, promotion from within may be detrimental, and new employeesfrom outside might be helpful.Other policies cait also affect recruiting. Certain organizations have always hired more than their fairshare of the disabled, veterans, or ex-convicts, for example, and they may look to these sources first.Others i1ay be involved in nepotism and favor relatives. All these policies affect who is recruited.Organizational image The image of the employer generally held by the public can affect recruitment. Allelse being equal, it should be easier for an organizationwith a positive corporate image to attract and retain employees than an organization with a negativeimage. 0 Thus, for those organizations that reach the top of Fortune magazine’s “most admired” list, suchas Coca-Cola or the most recent two— time winner, General Electric, I the time and effort needed torecruit high—quality workers may be less than for competitors who rank poorly. Recruitment should alsobe somewhat easier for companies that exude a strong cumulate presence or positive flame recognition.In sum, the ideal job specifications preferred by an organization may have to be adjusted to meet therealities of the labor market, government, or union restrictions, the limitations of its policies and practices,and its image. If an inadequate number of high—quality people apply, the organization may have toadjust the job to fit the best applicant or increase its recruiting efforts.The Potential Employee’s View of RecruitingExhibit 7—i highlighted several factors relevant to how a recruit looks for a job. The incant has abilities,attitudes, and preferences based on past work experiences and influences of parents, teachers, and others.These factors affect recruits in two Ways: how they set their job preferences, and how they go aboutseeking a job. Understanding these is vital to effective recruiting.Preferences of recruits for organizations and jobs Just as organizations have ideal speciation forrecruits, SO do recruits have a set of preferences for jobs. A student leaving college generally expects toobtain a job that actually requires college-level education and skills. The graduate might also have stronggeographic preferences and expectations about salary and may anticipate that advancement will occurrapidly. However, such a recruit is not necessarily going to nd her or his ideal job. Although the Bureauof Labor Statistics predicts that the total number of college- level job openings between NOW and 2008will nearly equal rhe number of college- educated entrants to the labor force, there yill still beapproximately 6 million college graduates either unemployed or underemployed (i.e., working inpositions that Jo not require a bachelors degree). For example, significant numbers of college radiateswill Likely he working as retail sales employees, food preparers and wavers, motor vehicle operators, andin administrative support roles. Recruits also face barriers to Iinding their ideal job, harriers created 1weconomic conditions,
  • 48. HRMEM0 Americas Job Fank is a coo perative eflbrt between theU.S. Deportment of Labor and the Public Employment Service. Currently, it lists over 1.4 million job openings for job seekers.Source: government and union restrictions, and the limits of organizational policies and practices. The recruit must anticipate compromises, just as the organization must. From the individual’s point of view, choosing an organization involves at least two major steps. First, the individual chooses an occupation—perhaps in high school or early in college. Then she or he chooses the organization to work for within that broader occupation. What factors affect the choice of occupation and organization? Obviously, there are many, many factors that influence these decisions. But a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that occupational choice is most heavily influenced by parents, followed by teachers, career counselors, friends, and relatives.’4 As previously mentioned, choice of an organization might be influenced by corporate image. Additionally, many recruits prefer larger, well-established firms over smaller organizations.1 Research also suggests that satisfaction with the communication process in recruitment is critical to attracting applicants. 16 In reality, however, this decision isn’t always purely rational; it is also affected by unconscious processes, chance, and luck. Job search and finding a job: The recruit People who are successful at finding the “right job” tend to follow similar research processes. It is not always enough to simply be in the right place at the right time. The effective job searcher creates opportunities in a systematic way. An effective job search involves several steps including self-assessment, information gathering, networking, targeting specific jobs, and successful self-presentation. ‘ The job search is a process that begins with self-assessment. The purpose pf self-assessments is for job searchers to recognize their career goals and their strengths and weaknesses, interests and values, and preferred lifestyles. This information is used later in the search to help the applicant assess whether there is a fit with a particular job offer. The assessment is similar to what organizational recruiters will be doing, hut from the perspective of the applicant. Information gathering and networking are methods for generating lists of p0- tential employers and jobs. Sources of information include newspapers, trade publications, college recruitment offices, and organizational “insiders.” Many questions about possible employers must be answered before a list of alternatives can he generated. 1. Do I have a size preference: small, medium, or large, or no particular size? 2. Do I have sector preference (private, not for profit, or public sector)? 3. What kinds of industries interest me? This question is usually based on interests in products or services. Do 1 prefer working with mechanical objects or counseling people? This is a crucial question. 4. Have I checked to make sure that the sector, product, or service has a good future and will lead to growth and opportunity? Once these kinds of questions have been answered, the job seeker can generate a list of prospective employers using a wide variety of sources including fleVSpapers, personal contacts, and the Internet. When the job seeker has decided where he or she will send a resume, self-presentation becomes critical. Research suggests that recruiters want to see a resume and cover letter that is tailored to the position ,,,,-l : 8 T1,1 rr,uir rciinw should include these items, in order of
  • 49. C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment1. Position you seek.2. Your specific job objectives.3. Your career objectives.4. Reason you seek employment.5. An indication that you know something about the organization.Unfortunately for the organizational recruiter, not all job seekers provide truthful resumes.’ A surveyconducted by Reid Psychological Systems found that as many as 95 percent of college students arewilling to he less than truthful about themselves when they are searching for a job.2° And with the use ofresume databases constantly increasing as an initial screening tool,21 the temptation to embellish one’sown qualifications might be difficult to ignore. But job seekers need to understand that in the long runlittle can be gained from such practices, especially since falsification of an application is typicallygrounds for dismissal.• Successful job seekers also prepare carefully for job interviews. They do their “homework” and learn asmuch about the company as possible. In addition, they use “impression management” tactics to theiradvantage.22 Although it is not a good idea to present an unrealistic picture of one’s qualifications,interviewers are strongly influenced by an applicant’s interpersonal and communication styles during theinterview. In fact, characteristics such as these are primary determinants of recruiters’ firm-specificjudgments about an applicant’s suitability.2Once an organization has decided it needs additional or replacement employees, it is faced with thedecision of how to generate the necessary applications. The organization can look to sources internal tothe company and, if necessary, to sources external to the company. Most organizations have to use bothinternal and external ources to generate a sufficient number of applicants. Whenever there is anmadequate supply of labor and skills inside the organization, it must effectively “get its message across”to external candidates. It is here that the organization’s choice of a particular method of recruitment canmake all the difference in the success of the re •uiti efforts.nternaI Recruitingob posting Organizations can make effective use of skills inventories for identifying nternal applicantsfor job vacancies. It is difficult, however, for HR managers to be vare of all current employees whomight he interested in the vacancy. To help with this problem, they use an approach called job postingand bidding.In the past, job posting was little more than the use of bulletin boards and company publications foradvertising job openings. Today, however, job posting has become one of the more innovative recruitingtechniques being used by organizations. Many companies now see job posting as an integrated componentof an eftective career management system.A model job posting program was implemented at National Semiconductor. OStings are computerizedand easily accessible to employees. Computer software ilows the employees o match an available jobwith their skills and experience. It hen highlights where gaps exist SO the employees know what isnecessarY if they wish to be competitive for a given job.24 Amoco’s career management system includesa similar type of job posting program. Openings in this organization are
  • 50. PA K T II Acquiring Human Resourcesposted on a worldwide electronic system. If an employee applies for a transfer to a posted position and isturned down, then the person who posted the job is requireti to send the “applicant” specific feedbackabout why he or she was not selected.1Inside moonlighting and employees’ friends If there is a short-term shortage, or if no great amount ofadditional work is necessary, the organization can use inside moonlighting. It could offer to pi’ bonusesof various types to people not on a time payroll to entice workers into wanting to take on a “second job.Nationally, it is estimated that approximately 6 percent of all employed people have held more than onejob at the same tiIlle.2b Moonlighting is so common at some Organizations that HR departments considerissiing “moonlighting policies’ that include the communication of performance expectations, preventionof conflict of interest, and protection of proprietary information.2 ihus, Some persons will clearly bemotivated to accept the additional work if they are fairly compensated.Before going outside to recruit, many organizations ask present employees to encourage friends orrelatives to apply. Sonic organizations even offer “finders fees” in the form of monetary incentives for asuccessful referral. When used wisely, referrals of this kind can be a powerful recruiting technique.Organizations must be careful, however, not to accidentally violate equal employment laws while they areusing employee referrals. For example, in EEOC i l)ctroit Ediso,z (1 975),2X the U.S. Court of Appeals,Sixth Circuit, found a history of racial discrimination that was related to recruitment. The court stated:The practice of relying on relerrals by a predominantly white worktorce rather thanseeking new employees in the iiiarketplace for jobs was found to be discriiiinating.This case suggests that employee referrals should be used cautiously, especially if the workforce isalready racially or culturally imbalanced. it also suggests that it might not be wise to rely exclusively onreferrals but rather to use them as supplements to other kinds of recruiting activities.External RecruitingWhen an organization has exhausted its internal supply of applicants, it must turn to external sources tosupjilement its workforce. Research indicates that walk-ins provide an important external source ofapplicants. As labor shortages increase, however, organizations are becoming more proactive in theirrecruitment efforts.A number of methods are available for external recruiting. Media advertising, c-recruiting, employmentagencies, executive search firms, special-events recruiting, and summer internships are discussed here.There is also a separate section on college recruitment of potential managers and professionals.Media advertisements Organizations advertise to acquire recruits. Various media are used, the mostcommon being help—wanted ads in daily newspapers. Organizations also advertise for people in tradeand professional publications. Other media used are billboards,, subway and bus cards, radio, telephone,and television. Some job seekers do a reverse twist; the’ advertise for a situation wanted and rewardanyone who tips them off about a job.In developing a recruitment advertisement., a good place to begin is with the corporate image. GeneralMills used its Trix cereal logo to create instant recognition among MBA graduates. The ad featured theTrix rabbit with the headline, “It’s Not Kid Stuff Anymore.” The copy continued, “Now you’re au MBAwho’s look—
  • 51. ing for a dynamic growth-directed career environment . . . Look to General Mills. Because it’s not kidstuff anymore. It’s your Future. “Simply using a corporate logo is not enough, however. Effective recruiting ad:ertising is consistent withthe overall corporate image; that is, the advertisement is -een as an extension of the companY. Therefore,it must be representative of the values that the corporation is seeking in its employees. Apple Computer’sadvertising campaign has been very successful, in large part because it has achieved this congruence. °An innovative way to attract nurses was used in an ad campaign for Children’s 1-lospital Medical Centerin Cincinnati. The ad appealed to nurses’ sense of pride in themselves and their profession. The ad ran inthe Cincinnati Engineer newspaper. I lie headlines—”Nurses are smart and they know how to make youfeel better,” urses are there to make sure you don’t get real scared,” “Nurses arc kind and hey don’t laughwhet’ you cry”—were written in a child’s handwriting and coinhitied with pictUres of nurses andchildren in the style of a child’s drawing.Another innovative way to attract prospective employees with particular skills• he use of recorded want- ads. Want ad recordings were used by 40 companies recruiting engineers andscientists at a New York City convention. At a special recruiting center, job hunters were able to pick up atelephone and hear a three-minute taped recruiting message that included a jol description and detailsabout how to ntact the company.Help-wanted ads must he carefully prepared. Media must be chosen, coded for-rudy, and analyzed for impact afterward. If the organization’s name is not used and a box number issubstituted, the impact may not be as great, hut if the name is used, too many applicants may appear, andscreening procedures for too many people can be costly. This is a difficult decision to make in preparingrecruitment advertisements.In addition, ads need to comply with EEO requirements and not violate the law. For example, HRrecruiters find that including diversity in recruitment ads helps to attract more employees from diversepopulations.’’ Ads need to he written to ivoid indicating preferences for a particular race, religion, orgender or a particular ::,ce of national origin. The advertisement shown in Exhibit 7—3 is the type thatwill care trouble for a firm. Look at the questions that could he raised by this ad.E-Recruiting Perhaps no method has ever had as revolutionary an effect on orgam/ .itional recruitmentpractices--as the Internet. According to Forresrer Research of
  • 52. Cambridge, Massachusetts, there are approximately 30,000 different websites devoted in some manner tojob posting activities.33 The largest job-placement websites have reported huge increases iii the numberof resumes that were posted in 2001. For example, listed 8.3 million resumes, whileCareerBuildcr.corn indicated that it listed 2.0 million. Overall, the c-recruiting market in the United Statesin expected to grow from just $500 million in 2000 to $4.5 billion in 2004. Quite obviously, the Internethas become one of the most prominent of all worldwide recruiting methods. It has become such animportant source of job search information that GTE Corporation (Verizon) now receives between 20,000and 30,000 e-mail resumes each year. Current estimates are that over 95 percent of all U.S. companiesnow utilize the Internet for some or all of their recruitment-related activities.3There are many reasons for the popularity of the Internet as a method of recruitment. From theorganization’s perspective, it is a relatively inexpensive way to attract qualified applicants. For example,using an executive search firm might cost an organization as much as one-third of a position’s first-yearsalary as a commission. A large, multicolored advertisement in a professional journal can easily cost$10,000 or more. Compare these figures with the cost of using the “post a job express” option ( in wbch a job is posted for 60 days in a single geographiclocation at a cost of about $300. This c-recruiting option provides almost immediate access to thousandsof prospective applicants.From the job seeker’s perspective, the Internet allows for searches over a broader array of geographic andcompany postings than was ever before possible. To assist them, job searchers can use any number of thefollowing Internet-based job searching websites (for more information, see• www.HotJobs.corn—Search by career field, location, and company.• www.CareerBuilder.corn—Search by location, job title, keyword, and salary.•—Leading technology job hoard with permanent and contract jobs.• iuww.FlipDog.corn—Search thousands of employment opportunities gathered directly fromorganizations’ websites.•—Search for jobs, post your resume, and review career resources.• wwttjobson1zne.corn—Search job postings, find samples of resumes and cover letters, seek careeradvice, and use a salary calculator.• u’ww.NationJob.corn—Job listings will be identified and sent to personal e-mail addresses.There are other online services, such as CareerPath.Com (, which catalogsmore than 100,000 traditional newspaper recruiting ads from large newspapers across the United States inone easily searchable datahas. Finally, there are many other, more specialized online sites that focus onjobs in particular areas such as health care, higher education, and federal employment.37Organizations are also beginning to see that having their own human resources Web page on the Internetcan he an effective a,ddition to their overall recruitment strategy. A typical organizational home page willprovide background
  • 53. HR JouRNAL E-REcIUJITING: A WONDERFUL TOOL BUT NOT WITHOUT ITS RISKSMany would agree that the Web has revolutionized job 3 hunting and recruitment in the 21st century.Currently, employers can eIectroncally screen candidates’ softattributes, direct potential hires to a special website for online skills assessment, conduct backgroundchecks over the Internet, interview candidates via videoconferencing, and manage the entire process withWeb-based software.Companies are very excited and amazed at the potential cost savings, speed enhancement, and extendedworldwide candidate reach such approaches offer. Although suchinnovations are welcomed at a time of skills shortages and pressures to control internal costs, there arelegal risks associated with the unbridled use of e-recruiting.HR managers and company recruiters need to keep the following issues in mind when developing andexecuting an e-recruitment program:I. Be careful not to inadvertently screen out diverse candidates. Many recruiters, in an attempt to avoidbeing deluged by resumes, use screening software that searches for (or deletes based on) certain words orphrases.The legal risk can involve either poor selection of resume-screening software and/or using terms thatdisproportionately eliminate candidates from protected classes.Make sure the job opening is communicated to large portions of the target population. If the targetpopulation for a given opening includes people of all ages, then company recruiters need to get themessage out to those a individuals who are less likely to be Internet-savvy and a use the online job searchwebsites. For example, younger r people will be more likely to be online, more so than s olderindividuals, If recruiters don’t use traditionalmethods of job posting along with Internet-basedapproaches, they run the risk of creating adverse impact in their recruiting methods.3. Recruiters need to figure out a way to track applicants who apply for online job postings. The Office ofFederal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) requires companies that do business with the federalgovernment to keep track of applicant flow data (e.g., type and number of individuals who apply fordifferent jobs). Due to the ease of sending an electronic resume, recruiters sometimes find this trackingprocess to be a daunting task.The legal risk to employers is that they do not maintain adequate recordsand fail to be withincompliance of the OFCCP.4. E-mail communication might be too casual. Whenindividuals communicate via e-mail to potentialcandidates, there can be a tendency to disclose more information than they typically would usingnewspaper ads or other more traditional recruiting techniques.This relative informality in thecommunication process could lead to the recruiter saying something that could come back to haunt themif the candidate does not get the job. In addition, the candidate has written documentation to show whatthe recruiter wrote.The legal risk is that candidates may assume that they did not get the job due to adiscriminatory reason and may file a complaint with the recruiting manager’s supervisor or even theEEOC.s Even with the existence of these legal risks, all signs indicate that e-recruiting is here to stay. As withother important aspects of good management practice, recruiters and HR managers are encouraged to usee-recruiting in an appropriate way to increase the attraction and selectionr rates of well-qualified individuals.Sources: Gillian Flynn (April 2002), “E-recruiting Ushers in LegalDangers,” Work force, pp. 70—72; Bill Leonard (August 2000), “Online andOverwhelmed,” HRMagazine, pp. 36—42;Jerry Useem (July l999),’ForSale Online:You,” Fortune, pp. 66—78.
  • 54. P A R T I I Acquiring Human ResourcesEmployment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose, employment agenciesand executive search firms differ in many important ways. Executive search firms tend to concentratetheir efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50,000, while agencies dealprimarily with middle- level management or below. Most executive search firms are on retainer, whichmeans that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. In contrast,agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. Finally, executive searchfirms usually charge higher fees for their services. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to paythese higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts whilemaintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited.39Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organizationis new or not well known, some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potentialemployees. They may stage open houses, schedule visits to headquarters, provide literature, and advertisethese events in appropriate media. To attract professionals, organizations may have hospitality suites atprofessional meetings. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get theorganization’s image across. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses andsponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer.One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. A group of firms sponsors a meeting orexhibition at which each has a booth to puhlicie jobs available. Though sometimes challenging to managein times of higher unemployment,40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percentusing these methods. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at thattime or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. This technique is especiallyuseful for smaller, less well known employers. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particulararea and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. For example, a recent job fair held inVirginia was able to generate 4,000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation.41 And, yes,there is an Internet site to help the recruit. The website search/cfairs provides currentlistings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States.Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has beentried I’v organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part time during the school year.The list of organizations using intern- ships is extensive; it includes AT&T General Motors, most majoraccounting firms, the life insurance industry, and so forth. The use of internships is, in fact, dramaticallyincreasing. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universitieswill have one or more internship experiences before graduation. 42 Internship programs have a number ofpurposes. They allow organizations to get specific projects done, expose themselves to talented potentialemployees who may become their “recruiters” at school, and provide trial-run employment to determineif they want to hire particular people full time.4The realities of the job market of the I 990s have also introduced two new reasons for internshipprograms. First, many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where thereare labor shortages. To do so, companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actuallybegin identifEmployment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose, employment agenciesand executive search firms differ in many important ways. Executive search firms tend to concentratetheir efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50,000, while agencies dealprimarily with middle- level management or below. Most executive search firms are on retainer, whichmeans that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. In contrast,agencies are usually paid only when they havc actually provided a new hire. Finally, executive searchfirms usually charge higher fees for their services. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to paythese higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts whilemaintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited.39Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organizationis new or not well known, some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential
  • 55. employees. They may stage open houses, schedule visits to headquarters, provide literature, and advertisethese events in appropriate media. To attract professionals, organizations may have hospitality suites atprofessional meetings. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get theorganization’s image across. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses andsponsored cultural evcnts to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer.One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. A group of firms sponsors a meeting orexhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. Though sometimes challenging tomanage in times of higher unemployment,40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80percent using these methods. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are homeat that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. This technique isespecially useful for smaller, less well known employers. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in aparticular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. For example, a recent job fairheld in Virginia was able to generate 4,000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation.41 And,yes, there is an Internet site to help the recruit. The website search/cfairs providescurrent listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States.Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has beentried by organizations is to hire students as interns during thc summer or part time during the school ycar.The list of organizations using intern- ships is extensive; it includes AT&T, General Motors, most majoraccounting firms, the life insurance industry, and so forth. The use of internships is, in fact, dramaticallyincreasing. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universitieswill have one or more internship experiences before graduation. 42 Internship programs have a number ofpurposes. They allow organizations to get specific projects done, expose themselves to talented potentialemployees who may become their “recruiters” at school, and provide trial—run employment to determineif the want to hire particular people full time.43The realities of the job market of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcaSOflS for internshipprograms. First, many organizations now see them as a wa to attract the best people in areas where thereare labor shortages. To do so, compaiiies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actuallybegin identifEmployment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose, employment agenciesand executive search firms differ in many important ways. Executive search firms tend to concentratetheir efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50,000, while agencies dealprimarily with middle- level management or below. Most executive search firms are on retainer, whichmeans that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. In contrast,agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. Finally, executive searchfirms usually charge higher fees for their services. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to paythese higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in thçir recruiting efforts whilemaintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting oranizarion and the person being recruitedSpecial-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organizationis new or nor well known, some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potentialeiriployees. They may stage open houses, schedule visits to headquarters, provide literature, and advertisethese events in appropriate media. To attract professionals, organizations may have hospitality suites atprofessional meetings. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get theorganization’s image across. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses andsponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer.One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. A group of firms sponsors a meeting orexhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. Though sometimes challenging tomanage in times of higher unemployment,40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80percent using these methods. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are homeat that rime or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. This technique isespecially useful for smaller, less well known employers. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in aparticular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. For example, a recent job fairheld in Virginia was able to generate 4,000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation.41 And,yes, there is an Internet site to help the recruit. The website search/cfairs provides
  • 56. current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States.Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has beentried Lw organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part rime during the school year.The list of organizations using intern- ships is extensive; it includes AT&T, General Motors, most majoraccounting firms, the life insurance industry, and so forth. The use of internships is, in fact, dramaticallyincreasing. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universitieswill have one or more internship experiences before graduation. 42 Internship programs have a number ofpurposes. They allow organizations to get specific projects done, expose themselves to talented potentialemployees who may become their “recruiters” at school, and provide trial—run employment to determineif they want to hire particular people full time.4The realities of the job marker of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcasons for internshipprograms. First, many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where thereare labor shortages. To do so, companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actuallybegin identify talented students in their senior year in high school, help them with college expenses, andprovide paid work experiences. Their hope is to develop a lasting relationship with these talented youngpeople.44A second new reason that organizations are using more internships is to improve the diversity of theirrecruitment efforts. Many companies claim that they want to he more aggressive in recruiting minoritiesbut say that the competition for talented people is severe. To help, Inroads Inc. of Saint Louis locates andplaces high-performing minority students in internship programs. Inroads has working relationships withorganizations in 33 different states. Its major supporters include NationsBank, GE Capital Services, andAT&T.4From i-be student’s point of view, the summer internship means a job with pay; NCR, for example,provides students with approximately 600 paid internships each year.4” An internship can also mean realwork experience for the student; a possible future job; a chance to use one’s talents in a realisticenvironment; and in some. cases, earning course credit hours. In a way, it is a short form of some co-op college work and studyprograms.There are costs to these programs, of course. Sometimes the interns take up a lot of supervisory time, andtheir work is not always the best. But the major prob1cm some organizanons have encountered concernsthe expectations of students. Seine students expect everything to be perfect at work. When it is not, theyget negative impressions about the organization they have worked for, assuming that it is less wellorganized than others in the field. Such disillusioned students become re vers recruiters. -College recruiting There is a growing gap between the skills that organizations will need over the nextseveral years and those currently possessed by potential employees. College recruiting can be extremelydifcult, time-consuming, and expensive for the organization. Nonetheless, recruiters generally believe thatcollege recruiting is me of the most effective ways of identifying talented employees.4 All this suggeststhat college recruiting will continue to play an important role in organizations’ overall recruitmentstrategies, but that organizations will be careful about controlling expenses.The college recruiting process is similar in some ways to other recruiting. However, in college recruiting,the organization sends an employee, usually called a recruiter, to a campus to interview candidates anddescribe the organization to them. Coinciding with the visit, brochures and other literature about theorganization arc often distributed. The organization may also run ads to attract students or may conductseminars at which company executives talk about various facets of the organization.In the typical procedure, those seeking employment register at the college placement service. Thisplacement service is a labor market exchange providing opportunities for students and employers to meetand discuss potential hiring. During the recruiting season (from about mid-October to mid-March),candidates are advised of scheduled visits through student newspapers, mailings, bulletin hoards, and SOforth. At the placement service, they reserve preliminary interviews with employers they want to see andare given brochures arid other literature about the
  • 57. Students who are invited to the site are given more job information and meet appropriate potentialsupervisors and other executives. They are entertained and may he given a series of tests as well. Theorganization bears all expenses. If the organization wants to hire an individual, he or she is given an offerbefore leaving the site or shortly thereafter by mail or phone.4X Some bargaining may take place onsalary and benefits, depending on the current labor market. The candidate then decides whethetto acceptor reject the offer.As with other forms of recruiting, organizations are becoming more creative in their use of colleges anduniversities. Many of the changes are designed to reduce overall recruiting costs while maintaining astrong flow of applicants into the organization. The trcnd seems to he for an organization to develop astronger, ongoing relationship with a relatively select number of schools. For example, Monsanto recentlycut the size of its university recruiting list by 50 percent, and it may reduce the size of that list evenfurther—down to as few as 10 or 12 schools—for its recruiting activities in engineering. This reductionis, in part, made possible by Monsanto’s increased activity in internship programs.49The effective college recruiter Various people influence the applicant during the process of choosing ajob: peers, family, spouse, friends, and professors. One of the most important influences remains,however, the recruiter. The recruiter is the filter and the matcher, the one who is actually ‘seen by theapplicants and is viewed as an exte4- sion of the organization. The recruiter is seen as a primary exampleof the kind of person the organization values and wants to attract in the futUre.For these reasbns, recruiters must be carefully chosen• b the organization. Good recruiters convey’ animage and appearance that reflects fa1vorably on the organization. They must he outgoing, self-motivated, and obviously good salespeople. In addition, however, good recruiters also possess well-developed interpersonal skills because part of their responsibility should be to determine why job offersare accepted or rejected by candidates. Finally, recruiters should be very familiar with the company theyrepresent, fcirat least two reasons. First, applicants want to discuss opportunities with someone theyperceive to be knowledgeable about the company. Second, the recruiters need to be able to determinewhether the applicant will fit into the value system of the organization.Students prefer recruiters who have work experience in their specialties and have some personalknowledge of the university they are visiting. Students’also have preferences for specific behavior duringthe recruiting interview. Characteristics they want most in the recruiter are friendliness, knowledge,personal interest in the applicant, and truthfulness. Some’ ipplicants prefer enthusiastic andknowledgeable communicators.’°MajG.r flaws students have found in typical recruiters include the following:Lack of interest in the app1iant. Students infer indifference if the recruiter’s presentation is mechanical,bureaucratic, and programmed. One studentreported, “The company might justas well have sent a tape recorder.”Lack of enthusiasm. If the recruiter seems bored, students infer that he or she represents a dull anduninterestingcompany.Intervieu’s that are stress ful or too persona1 Students resent too manypersonal questions about their social class, their parents, and so forth. They want to be evaluated for theirown acomplishments. They, like most people, also unanimously reject stressful or sarcasth interviewingstyles.
  • 58. CH A P T ER7 Recruitment 2 0 7 ;1EXHIBIT 7-4;0]TRADITIONAL PREVIEW REALISTIC PREVIEW CONSEQUENCESSets initial job expectations too high. Sets oh expectations realistically. DPREEVEWJob is typically viewed as attractive, Job may or may not he attractive, dependingstimulating, and challenging, on individual’s needs.High rate of acceptance of oh offers. Sonic accept, sonic reject job offer.Work experience disconfirms expectations. Work experience confirms expectations.“Dissatisfactionand realization that job is not Satisfaction; needs matched to job.matched to needs.w job survival, dissatisfaction, frequent High job survival, satisfaction, infrequentthoughts of quitting. . thoughts of quitting.source: Adopted from John P. Wanous (992). Organizational Entry: Recruitment, Orientation, and Socialization of NewcomersBoston:Addison.Wesley), pp. 53—86; john P Wonous (july—August 1975), ‘Tell It Like It Is at Realistic Job Preview,” Personnel, p. 54.Time allocation by recruiters. The final criticism of recruiters has to do withhow much rime they talk and how much they let applicants talk or askquestions. From the point of view of the applicant, much of the recruiter’stime is wasted if it includes a long, canned history of the company, numberof employees, branches, products, assets, pension plans, and so forth. Many of the questions the recruiterasks applicants are answered on the application blank anyway.Good recruiters are not going to guarantee success in filling positions, however.Although they can and do make a difference, applicants’ decisions are affected moreby characteristics of the job and the organization than they are by particular characteristics of recruiters.Other research also suggests that recruiters may have very little positive influence Ofl an applicant’schoice. Recruiters do make a difference when they do riot present themselves well. In this case, they canhave a negative effect on applicants even when the job and the organization are both appealing.51It is important for recruiters to provide realistic expectations about the job. When they do so, there issignificantly lower turnover of new employees, and the same nurn- ber of people apply. Researchers havefound that most recruiters give general, glowingdescriptions of the company rather than a balanced or truthful presentation. REALISTIC JOB Research suggests that recruitment can he made more effective PREVIEWSthrough the use of realistic job previews (RJPs).52 A realistic job previewprovides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without distortion orexaggerat;on. In traditional job previews, the job is presented as attractive, interesting, and imulating.Some jobs are all of these things. However, most jobs have some unattractive features.1 The RJP presentsthe full picture, warts and all, as suggested inExhibit 7—4.
  • 59. Exhibit 7—4 presents the typical consequences of traditional previews versus realistic previews. Studies conducted at Southern New England Telephone, Prudential Insurance Co., Texas Instruments, and the U.S. Military Academy have used and reported on the RJP.4 The results indicated that: Newly hired employees who received RJPs have a higher rate of job survival than those hired using traditional previews. Employees hired after RjPs indicate higher satisfaction. RJPs can set the job expectations of new employees at realistic levels. RJPs do not reduce the flOW of highly capable applicants. These findings suggest that RJPs can be used as an inoculation against’disappointment with the realities of a job. At this stage of development, however, there is no conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of realistic job prcviews. Although it seems clear that RiPs can have beneficial effects, at present there is still uncertainty as to why RJPs have the effects they do and in what contexts they are likely to be the most effective. An organization’s human resource plan may suggest that additional or replacement ALTERNATIVES employees are needed. However, because of the cost and permanence of recruitingTO RECRUITMENT individuals, an alternative to recruitment may be used. Overtime When a firm faces pressures to irleet a production goal, it may mean that employees need to work overtime. By having employees work overtime, organizations avoid the costs of recruiting and having additional employees. Overtime can also provide employees with additional income. However, there are potential problems: fatigue, increased accidents, and increased absenteeism. On a limited, short-term basis, having some employees work overtime may be an alternative to recruitment. Continuous overtime, though, has often resulted in higher labor costs and reduced productivity. Employee Leasing Employee leasing, sometimes called “staff sourcing,” involves paying a fee to a leasing company or professional employer organization (PEO) that handles payroll, employce benefits, and routine human resource management functions for the client company. Leasing is especially attractive to small and midsize firms that might not otherwise be able to afford a full-service human resources department. But while small businesses can expect to save from 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs such as health insurance premiums by using leased employees, care must he exercised in choosing a leasing company. In recent years, at least six leasing companies have gone bankrupt, leaving approximately 36,000 workers and hundreds of small businesses liable for millions of dollars associated with health care and other workers’ compensation claims.57 Temporary Employment One of the most noticeable effects of the downsizing epidemic and the labor shortages of the past two decades has been a dramatic rise in the usc of temporary employees. Historically, temporary employment agencies were seen only as sources of
  • 60. Clark Kirby got prices of ads from all the Tampa papers, including suburban and ethnic papers. He also discussed the impactand readership of the papers with the human resource managers he’d befriended. On this basis, he chose the ajor Tampaafternoon aper, the leading black newspaper, the leadingC I.’ H I.. LiHispanic paper, and asuburban paper in an area cnear the plant.He also investigated the ti leading radio stations and c selected the one that had in the highest rating of the top M three and the lowestcommercial cost. He chosecommuter times to run the C radio ads.The advertising Sl approach was innovative. ScludedThe pay and workingconditions offered at the rTampa plant were competi- stive. After Clark’s recruiting Ccampaign, he had the follow- ning numbers of applicants:Managerial positions 68 hiProfessional-technical I 0Clerical 78Skilled employees 110Semjskilled employees 720Clark notified Ed of the results.The job was now to select the best applicants. Clark knew that would be no easy job.Effective selection and hiring are the subjects of Chapter 8.semiskilled clerical help (luring peak work periods. Today, “just—in-time” employees can be foundstaffing all types of )obS in organizations, including professional, technical, and higher executivepositions.58 There are, in fact, nearly 7,000 temporary employment agencies across the United States thathave been in business for more than one year.’’The major advantages of temporary employees include relatively low labor costs, an easily accessiblesource of experienced labor, and flexibility in responding to future changes in the demand for workers.60The cost advantage of using temporary help sterns from the fact that the organization does not have toprovide fringe b nefits, training, or a compensation and career plan. The temporary worker canye in and out of the firm when the workload requires such movement. A disadvantage of hiring temporaryhelp is that these individuals do not know the culture or work flow of the firm. This unfamiliarity detractsfrom their commitment to organizational and departmental goals.Many aspects of recruitment, such as the effectiveness of recruiters, can be evaluated. COST-BENEFITOrganizations assign goals to recruiting by types of employees. For example, a goal for ANALYSIS OFa recruiter might be to hire 350 unskilled and semiskilled employees, or 100 RECRUITINGtechnicians, or 100 machinists, or 100 managerial employees per year. Then the organization can decidewho are the best recruiters. They may he those who meet or exceed quotas and those whose recruits staywith the organization and are evaluated well by their superiors.Sources of recruirs can also be evaluated. In college recruiting, the organiza‘n can divide the number ofjob acceptances by the number of campus interviews compute the cost per hire at each college. Then itdrops from the list those cain— [“uses that are not productive.The methods of recruiting that are used Lw a company can he evaluated along :ariotls dimensions. Inaddition, the Orgafli/atloli can calculat the cost of each
  • 61. PART I I Acquiring Human Resourcesmethod (such as advertising) and divide it by the benefits it yields (acceptances of offers). The organization can alsoexamine how much accurate job information was provided during the recruitment process.Another aspect of recruiting that can be evaluated is what is referred to as the quality of hire. This measure can providemanagement with an assessment of the quality of new employees being recruited and hired.6 I The quality—of—hire measureis calculated as follows:QH = (PR + HP + HR)/NwherewhereQH quality of recruits hiredPR = average job performance ratings (20 items on scale) of new hirees (e.g., 4 on a 5-point scale or 20 items x 4)HP = percent of new hirees promoted within one year (such as 35 percent) 1-IR = percent of hirees retained after one year (e.g.,35 percent)N = number of indicators usedTherefore.=66.6%The 66 percent quality-of-hire rate is a relative val-ue. It will be up to management to determine whether this represents anexcellent, good, fair, or poor level.Some caution must he exercised with the quality-of-hire measure when evaluating the recruitment strategy. Performanceratings and promotion rates are all bey()nd the control of a recruiter. A good new employee can he driven away by a lack ofopportunities for promotion, inequitable performance ratings, or job market conditions that have nothing to do with theeffectiveness of the recruiter. Nevertheless, the quality-of-hire measure can provide some insight into the recruiter’s ability toattract employees.This chapter has demonstrated the process whereby organizations recruit additional employees; suggested the importance of recruiting; andshown who recruits, where, and how.To summarize the major points covered in this chapter:1. Recruiting is the set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitudes needed to help thorganization achieve its objectives.2. External factors that affect the recruiting process include influences such as government and union restrictions, the state of the labormarket, the composition of the labor force, and the location of the organization.The passage of3. Three factors affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: recruiting requirements, organizational policies and procedures, and the organization’simage.4. Applicants’ abilities, attitudes, and preferences, based on past work experiences and influences by parents, teachers, and others, affect them in two ways:how they set jobpreferences, and how they go about seeking a job.5. In larger organizations, the HR department does the recruiting; in smaller organizations, multipurpose HR people or operating managers recruit andinterview applicants.6. Two sources of recruits could be used to fill needs for additional employees: present employees (internal) or those not presently affiliated with theorganization (external).a. Internal sources can be tapped through the use of ‘ob posting and bidding; moonlighting by present employees;
  • 62. C H A P T E R 7 Recruitmentand seeking recommendations from present employees regarding friends who might fill vacancies.b. External sources include walk-ins, referrals from schools, and state employment offices.Alternatives to recruiting personnel when work must be completed include overtime, temporary employees, andemployee leasing. in.S. Advertising, personal recruiting, computerized matchingservices, special-event recruiting, and summer internshipsare among the methods that can be used to recruit external II.applicants...-—.- £..211a. Showing a genuine interest in the applicant.1. Being enthusiastic.Employing a style that is neither too personal nor too stressful.d. Allotting enough time for applicants’ comments and questions.10. A better job of recruiting and matching employees to jobs will mean lower employee turnover and greater employee satisfaction andorganizational effectiveness.II. The Internet is revolutionizing organizational recruitment and may become the primary job search tool in the coming years.Caree rPa th.cume- recruitingciuployce leasingeiuploynicnt agenciesexecutive search rmslmmigrarionReform and Control Act (1RCA) of 1986job posting and bidding job searchMonster.cornonline recruitingrealistic ob preview recrii itillent1. What guidelines should be followed to make sure that recruitment advertising does not violate equal employment laws?Give some do’s and don’ts in recruiting interviews in terms of the legality of questions asked... What role do job descriptions and job specifications play in an effective recruitment program?4. Considering that there are millions of resumes posted on the Web, what steps should recruiters follow to screen out unqualified candidates in a fair andnondiscriminatory manner? Explain your answer.c. What has led to an increased use of temporary employees in organizations? What are the major advantages of using temporary employees?6. Discuss how the Internet has changed recruiting.7. Describe a realistic job preview. How can it be used to reduce turnover?. Visit three different job search websites. Search for a job in a particular region of the United States.Which of the three websites is most useful to job seekers?Explain your answer.9. What are the characteristics of an effective and an ineffective college recruiter?10. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of promotion from within as a recruitment technique?HRM LEGAL ADVISORBased on U.S. v. The City of Warren, 4ichgan, 138 F3d X’arren’s labor force was compnscd of 0.2 percent African108.3 (U.S. App. Sixth Ci,: 1998). Americans. The African American labor force in theremainder of Macomb County was 1 3 percent, whilerhe Facts 1)etroits labor force was 59.7 percent African American. InFlie city of Warren, Michigan, is located in Macowl’ County, recruiting employees, Varren placed advertisements in threeadiaccnt to l)ctroit. (enus reports in 1980 indicated that newspapers that were circulated primarily in 1acomb
  • 63. County and placed job postings in municipal buildings. Warren did not advertise municipal jobs in Detroitnewspapers. Additionally, Wairen required applicants for all lobs except police and firefighters to be residentsof Warren. As a result, the city’s municipal workforce wasapproximately I percent African American. In February of 1986, the U.S. Department of Justice notified the Cityof Warren that it planned to initiate an investigation ofWarren’s recruiting practices, alleging that they potentially discriminated against African Americans on the basisof race. After its investigation indicating that Warren’s residency requirement and recruiting media had anadverse impact against African Americans, the United States filed a suit in district court alleging racediscrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. The City of Warren argued that sparate impactanalysis was not applicable to recruiting criceaThe Court’s DecisionThe U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the’ disparate impact theory of discrimination wasapplicable toany “facially neutral pohcv with a discriminatory effect to Title VII.” Further, the court held that “Warren’s limitation of its applicant pool to the residents ofthe overwhelmingly white city, combined with its refusal to publicize jobs outside the racially homogeneous county, produced a de facto barrier betweenemployment opportunities and members of a protected class.”Human Resource ImplicationsA basic assumption of this case is that the City of Warren should have been recruiting employees from the greater Detroit area. The U.S. Supreme Court hasindicated that a company’s proper geographic recruiting area should include locations from which applicants or employees are likely to commute. Companiesshould consider general commuting patterns as well as public transportation availability in determining where to recruit employees. Employers may avoiddiscrimination problems related to recruiting by ensuring that its internal and external recruiting tools are unbiased and sufficiently reach the company’squalified labor market.James A. Breaugh 1992), Recruitment: Science and Practice (Boston: Kent), p. 4.2 Aaron Bernstein (May 2002), “Too Many Workers? Notfor Long,” Busines:; Week, pp. 126—130.Glenn McEvoy and Mary Jo Blahna(September—Octobcr 2001), “Engagement orI)isengagement? Older Workers and the Looming LaborShortage,” Business Horizons, pp. 46—52.Dean Foust (Decen her 2001), “A Smarter Squeeze,”Business Week, pp. 42—44.Peter Fraiiccse (ovcmhcr 2001), “Iooniing LaborShortages,” Anzcrican Demographics, pp. 34—35; ShariCaudron (September 1999), “The Looming LeadershipCrisis,” Work force, pp. 72—79.(;illiaii Finn (Sepn’mher 1995), “The ImmigrationReform and Control Act Demands a Closer Look,”Personnel lournal, pp. 151 , 153; Wayne F. Barlow,Diane D. Hatch, and Betty Southard Murphy (April1996), “Recent Legal Decisions Affect You,” PersonnelJournal, p. 142.John Ivancevich and Jacqueline Gilbert (Spring 2000),“I)ivcrsitv Man;igement: Time for a New Approach,”Public Personnel Alanagement, pp. 75—92; Jacqueline A.Gilbert, &Ite Ann Stead, and John M. Ivancevich(August 1999), “I)iversity Management: A NewOrganizational Paradigm,” Journal of Business Ethics,pp. 61—7bA Competitive X’eapon,” Managenu’nt Review, pp.24—30.J. Scott Lord (1989), “External and InternalRecruitment,” in Wayne F. Cascio (ed.), HumanResource’ Planning, Employment, & Placement(Washington, I)C: Bureau of National Affairs), pp.73—102.Alexandra Harkavy (july—August 2000), “1)o I Really Want to Work for This Company?” Across the Board.pp. 14—19; Robert I). Gatewood, Mary A. Gowan, andGary j. Lautcnschlager (April 1993), “CorporateImage, Recruitment Image, and Initial lob ChoiceDcci Sions,” A cadem of Management Journal, pp.414—427.Justin Fox (March 2002), “America’s Most Admired:What’s So Great about GE?” Fortune, pp. 64—67;Jeremy Kahn (October 11, 1999), “The World’s MostAdmired Companies,” Fortune, pp. 267—268ff.2 Gillian Flyim (August 1995), “Pop Quiz: How Do You Recruit the Best College Grads?” I’ersonnel Journal, pp.
  • 64. 12—18.Chad Fleetwood and Kristina Shelley (FaIl 2000), “1 heOutlook for College Graduates, 1998—2008: ABalancing Act,” ( )ccupatiunal ( )utlook Quart e’ilv, pp.2—9.‘ Matthew Mariani (Spring 1996), “Students Offer Views on Career ( lmices.” ()cczipatuozal ( )utlook Ouartcrlv,° Edward 1). Bewayo (May 1990), “What CollegeRecruits Expect of Employers,” Personnel, pp .30—34.16 Susan Strauss, Jeffrey Miles, and Laurie Levesque(2001), “The Effects of Videoconference, Telephone, andFace-to-Face Media oil Interviewer and ApplicantJudgments in Employment Interviews,” Journal ofManagement, pp. 363—381; Steven M. Ralston andRobert Brady (january 1994), “The Relative Influenceof Interview Communication Satisfaction on Applicants’Recruitment Interview Decisions,” Journal of BusmessCommunication, pp. 61—77.David Bowman and R. Kweskin (1990), Q: Hou’ Do IFind the Right Job (New York: Wiley).IN Hubert Field and William Holley (March 1976),“Resume Preparation: An Empirical Study of Personnel Managers’ PerLeptions,” Vocational Gi.,idance Journal, pp. 229—237.“ Jeffrey Kluger (June 2002), “Pumping Up Your Past,” Time, pp. 45—47.2(1 Elaine McShulskis (August 1997), “Beware CollegeGrads Willing to Lie for a lob,” HRMagazine, pp.22—24. 421 Bill Leonard (April 1993), “Resume Databases toI)ominate Field,” HR Magazine. pp. 59—60. 422 Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden (February 1995),“Effects of Impression Management on Performance 4Ratings,” Acade;nv of Manal,’enzent Journal, pp.232—252.25 Sara Rynes and Barry Gerhart (Spring 1990),“Interviewer Assessments of Applicant ‘Fit’: AnExploratory Investigation,” Personnel Psychology, pp.13—36. 42 ilan Moravec (September 1990), “Effective JobPosting Fills Dual Needs,” HRMagazine, pp. 76—80.25 Marc Hequet (April 1995), “The Amoco Plan,”Training, p. 31.26 Bill Leonard (J lily 1997), “Rate of Moonlighting amongWorkers Holds a Steady Pace,” HRMagazme, p. 10.2 Carolyn Hirschrnan (October 2000), “Do You Need aMoonlighting Policy?” HRMagazine, pp. 46—54.29 EEOC v. Detroit Edison Company (1975), U.S. Courtof Appeals, Sixth Circuit (Cincinnati), 51SF. 2d .301.29 Margaret Magnus (August 1986), “Recruitment AdVantages,” Personnel fournal, pp. .58—79.50 Jennifer Koch MarcIi 1990), “Recruitment: Apple AdsTarget Intellect,” Personnel fourizal, pp. 107—114.0 Ruth Thaler-Carter (June 2001), “Diversify YourRecruitment Advertising,” HRMagaz;ne, pp. 92—100.2 Marlene Piturro (JanLiary 2000), ‘The Power ofE-cruiting,” Mana,’cuunt Rei’u’u’. pp. 33—37.° AP Online (D.ember 3, 1999), “Employers Use Veb to12 rr,,rt ,n,fl,s,.,n,fl.r,n(, I213Piturro, op. cit., pp. 33—37.AP Online, op. cit. (December 3, 1999).Jon Swartz (February 19, 2001), “E-Recruiters Swim through a Sea of Resumes,” USA Today, p. 3B.Shirley Duglin Kennedy (July—August 1996), “Need a New lob? (jet to Work on the Web,” Information Today, pp. 38—39.Samuel Greengard (March 1996), “10 Tips for Getting Net Results,” Personnel Journal, p. 28.J. Scott Lord (1989), “External and InternalRecruitn1ent,” in Wayne F. Cascio (ed.), HumanResource Plannin’, Einplo’,’nient, and Placement(Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs), pp.73—102.° Martha Frase-Blunt (April 2002), “Job Fair Challenges for HR,” HRMagazine, pp. 62—66.Andrew Bargerstoek (August 1 990), “Low Cost Recruiting for Quality,” 1-IRMagazine, pp. 68—().° Bibi S. Watson (June 1995), “The Intern Turnaround,” Management Review, pp. 9—12.‘ Steart Deck (March 2000), “6 1)cgrees of Hire
  • 65. Learning,” Cio, pp. 132—140.jilly Welch (September 12, 1996), “Eniplovers in Rush to Capture Young Talent,” Personnel Management, p. 9.Michelle Neely Martinez (March 1996), “Looking for Young Talent? Inroads Helps Diversify Efforts,” HR Magazine, pp. 73—76.°‘ Dawn Gunsch (September 1993), “Comprehensive College Strategy Strengthens NCR’s Recruitment,” Personnel Journal, pp. 58—62.[)avid E. Terpstra (May 1996), “The Search for Effective Methods,” HR Focus, pp. 16—17.Thomas .1. Bergman and M. Susan Taylor (May—June 1984), “College Recruitment: What Attracts Students to Organizations,” Personnel, pp. 34—36.Watson, op. cit., pp. 9—12.Jnhn Botidreau and Sara Rvnes (March 1987), “GivingIt the Old Cullege Try,” f’ersonnel Administrator, PP78—85.Andrea Poe (May 2000), “Face Value,” HRMagazzne,pp. 60—68; Therese Hoff Macan and Robert L. Dipbove(Winter 1990), “The Relationship of Interviewers’I’reinterview Impressions to Selection and RecruitmentOutcomes,” Personnel Psycholo,ç’, pp. 745—76 8.Jean M. Phillips (December 1998), “Effects of RealisticJob Previews on Multiple Organizitioial Outcomes: AMeta-Analysis,” Academy of Management foidYlhil, pp.6 73—6 90.Larry Reibstein (June 10, 1987), “Crushed Hopes:When a New lob Proves to Be Something 1)1 ffercnt,” TI,,, W7 ,II c ,,, i,,,.,,, I ,—. I çP. Popovich and John P. Wanous (October 1982), “The Realistic Job Preview as a Persuasive Communication,” Academy of ManagementReview, Pp. 570—578.SS Steven L. Premack and John P. Wanous (December 1985), “A Meta-Analysis of Realistic Job Preview Experiments,” Journal of AppliedPsvcholog, pp. 706—719; and James A. Breaugh (October 1983), “Realistic Job Previews: A Critical Appraisal and Future ResearchDirections,” Academy of Management Ret’ieu pp. 612—6 19.Rrian Kiass, John McClendon, and Thomas C;amer($pring 2002), “Trust and the Role of ProfessionalErp1oyer Organizations: Managing HR in Small andMedium Enterprises,” journal of Managerial Issues, pp.31—48; John Poison (Spring 2002), “The PEOPhenomenon: Co-Employment at Work,” EmployeeRelations Law Journal. pp. 7L25; T. Joe Willey (Winter1993), “Employee Leasing Comes of Age,” HumanResources Professional, pp. 1 8—20.Rosalind Resnick (November 1992). “LeasingWorkers,” Nations Business, pp. 20—28.Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1996), “From Santa to CEO—Temps Play All Roles,” Personnel journal, pp.34—44.Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1999). “Temp Firms Turn Up the Heat on Hiring,” W/ork/orce, pp. 50—54.George S. Odiorne (July 1990), “Beating the 1990s’ Labor Shortage,” Training, pp. 32—35.61 This measure was developed by Jac Fitz-Enz (1984) in Hou’ to Measure Human ResOurce Management (NewYork: McGraw-Hill), pp. 86—87.
  • 66. In a time when many companies are cutting costs across their operations, a growing number of HR departments are changing the ways theyrecruit.Their goal: to boost recruiting efficiency(reducing recruiting costs per hp-e).Their means:i vative recruiting approaches that bring imagination and a essiveness to a company’s overall recruiting function. Inno ations are occurring inseveral elements of the recruiting process. Here is a look at innovations in several areas.RECRUITMENT ADVERTISINGAn increasing number of companies are supplementing and even replacing the traditional classified ad with creative, clever, eye-catchingads. These ads are essentially a company’s resume and cover letteidesigned to send ainique and memorable message about the company tosought-after prospective applicants Recently, Pers,nneI journal reviewed several hundred ads submitted by subscribers and reported sometrends in this type of advertising. IThey include:I. Use of Employees in Ads instead of the traditional testimonials, more company ads are spotlighting employees,g about their skills, jobs, and accomplishments. For e pie, General Dynamics has run a series of ads that, by comparisons with greatinventors, compliments profiled employees and their colleagues. For example, one ad headline in the series proclaims, “We’re looking foranother Newton• . . And another Newman” (Howard Newman, one of General Dynamic’s senior project engineers).The ad’s text showcases Mr. Newman’saccomplishments and long tenure with the company and then urges those interested and qualified to “join Howard. in the pursuit oftechnology excellence and discovery; apply for a position with us... . Who knows You might become the next Newman.” In some other ads inthe series, General Dynamics has declared, “W’e’re looking for another Edison . . . And another Hardison’ (electrical engineer Cor’ineHardison). Like many employee-spotlight ads developed by other companies, this series portrays the corporation as a place where verytalented and dedicated people work and reach their potential.2. Promotion of Intangible Benefits In cases where a job is highly attractive and thus doesn’t need promoting, employers have turned toemphasizing certain intangible benefits of the company such aportunitiesfQç adva,,cement, eoyment security, cive freedom, andet?%preneurial opportunities. Lockheed Miss,le & Space Company has run a series of sports-related ads that promote company benefits. Onesuch ad is entitled “Net Gain:’ Featuring a tennis racket and tennis balls in a partly closed briefcase, the text says, “Along with a diverse andchallenging project list, Lockheed Missile & Space Company makes a point-of providing employees with truly comprehensive recreationalprograms and facilities.” The Saint Paul Medical Center has developed a series of one-word headline ads that promote certain themes such as“Cornrnitrnent’ (describing the center’s commitment to patients’ care and employees’ career development) and “Balance” (“Between caringprofessionals . . . between traditjqn and technology . .. between performance and opportunity”).Washington University in Saint Louis usescreative advertising to promote its flexible work schedules, and in one ad entitled,”Even you-know-who rested on the seventh day,” thecompany published its nursing salaries.3, Point-of-Purchase Recruitment A growing number of service companies with high turnover in low-skill jobs are recruiti9g using point-of-purchase ads. For example, Pizza Hut places recruiting coupons on its carry-out boxes. Featuring a drawing of a large lead pencil, the adsuggests, “If you want a good job, get the lead out.” The coupon provides a mini- resume form for prospective applicants who don’t haveresumes.The Quik Wok Chinese food take-out chain usesWritten by Kim Stewart and adapted from: Bob Martin (August 1 987). “RecruitmentAd Ventures,” Personnel Journal, pp. 46—54;J. Scott Lord (November 1987),”ContractRecruiting Comes ofAge,”Personnel Administrator, pp. 49—53;Maury Hanigan(November 1987), “Campus Recruiters Upgrade Their Pitch.” PersonnelAdministrator, pp. 55—58: and Margaret Magnus (February 1987), (s YourRecruitment All It Can Be?” Personnel Journal, pp. 54--63.bag-stuffers that picture a broken fortune cookie and proclaim “Not everyone will have the good fortune to work at Quik Wok.” The stufferdescribes job opportunities.The success of point-of-purchase ads has eliminated Quik Wok’s use of classified ads. Other users have found thestrategy to be a low-cost, highly efficient, and flexible form of recruiting; when a new position needs to be filled, they simply distribute thebag stuffers.CONTRACT RECRUITINGCompanies in fast-growing industries are seeking the expertise of a relatively new type of external specialist: the contract recruiter.Thisspecialist is contracted on a temporary basis to•erform recruiting functions for different job openings.The recruiter screens resumes, conducts telephone and in-person interviews,coordinates campus recruiting. prepares and executes formal offers, and performs any number of contractual recruiting responsibilities. He orshe is not affiliated with an employment agency and does not receive a commission or a percentage of the hiree’s salary. Rather, the recruiteris self- employed and is paid at an hourly rate negotiated with the client company.These self-employed specialists are becoming popular because they can provide several benefits to client companies. When a company isundergoing exceptionally fast growth with immediate hiring needs, a recruiter can be quickly brought in to handle the suddenly burdensometask. The recruiting is performed without hiring permanent (and later unnecessary) staff. For example, when GTE in Needham,Massachusetts, suddenly found itself with a Department of•efense contract requiring 1,200 professional employees to be hired in 16 months, GTE turned to 12 contract recruiters who became aninstant employment department.They set up the system, completed the task, and then trained their replacements before departing 16 monthslater.The cosmetics manufacturer Helene Curtis, Inc., regularly calls on contract recruiters to help the company handle its 15 to 20 percentyearly growth. Recruiters can also serve as external, objective advisers to the company’s human resource function.Some contract recruiters develop expertise in certain employment fields (such as electrical engineering or computer software design).
  • 67. Companies with hiring needs in these areas benefit from the specialists’ contacts and highly focused capabilities. Some companies hire thesame recruiters time and again, finding that the subsequent knowledge of the company’s recruiting needs and functions that the recruiteracquires helps to further reduce per-hire costs.CAMPUS RECRUITINGWith declining college enrollments and growing demand for recruits with college degrees, companies are finding that recruiting on collegecampuses has become very competitive. As a result, many are launching strategies to both boost their offer-acceptance rates and lower theirrecruiting costs.Rather than select recruits from the placement office’s resume file, some companies are identifying a number of students in their junior yearand focusing efforts on these select recruits. More firms are establishing programs that educate professors more fully on the company’scareer opportunities for graduates. For example, Macy’s brings professors to a showcase store where the educators spend a day observingtrainees and meeting with managers. Other companies, such as Citibank, hire professors to lecture in the company’s training programs.Organizations such as Texas Instruments also provide executives as guest lecturers at several universities. These actions are designed toenhance the professor’s knowledge of the company, which it is hoped will be communicated to students, and to develop executives’relationships with certain schools.Some companies are also refining their recruitment brochures. Rather than providing the traditional, very general brochure on the company,firms are now developing smaller, more individualized publications that provide information on particular jobs and departments andinformation on the community where a prospective applicant would work (for instance, information on cost of living and communityrecreation facilities). Invitation letters to a campus interview are personalized, often explaining why the company is interested in thatparticular student. More companies are producing recruiting videos for show on campus. Companies are also paying more attention to thequality of their on-campus interviewers, providing their recruiters with training in communications skills. And many firms are replacing theform rejection letter with one that is more tactful and considerate. Firms are mindful of the impact that a word-of-mouth reputation createdby an inconsiderate, uninterested recruiter can have on a company’s campus recruiting efforts.COMPUTER DATABASESComputer databases are being developed as job and resume data banks. For example, Job Stores, Inc., has developed a franchise chain of“stop and shop” employment centers located in high-traffic shopping malls. At any center, a job hunter can tap the Job Stores Networkcomputer database by obtaining a computer printout on job openings in the local area and nationwide.The fee: $75 for 90 days’ access to thenetwork. Any company can list its job openings on the net- swork at no charge. In seeking participation from businesses, fJob Stores’ franchises focus on job openings that companies iiusually don’t fill via employment agencies. c JobNet, another computer database network, allows jobhunters to place their resumes in the network at no charge. C Companies pay a fee for access to the database, which has over I millionresumes of technical professionals onhine.A company can search the database by specifying any of a number of criteria, such as how recentthe resume is. Career Technologies runs the network and obtains resumes via job fairs, advertising, and exclusive contracts with over 20profes.onalassociations and societies.Some college placement centers are also establishing computer databases to link students with prospective jobs. For example, the CareerConnection Company of State College, Pennsylvania, has established Job Search, a computer database of job information.The networkprovides job listings (up to 20 lines each provided by companies) and is available for all students.EMPLOYEE REFERRALSLastly, companies are adding pizzazz to the widely used employee referral and bounty system. A growing number ofcompanies are aggressively promoting referral campaigns with special themes and prizes. Referral bonuses run the gamut frommoney and trips to time off and credit used to “buy” items from a special catalog. Many referral programs are periodicallygiven a boost with new bonuses and new themes.DISCUSSION QUESTIONSI. Assess the effectiveness of a recruitment advertising strategy that relies on imaginative, highly visual, eye- catchingads.What are the potential strengths and drawbacks of this approach to recruitment advertising?2. What type of company (in what kind of industry) would benefit most from contract recruiters? What type would benefitleast?3. Suppose you are faced with the task of developing a college recruiting strategy for obtaining talented business schoolgraduates with degrees in management information systems (developing and managing a company computer informationnetwork). Demand for these individuals is currently very high; supply is limited. Develop a recruiting strategy that addressesinnovations discussed in the case and includes your own ideas.Clark Kirby and hisassistants had recruited 986 applicants for the 596positions Gunther would have at its Tampa plant. But before getting too satisfl,ed, he realized that there wa a big job ahead ofhim.Which 596 of the 986 should who should do e hiring?The HR specialist haddone some preliminaryscreening, and most of the applicants had completed an application blank. But where should he go from thereClark called EdHumphrey, the plantmanager, and asked if he wanted to be involved in the hiring. Ed said that he had time to choose only his top management
  • 68. team.The rest was up to Clark. Ed r reminded Clark that the company didn’t want them c to raid other plants—that c wassimply against company s policy. Clark said he knew 1 that and would abide by c company policy, a Clark was faced with rmaking 596 selection l decisions. As this chapter I shows, selection involves making many decisions.Selection is a vital andcontinuous process in an organizaton. Employeeselection is importantbecause the goals of the organization can beaccomplished only if the right match is madebetween the person and the job.Selection is the process by which an organization chooses from a list of applicants the person or persons who best meet theselection criteria for the position available, :)nsidering current environmental conditions. Although this definition emphasizesthe effectiveness of selection, decisions about whom to hire must also be made efficiently and within the boundaries set forthin equal employment opportunity legision. Thus, there are actually multiple goals associated with an Organization’s 5Cionprocess.At a basic level, all selection programs attempt to identify the applicants who have the highest chance of meeting or exceedingthe organization’s standards of perormance. In this case, however, performance does not refer simply to quantity of ‘urput. It canalso involve other objectives, such as quality of output, absenteeism, heft, employees’ satisfaction, and career development.Compounding the problem uf developing an effective selection system is the fact that the goal isn’t always to find applicantswho have the most of a given quality. Rather, selection is the search for an optimal match between the job and the amount ofany particular characteristic that an applicant may possess. For example, depending on the job, more intelligence isn’t alwaysbetter than less. Or, it is possible for an applicant to he too socially skilled if the job doesn’t require high levels of such skills.’This situation can easily lead to the selection of overqualified candidates.2 Thus, it is highly unlikelythat a selection system can effectively cope with all possible objectives. As a result, ic of the initial tasks involved indeveloping and implementing an effective selecrn process is for the organization to identify which objective is most importantforAs Clark Kirby sets out to hire 596 employees, he will follow a selection process infhienced by many actorc. Ihese tactors arehighlighted in the diagnostic model in Exhibit 8—1. We’ll begin by examining the factors in the internal and externalenvironments.
  • 69. Environmental Circumstances Influencing SelectionInternal environment A number of characteristics of the organization can influence the amount and type of selection processit uses to hire needed employees. Size, complexity, and technological volatility are a few of these.Since the development andimplementation of large-scale selection efforts can 1w very costly, complex selection systems are most often found in largerorganizations with the economic resources necessary to pay for such systems. Size alone, however, doesn’t deteriiiine howselection is approached. For an organization to recover the costs of developing an expensive selection system, there must be asuftcient number of jobs that need to be
  • 70. C H A P T E R 8 Selectionfilled. In structurally complex organizations with many job titles hut very few occupants, the number ofyears needed to get back the money invested in such a selection system may be too great to justify itsinitial expense.Another characteristic of the organization that is an important determinant of the kind of selection systemit develops is its attitude about hiring from within. Many organizations have elaborate internal job postingprograms (as was discussed in Chapter 7) designed to help fill as many job vacancies as possible fromwithin. other organizations look more quickly to external supplies of new employees. While these twomodels of filling job vacancies will have some overlapping selection processes, each will also focus tosome extent on different criteria and different techniques:External environment The external environment is an equally important determinant of the kind ofselection system that an organization utilizes. Not only are most organizations subject to federalemployment laws and regulations, hut there are•ny state-specific regulations that also affect what an organization can and cannot do in its selectionsystem. Some states, for example, have imposed much tighter limits than others Ofl an organization’sability to test applicants for drug use. Similarly, a number of states provide past employers with moreprotection against being sued by a former employee because of information that may have been divulgedduring checking of references. Any or all of these state-specific issues can affect the selection system thatis ultimately used.One of the most significant environmental influences on selection is the size, composition, andavailability of local labor markets. These, in turn, are affected by economic, social, and political pressureson a community. At a basic level, when unemployment rates are low, it may he difficult for anorganization to identify, attract, and hire the number of people it needs. On the other hand, when there isan oversupply of qualified applicants, selection strategies can be very different.Those who work in human resource management evaluate the effects of the labor market on selectiondecisions by using a selection ratio:number of applicants hiredSelection ratio =total number of applicantsConsider Clark Kirby’s problem at Gunther. The selection ratios are as follows: managers 38/68, or about1:2; professional/technical, 10/10, or 1:1; clerical, 44/78, or about 1:2; skilled, 104/110, or about 1:1;semiskilled, 400/720, or almost1:2. When the selection ratio gets close to 1:1, it is called a high selection ratio. Under thesecircumstances, the selection process is short and unsophisticated, although it may not he effective. As thenumber of applicants increases relative to the number who are hired, the selection ratio is said to he low.With a lower selection ratio, for example 1:2, the process becomes more detailed. A ratio of 1:2 alsomeans that the organization can he more selective in its choice than when the ratio is 1:1. It is, therefore,more likely that employees who fit the organization’s criteria for success will be hired. It is also. likely,however, that the Organization will have to invest more time and money in the selection decision whenthe ratio is 1:2.• At the core of any effective selection system is an understanding of what characteristics are essential forhigh performance. This is where the critical role of oh analysis in selection becomes most apparent,because that list of characteristics should have been identified diirig the process of job analysis andshould now he accurately reflected in the job specification. Thus, from a performance perspective, thegoal of
  • 71. any selection system is to accurately determine which applicants possess the knowledge, skills, abilities,and other characteristics (KSAOs) dictated by the job. Additionally, the selection system must he capableof disi:inguishing between characteristics that are needed at the time of hiring, those that aresystematically acquired during training, and those that are routinely developed after a person has beenplaced on the job. Different selection criteria may, indeed, be needed to assess these qualitativelydifferent KSAOs.Categories of CriteriaWith these potential differences in mind, the criteria typically used by organizations for making selectiondecisions can be sunimrized in several broad categories: education, experience, physical characteristics,and other personal characterjstics.Formal education An employer selecting from a pooi of job applicants wants to nd the person who hasthe right abilities and attitudes to be successful. A large number of cognitive, motor, physical, andinterpersonal attributes are present becauseofgenetic predispositions and because they were learned athome, at school, on the job, and so on. One of the more common cost-effective ways to screen for manyof these abilities is by using educational accomplishment as a surrogate for or summary of the measuresof those abilities. For example, although this is unfortunately not always true, it usually is safe to assumethat anyone who has successfully completed high school or its equivalent has basic reading, writing,arithmetic, and interpersonal skills.For certain jobs, the employer may stipulate that the education (especially for college-level requirements)is in a particular area of expertise, such as accounting or management. The employer might also preferthat the degree be from certain institutions, that the grade point average b higher than some minimum, andthat certain honorshave been achieved. To he legal, educational standards such as these must be related tosuccessful performance of the job. Care must be exercised not to set standards that are higher thanactually required by the job.Experience and past performance Another useful criterion for selecting employees is experience andpast performance. Many selection specialists believe that past performance on a similar job might be oneof the best indicators of future performance. In addition, employers often consider experience to be agood indicator of ability and work-related attitudes. Their reasoning is that a prospective employee whohas performed the job before and is applying for a similar job must like the work and must be able to dothe job well. Research supports these assumptions. Over a large number of studies, experience is relatedto job performance.3 But the organization must have a rational basis for defining what it means by“relevant experience.” Not all previous experiences are equally good predictors of performance on agiven job. For example, should two applicants applying for a job as an internal auditor he given the samecredit for previous work experience if both have five years in the accounting profession but one has beenan auditor for another organization and the other a tax specialist for the IRS?Physical characteristics In the past, many employers consciously or unconsciously used physicalcharacteristics (including how an applicant looked) as a criterion. Studies found that employers weremore likely to hire and pay better ages to taller men, and airlines chose flight attendants and companieshired receptionists on the
  • 72. variationagainst ethnic groups, women, and handicapped people. For this reason, they are now illegal unless it canbe shown that a physical characteristic is directly related to effectiveness at work. For example, visualacuity (eyesight) would he a physical characteristic that could he used to hire commercial airline pilots. Itmight not, however, be legally used for hiring a telephone reservations agent for an airline.In a similar way, candidates for a job cannot he screened out by arbitrary height, weight, or similarrequirements. These can be used as selection criteria only when the job involves tasks that require them.Personal characteristics and personality type The final criterion category is a catchall that includespersonal characteristics and personality types. Personal characteristics include marital status, sex, age,and so on. Some employers have, for example, preferred “stable” married employees over single peoplebecause they have assumed that married people have a lower turnover rate. On the other hand, otheremployrs might seek out single people for some jobs, since a single person might be moreely to accept a transfer or a lengthy overseas assignment.Age, too, has sometimes been used as a criterion. While it is illegal to discriminate against people who areover the age of 40, there is no federal law that specifically addresses this issue for younger people.However, minimum and maximum age restrictions for jobs can be used only if they are clearly job-related. Thus, age should be used as a selection criterion only after very careful thought andconsideration. This issue will certainly become more important by the year 2010; this is when the medianage in the United States will he 40.6 years. By that time, more than half of all workers will belegally protected by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA).4Certain specific aptitudes and skills can also be considered part of this category of criteria. Althougheducation and past experience are often used as measures of ability, many organizations also try to assesswhether applicants possess certain aptitudes. For example, a successful applicant for pilot training in themilitary does not need actual flying experience. Rather, the military uses spatial-relations aptitude as onecriterion., Many employers also prefer to hire people with certain personality types. me jobs, such as being alifeguard, may require essentially no consideration of anapplicant’s personality. Many jobs fall between these extremes. For example, one particular aspect ofpersonality—such as being outgoing—may be useful for salespeople, caseworkers, or others who workextensively with the public.Although once viewed in an unfavorable light due to perceptions of low preJictive validity, recentfindings on personality tests have been much more positive regarding the link between personality andjob performance.5 Much of this change can be attributed to the development and validation of the BigFive personality factors. Known as emotional stability, extroversion, openness to experience,agreeableness, and conscientiousness, the Big Five describe behavioral traits that may explain up to 75percent of an individual’s personaliry.h Of the five dimensions, con— scientiousness and emotionalstability have been shown to predict performance across most occupational groupings.7As with other personal characteristics, selection using any aspect of personalty should always he based onwhether it is really necessary for high performance. Many personality measures run an even greater riskof being legally challenged as an invasion of privacy than other kinds of selection tools. Thus, theorganization wishing to use personality as a criterion must he certain that successful and unsuccessfulemployees can he distinguished in terms of their personalities. It is probably
  • 73. P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resourcesunwise to use personality asa general criterion for screening out “undesirable” applicants, since the samepersonality characteristic that leads to failure in one job might lead to success in another. En part, becauseof this fact, there is still considerable debate whether general, broad personality measures or more specificones are the best to use in selection.9Reliability and Validity of Selection CriteriaOnce an organization has decided upon a set of selection criteria, a technique for assessing each of thesemust be chosen. The alternatives are numerous: application blanks and biodata forms, interviews,psychological tests of aptitude and personality, work sample tests of present skills, physical and medicaltesting, and checks of previous experience through references. Regardless of the method chosen forcollecting information about applicants, the organization must be certain that the information is bothreliable and valid.Reliability The main goal of selection is to make accurate predictions about people. The organizationwants to make its best guess about who will he a successful employee. In this way, the organization canavoid hiring the wrong person for a job. In other words, the main purpose of selection is to makedecisions about people. If these decisions are going to be correct, the techniques used for making themmust yield reliable information.Reliability refers to how stable or repeatable a measurement is over a variety of testing conditions. 0 As asimple example, imagine that you tried to use a tape measure to determine how tall an applicant for a jobas a refighter was, because there are both minimum and maximum height restrictions for the job. If youmeasured a given applicant three successive times and obtained values of 6 feet, 6 feet 1/2 inch, and 5 feetII / inches, you may not know the applicant’s exact height, but you would have a fairly good idea. On theother hand, imagine that your three attempts yielded values of 6 feet, 6 feet 6 inches, and 5 feet 4 inches.In this latter case, you would have virtually no idea how tall the applicant actually was. The point is thatalthough reliability is rarely perfect, a measuring tool can still he useful if it is only somewhat unreliable.Once the measurements become too inconsistent, however, they become meaningless.The reliability of a selection tool can he judged in a variety of ways. In practice, one common way toassess reliability is to correlate the scores of applicants given the same test on two different occasions.This is called test-retest reliabilit. Alternative-form reliabilit’ is determined by correlating scores fromtwo alternate forms of the same test. Most standardized academic achievement tests like the SAT and theGMAT have numerous forms, all of which are assumed to be reliable. An applicant’s score should notvary much according to which form of the test he or she happens to take. When a measuring tool relies onthe judgments of people (such as in an employment interview), reliability is often determined by usinginterrater reliability. This refers to the extent to which two or more interviewers’ assessments areconsistent with each other.Validity For a selection tool to be useful, it is not sufficient for it to be repeatable or stable. Both legallyand organizationally, the measures that it yields must also be valid. There are many ways of assessingvalidity but all of them focus on two iSSUeS. Validity addresses the questions of what a test measuresand how well it has measured it. II In selection, the primary concern is whether the assessment techniqueresults in accurate predictions about the future success or failure of an applicant.
  • 74. C H A P T E H 8 Selection To illustrate these two issues and the relationship between validity and reliability, let’s return toour example of measuring the frcfghter applicant’s height. As noted previously, if the measurement is toounreliable, then it will be impossible to determine his or her correct height. Even if the tape gives thesame measurements (high reliability), it might still have very little accuracy (validity). For example, thetape measure may no: have been calibrated properly at the factory where it was made (the manufacturermay have thought it was marking in feet and inches whenit was actually using centimeters). If so, it will be almost impossible to accurately determine theapplicant’s height. Finally, this tape measure might he perfectly reliable and an accurate way to measureheight, hut if you try to weigh applicants with it, it will yield totally Llseiess information.To summarize, for a measuring tool to be useful, it must be reliable, valid, and put to the use for which itwas actually intended.A detailed explanation of the various strategies for determining the validity of election tool can he foundin the Principles for the Validation and Use of Peronizel Selection Procedures, a set of professionalstandards developed by a committee of members from the Society for Industrial and OrganizationalPsychology (SIOP).12 The following, however, are brief descriptions of three types of validity that theHR specialist should be familiar with: (1) content, (2) construct, and (3) criterion-related.Content validity The degree to which a test, interview, or performance evaluation measures the skill,knowledge, or ability to perform the job is called content validity. An example of a content-valid test is atyping test for a secretarial position. Such a test can roughly replicate conditions on the job. The applicantcan be given a typical sample of typing work under “normal” working conditions. Thus, the applicantwould be asked to type a typical piece of work (letter, internal memo, tabular data) using the same kind oftypewriter or word processor that would he encountered on the actual job. If the content of the typing testis actually representative of the work that is done on the job, then the test is said to be content-valid.Content validity is not appropriate for more abstract job behaviors, such as , dership potential, leadershipstyle, or work ethic. When selection procedures in-ye the use of tests to measure leadership characteristics or personality, construct validity rather thancontent validity is appropriate.Construct validity A construct is a trait that is not typically observable. For example, we cannot seeleadership; we can only assume that it exists from the behavior someone displays. A test therefore hasconstruct validity when ii actually measures the unobservable trait that it claims to measure. Becausetraits cannot be directly observed, however, construct validity cannot be established in a single study butcan be assumed to exist only on the basis of a large body of empirical work yielding consistent results.The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures have established three stringent requirementsfor demonstrating the construct validity of a selection technique. 4I. A job analysis must systematically dene both the work behaviors involved in the job and the constructsthat are believed to he important to jobperformance.2. The test must measure one of those constructs. In selecting a projectmanager, for instance, there must be evidence that the test validly measuresleadership. For evample, scores on the test might correlate with leadership
  • 75. ratings given to other employeCS in other organizations Upon previous administration of the test.3. The construct must be related to the performance of critical work behavior. For example, it must beshown that leadership ability is correlated with job performance for the position of project manager. Thatis, it is necessary to conduct a criterion validity study between leadership and job performance, or to usesuch data collected by another test to support the claim ofconstruct validity.Criterion-related validity The extent to which a selection technique can accurately predict one or moreimp(’rtanr elements of job behavior is referred to as criterion—related validity. Scores on a test orperformance in some simulated exercise are correlated with measures of actual on-the-job performance.The test is called a Predictor; the performance score is referred to as a criterion. Criteria relevant topersonnel selection include measures such as quality or quantity of output, supervisory ratings,absenteeism, accidents, sales, or whatever the organization deems most relevant. However, the choice of acriterion is’at the very heart of determining whether a selection system is legal.’5 The organization mustexercise care in choosing a measure that best reflects the actual contributions of employees to itseffectiveness. Not all criteria can be predicted equally well from any particular type of selection tool. ‘Two popularly used types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent. Predictive validity isdetermined by using the scores obtained from a sample of applicants for a job. The steps in a predictive-validity study for a given test are:1. Administer the test to a large sample of applicants.2. Select individuals for the job. It is actually preferable if the test whose validity is being measured is notused in the hiring decisions.3. Wait an appropriate amount of time and then collect measures of job performance.4. Assess the strength of the predictor-criterion relationship (typically by calculating a correlationcoefficient).Predictive validity is an important form of criterion-related validity, but it does have drawbacks. Theemployer first must wait until it has hired a large number of people for whom it has predictor scores andthen until it can obtain meaningful measures of job performance for the people who were hired. For somejobs, the time it takes to determine who is a good employee can he long.Concurrent validity is also used to determine whether a selection test can predict job performance. Inconcurrent validation, the first step is to administer the tests to present employees performing the job. Atapproximately the same time, performance measures for thes employees are also collected. The testscores are then correlated with the performance measures. If the test is significantly related toperformance, it would be a candidate for future use with applicants in the selection process.The biggest advantage of concurrent validation is tlat it can be conducted relatively quickly. Therefore, itis usully less expensive than predictive validation. However, there are several potential problemsassociated with the use of concurrent validation. First, this method uses experienced employees. Ifexperience is important in job performance, such validation will be biased in favor of applicants withexperience. Second. present employees often balk at completing tests. They are puzzled by the request totake a battery of tests and often wi11 not provide honest answers or
  • 76. their best answers. Third, there is a self-selection bias that can restrict the range oftest scores. Among present employees, there is likely to he a restriction because theleast skilled and least able workers have been terminated, demoted, or transferred, the most skilled andmost able have been placed in more responsible jobs. Despite these potential problems, concurrentvalidation can be an effective method for assessing the validity of certain kinds of selection tests.’7However, it should not automatically be used as an alternative to predictive validation simply because itcan he done more quickly. The organization should carefully analyze its circumstances before choosingwhich of the methods to use.In the past, selection was often thought to be an easy decision. Decisions were THE SELECTION PROCESSbased on the subjective likes or dislikes of the boss. Selection tools were designed to aidthis gut reaction. Today, selection is viewed as much more than simply relying onIntuition. The selection decision is usually perceived as a series of steps through whichapplicants pass. At each step, more applicants are screened out by the organization,or more applicants accept other job offers and drop from the list of applicanfs. Exhibit8—2 illustrates a typical series of steps for the selection process.This series is not universal. For example, government employers test at step 2instead of step 3, as do some private- and third-sector employers. It is important tonote that few organizations use all steps, for they can he time-consuming and cxpensiveand some steps, such as 3 and 4, may he performed concurrently or at
  • 77. about the same time. Generally speaking, the more important the job, the more each step is likely to heused formally.Step I: Preliminary ScreeningThe most common first step in any selection process usually involves asking an applicant to complete anapplication form. Application blanks, as these are typically referred to, vary in length and sophistication.Nearly all application blanks ask for enough information to determine whether the individual is minimallyqualified for the position. For example, application blanks can he a useful initial screening tool for jobsthat require some type of professional certification (e.g., a teaching certificate). In this way, theapplication blank can eliminate the need for subsequent interviews to gather this information. This makesthe selection process far more efficient, first, by reducing the number of applicants that need to beinterviewed and, second, by allowing interviewers to focus on other kinds of information (e.g.,personality, communication skills) that is perhaps more difficult to obtain.Although application blanks can he very useful selection tools, organizations must never forget that theyare subject to the same legal standards as any other Selection method. Thus, care must be taken that theapplication blank does not directl or indirectly violate federal or state laws related to employmentdiscrimination. The same guidelines hold true for Web-based or online applications.’9 The applicationblank should not he designed in a way that forces applicants to reveal irrelevant information aboutthemselves, especially information related to sex, race, religion, color, natural origin, age, or disabilitie.Care should be taken to ask only for information that will help the organization make a better job-relatedassessment of the applicant. For example, asking applicants for the year in which they graduated fromhigh school can narrow down their age to within one or two years. Is it important to know in what yearsomeone graduated, or simply that he or she graduated?Currently accepted application blanks also generally limit questions that imply something about theapplicant’s physical health. Since a physical exam should be given only after a conditional offer ofemployment, the application blank is not an appropriate place to gather most information of this kind.With a dramatic increase in the number of lawsuits being filed against organizations for “wrongfultermination” and with an erosion of organizations’ right to hire and fire whomever they wish, manyorganizations arc now adding very important clauses at the beginning or end of their application blanks.Some terms of these clauses appear in employee handbooks as well. The purpose of the clauses,regardless of where the’ appear, is twofold. First, they help protect the organization against unjustifiedlawsuits; and second, they help ensure that applicants and employees understand the terms of theiremployment relationship with the organization.Three of the more common clauses that now appear on application blanks and in employee handbookscover (1) applicant’s rights as they relate to the organization’s hiring practices, (2) the scope of anemployment contract, and (3) (one of the newest) grievances: a statement indicating that the applicant, theemployee, or both agree to resolve all grievances against the organization through arbitration andmediation rather than through a lawsuit. The legal subtleties of these clauses arc too complex to cover indetail at this time, but examples of the wording currently h’ing used by organizations appear in Exhibit8—3.A potentially useful supplement to the traditional application blank is the biographical information blank(131B). A BIB usually contains many more items than a
  • 78. THE NOT-SO-FINE PRINT OF MODERN APPLICATION BLANIStatement on Affirmative Action-Equal EmploymentOpportunityIt is the policy of this company to afford all applicants the right to equal employment opportunities. Inaccordance with this policy, all vacancies will he llcd by qualied candidates without regard to race, color,religion, sex, age, nationalorigin, or disabi litv status except where there is a bona fde occupational qualihcation. It you are disabledand needreasonable forms of accommodation in order to complete this application blank or any other componentot the application process, they will he provided.Statement on Employment at WillIf you are offered and accept employment with this companY, your employment wi11 be corsidered “atwill.” It can thereforeterminated at any time and For any reason not expressly ohihited by state or federal law at the discretionof thecompany. The company retains the right to change, modify, suspend, or cancel any pokes or practice thatpertains to yourNKSemployment without advance notice, without having to give cause or ustihcation to any cinpk)vee.Recognition of these rights is a conditin of employment for anyone accepting a job offer from thiscompany. Any written or oral statements by an agent of this company that contradict these policies areinvalid and should not be relied ott; only the president of this compa ii y can a mend this policy.Mandatory Arbitration ClauseBy signing this application blank, you agree that any controversy or claim arising out of or relating toyour application and/or if you are offered and accept employment with this company, your employmentcontract or breach thereof shall he settled by arbitration administered by the American ArbitrationAssociation in accordance with its applicable rules. You further agree that should you submit anycontroversy or claim to arbitration tinder this policy, you agree to abide by and perform any awardrendered by the arbitrator(s).typical application blank and asks for information related to a much wider array of attitudes andexperiences. BIB items are based on an assumption that these prior behaviors and experiences will hestrongly related to an applicant’s future behavior.11 For example, a common BIB item asks applicants tolist their favorite subjects in high school. Use of i:he responses to an item such as this assumes that peoplewho preferred English will perform differently on a given job from people who preferred science or math.Whether such an item should he included on a BIB, however., depends on its ability to differentiate theperformance of good and poor workers on the job in question. Recent research indicates that BIBs canhelp to predict job performance in certain instances. For example, a recent research study found that BIBitems can account for incremental predictability of key performance variables bed that accounted for byincumbent experience on the job, relevant Big Five personality constructs, and general mental ability.2Another ariarion to the traditional application blank is the weighted application blank, an application formthat is designed to be scored more systematically and is more like the BIB. To develop the scoring systemfor a weighted application blank, high and low performers who currently work for the company arecompared on a variety of characteristics (e.g., education, years of experience, and so on) that were knownat the time they applied for a job. Weights are assigned to the degree of difference on each characteristic.A zero may be assigned for “no difference,” ±1 for a small difference, and ±2 for a large difference. Theweights are then totaled for each applicant, and the one with the highest score is the preferred choice.Applicants who are judged as minimally qualified on the basis of the application blank will then proceedto the next phase of the selectim process. The next step will often be one or more interviews and/oradditional employment testing.
  • 79. Step 2: Employment InterviewOther than application blanks, the interview is definitely the selection technique host often encounteredby persons applying for a job in the United States.22 Notsurprisingly, the topic of interviews has generated hundreds of research studies over the past 20 years,covering such topics as verbal-nonverbal behavior, personality characteristics, impression management,interviewer-interviewee similarity, and preinrerview impressions (for a complete review, see Posthuma,Morgenson, and Campion, 2002).23 Because interviews are so widely used to select new employees, theymust maximize their potential for identifying qualified persons. Two strategies for making the most out ofan interview are (1) structuring the interview to be reliable and valid, and (2) training managers to use thebest available interviewing techniques.Types of interviews Employment interviews vary along at least two important dimensions: howstructured the interview is and whether it focuses on historical information about the applicant or attemptsto place the applicant in hypothetical situations to assess how she or he might respond in the future.An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol. Questions are not prepared inadvance; there is no attempt to guarantee that applicants are asked the same questions. Typically, theinterviewer does not have a scoring protoLsol either.When used by some highly skilled interviewers, the unstructured interview may lead to useful insightsabout an applicant. However, substantial research over the past 30 years indicates that structuredinterviews, regardless of their specific for-. mat, will generally be more reliablid an unstructured mtrviëws.24 Duiing the st ied mTëT7tew, ih iiirrviwrh sasi a thz1ist of questions to ask of all applicants.These questions should have been generated with the aid of a thorough job analysis in order to identifyspecific types of information sought during the interview. In addition, a scoring form similar to the oneshown in Exhibit 8—4 will be used by the interviewer for recording applicants’ responses.The importance of structure in the interview is further underscored by the fact that standardization shouldlower the possibility that intentional or unintentional biases hel yr the interviewer will affect the outcomesof the process. This, in turn, should lead to less differential impact on women and minorities25 and abetter chance for the organization to successfully defend itself if it happens to be sued.26The second dimension along which interviews can vary is whether they focus on ast ex erience andbehavior or on hypothetical future behavior. In recent years, two types of structured interviews avee erdanZf lnepopulirity in the United States.27 The first, the behavioral description interview (BDI), asksapplicants to relate actual incidents from their past relevant work experience to the job for which they areapplying. BDIs are based on the assumption that the past is the best predictor of the future.25 An exampleof this type of interview question would be “Thinking back to your last job, tell me about a time whenyou resolved a conflict with a customer?” Follow-up questions would include “What was the outcome?”and “How did you control your frustration?”The .sjtupional zyzterview (SI) also seeks to identify whether an applicant possesses relevant jobknowledge and motivation, but it achieves this goal in a different manner. SI questions encourageapplicants to respond to hypothetical situations they might encounter on the job for which they applied.29For example, an applicant for a pharmaceutical sales position might be asked “If one of the physicians inyour sales territory asked you to provide supporting research and other documentation regarding theefficacy of a new drug, how would you go about finding that information?” Responses to this and otherhypothetical questions are then scored according to their appropriateness for the job.
  • 80. C H. A P T E R 8 Selection 2 3 I ;1EXHIBIT 8-4;0]STRUCTURED EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW FORM—EXECUTIVE POSITIONDate ______________________________ 19 —Name ______________________________________________________ Date of birth _______________________________Phone no. _______________The Age I >iscrlmination in the Enipli,vmcnr Act and relevant [1- I’ Acts prohibit discriminationwith respect to individuals whc, are at least 4)) but less than 65 rears oi age.Present address - City State _____________ How long there? ___________________Were you in the Armed Fortes of the U.S.? Yes, branch _______________________________ Date _____________ 19 — to___________ 19 —(Not to be asked in Nc’sv jerses I______________ ________ 19_._.If nor, why nor? ______Were you hospitalized in the service?Are you drawing compensation? Yes.._......... No_Are you einploed now? YesD NoD (11 yes) How soon available? ______________________________________ ‘OChar arerelationshirs with present employer?Why are you applying for this position?Is his/her underlying reason a desire for prestige, security. or earnings?WORK EXPERIENCE. Cover isil positions. This information is very important. Interviewer should record last position first.Every month since leaving school should he accounted for. Experience in Armed Forces should be covered as a job (in NewJersey exclude military questions).IAST OR PRESENT POSITIONCompany From _________ 19 ______ to ___________ 19 _____How was job obtained? ____________________________________________ Whom did you know there? —____________________________________ Has a pplicanr shown self—reliance in getting ribs?Nature of wnrk at start __________________________________________________________________ . Starring salaryWill applicant’s previiius experience be helpful on this job?In what way did the job change?i-las applicant made good work progress?Narur of work at leaving --___________________________________ ._.. . Sal-aty at leavingHost much responsibility has applicant had? Any indication iii a mhiiioit?Superior Title ___________________ What is he/she like? _____________________________________________________Did applicant get along with superior?- Hos/ closely does (or did) he/she supervise you? What authority do (or did) you have?______________________________________________Number of people you supervised What did they do? _______________________________________________Is applicant a leader?Responsibility for policy formulationHas applicant had managemetit responsibility?To whar e*rent could you use initiative and judgment?Did applicant actively seek responsibility? Rating [jj Comments: dii nit also his/her sialiilitv, In inak cog final rating. be sore to consider industry, tilt unIv what the applicant canperseveranc i-. Iovalt, ahili tv to get a long withothers, self-reliance, leadership, ni,itnrits nodniotivation.< ti iM .,--—Interviewer: job considered for:
  • 81. 1. Excessive talking by the interviewer that limits the amount of job-related information obtained from interviewees. 2. Inconsistency in the questions used with applicants, which results in different types of information being gathered from each applicant. 3. Asking questions that are either unrelated or only slightly related to performance on the job. 4. Inability to put the interviewee at ease during the interview, making it difficult to gather spontaneous or follow-up information. 5. Overconfidence in the interviewer’s ahiliry to evaluate applicants, which results in hasty decisions. 6. Stereotyping applicants and allowing personal bias to influence evaluations. 7. Being influenced 1w the nonverbal behavior of applicants. 8. Rating many applicants the same in evaluations, such as superior (leniency error), average (central tendency error), or poor (stringency error). 9. Allowing one or two either good or bad characteristics of an applicant to influence the evaluation of all other characteristics (halo effect). 10. Allowing the quality of the applicants who preceded the present applicant to influence the ratings of the present applicant (contrast effect). 11. Making an evaluation of the applicant within the first minutes of the interview (first impression error). 12. Favorably evaluating an applicant because he or she is similar to the interviewer in some way (similar—to—me error).Source: Robert D. Gotewood and Hubert S. Feud (1998). Human Resource Selection, 4th ed. (Fort Worth, TX: Dryden), pp. 494—495.Copyright © 1998 by The Dryden Press; reprinted by permission of the publisher. ()verall, the research findings on situational interviews indicate that questions about pastexperience have higher validity than the future-oriented hypothetical questions. ‘° However, future-oriented questions can also be useful if used properly. ITraining for interviewing Despite recent optimism about the validity of employment interviews, manyquestions about their effectiveness remain unanswered. For years, there have been significant concernsthat interviewers may differ considerably in their accuracy, and the potential for bias always exists, sincethe interview relies so heavily on personal judgments. Exhibit 8—5 summarizes many of the problemsthat might limit the accui acy of a typical interview. Errors such as these have been the focus of manytraining programs for inturvieweis. Generally speaking, however, properly designed training programs doseem capable of reducing many of the errors found in traditional unstructured interviews. This appears tobe especially true when the training is used in conjunction with a structured interview format.’2 Trainingcan provide managers with a better understanding of how to ask questions, how to properly recordapplicants’ responses, and to some extent how to he aware of potential biases. Moreover, recent evidencesuggests that when a trained interviewer takes behaviorally oriented notes during the interview, validitycan he enhanced.3’ For the past 20 years, the University of Houston’s psychology department hassponsored the 1n tervierping Institute, which offers public workshops in all aspects of employmentinterviewing. For more information, address e—mail to 3: Employment TestsA technique that some organizations use to aid their selection decisions is the employment test. Anemployment test is a mechanism Icither a paper-and-pencil test or
  • 82. C H A P T E R 8 Selectiona simulation e 4it—.ztempsto measure certain characteristics of individu.. irs. ese charactciistics rangefrom tidssiJchas manual dexterity, to intelligence to personality.It can be very expensive to develop a test to measure these kinds of characteristics. For this reason alone,many employers purchase existing tests from a variety of sources. There are literally hundreds ofpublished tests from which to choose, and some of the more useful tests cost as little as $1 per applicant.Anyone interested in selecting a test for use in personnel selection can begin with the MentalMeasurezents Yearbook,•4 which summarizes many of the tests and includes a brief evaluation of theireffectiveness.Regardless of whether an organization develops its own test or purchases an existing one, additional costsare associated with using tests in selection. Any of these devices should he validated before it is actuallyused to make hiring decisions. However, validation studies are expensive if they are conducted properly.The validat n process becomes even more expensive if questions of discrimination arise. In su nstances,the organization is expected to validate its selection devices separately for members of majority andminority groups.Despite the potentially staggering costs associated with employment tests, 1any more than pay forthemselves through increased efficiency in selection. In adJition, research suggests that contrary to aperception that applicants avoid applylug for jobs that involve extensive testing, applicant withdrawalfrom any given Seection system is unrelated to the presence of testing.Various kinds of tests can be used for selecting employees. The type of test that is ultimately used willdepend on a number of factors, including the budgetary contraints of the organization, the complexity anddifficulty of the job, the size and quality of applicant populations, and of course the knowledge, skills,abilities, and ither characteristics required by the job. In the following sections, several of the ire commoncategories of selection tests will be described.Job sample performance tests A job sample performance test requires the applicant actually do a sampleof the work that the job involves in a controlled situation. Examples of performance tests include:rogra mm ing test for computer program mers.• Standard driving course for delivery persons.• Standardized typing, word processing, or spreadsheet applications problems for secretarial and clericalhelp.• Auditions used by a symphony orchestra or ballet company.• Simulated “in basket” tests for managers. A standardized set of memos, requests, and Sc) Ofl, is givento the applicant, who must dispense with them as she or he would if the work were real.Variations of these job sample performance tests are used in many organizations. ;pplicants arefrequently asked to run the machines they would run if they got the oh. Then the quantity and quality oftheir work are systematically graded and compared with the work of other applicants.Over a large number of selection situations, job sample performance tests have ;‘onstrated some of thehighest validities of all selection tests. The presumed superitv of these tests wer other types of selectiontools lies in their direct and obviousrelationship with performance on the job. However, for this relationship to actually it, the Content of thepub must he well documented through job analyses. Care must
  • 83. Source: Reproduced by permtssion. Copyright I 941 renewed 1969 by The Psychological Corporation, New York, NY. All rights taken not to confuse face validity with actual validity. Face validity is how good a test looks for agiven situation. Ivlany tests that are valid also look valid, hut that is not always the case. Sometimes a testthat appears to have no logical relationship to a particular job may prove to he a valid predictor ofperformance on that job. Nonetheless, job sample tests are a proven method of selection in manyorganizations.Cognitive ability tests Over the years, researchers have identified a large number of specific mentalabilities for which selection tests are now available. Perhaps the two best known cognitive abilities aremath and verbal. These form the basis for tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and theGraduate Record Examination (GRE), to name two. Verbal and math abilities are also measured by avariety of tests developed specifically for use in human resource selection. Still other tests that measurethese abilities were developed for use in other areas of psychology but now have been successfullyadapted to selection.Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale The Wechsler is a comprehensive paper-and-pencil test of 14 sectionsgrouped into two scores. The verbal score includes general information, arithmetic, similarities,vocabulary, and other items. The performance score includes picture completion, picture arrangement,object assembly, and similar items.Wonderlic Personnel Test The Wonderlic uses a variety of perceptual, verbal, and arithmetical items thatprovide a total score. (Other well-known tests include the Differential Aptitude Test, the SRA PrimaryMental Abilities Test, and multiple aptitudetests.)California Test of Mental Maturity (adult level) This is a test of mental ability administered to groups andscored by machine. Scores are developed from a series of short testS on spatial relationships, verbalconcepts, logic and reasoning, numerical reasoning,
  • 84. Source: Reproduced by permission. Copyright I 933, renewed 1961 by The Psychological Corporation, New York, NY All rights reserved.memory, and others. The scores are converted to IQ equivalents, and profiles are developed for analyzingperforma nec.Other cognitive tests There are numerous other examples of cognitive tests that have used successfully inselection but may not be as well known as measures of verba and math ability or general intellectualability. For example, Exhibit 8—6 shows an excerpt from a test called the Minnesota Paper Forni BoardTest (MPFB), which is a measure of spatial relations. Spatial relations refers to an ability to visualizethings on paper as they might appear in actual three-dimensional space. An architect or draftsperson mustbe able to look at a set of blueprints and clearly know what the actual object (building, house, bndge, etc.)will look like. Similarly, pilots must be able to quickly orient themselves even when they are flying otherthan straight and level with the groLind. Tests of spatial relations have proved effective for these andcertain other jobs.Clerical aptitude is still another cognitive ability that has proved useful in selecting people for a widearray of jobs. Exhibit 8—7 is the first page of the Minnesota Clerical Test, one of the more popularmeasures of clerical aptitude. This test requires applicants xo rapidly check numbers and names foraccuracy. The ability to rapidly compare entries such as these is a good predictor of many types of job performance, especially in secretarial and clerical jobs.
  • 85. They include choice reaction time, speed of limb movement, and nger dexterity. One of these is theO’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity Test (see Exhibit 8—8). The person being tested picks up pinswith the tweezer and row by row inserts them in the holes across the hoard with the hand normally used.These tests are used for positions with high manual requirements, such as assembling radio or TVcomponents and watches.Personality inventories and temperament tests Potentially, the least reliable of the employment testsare instruments that attempt to measure a person’s personality or temperament. The most frequently usedinventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Other paper-and-pencil inventories are theCalifornia Psychological Inventory, the Minnesota Counseling Inventory, the Manifest Anxiety Scale,and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule.A more optimistic picture of the value of personality inventories comes from efforts to specificallyconstruct a measure for a particular job. That is, some of the disappointing results previously obtainedwith personality inventories in selection could be attributed to a mismatch between the test and thesituation in which it was being used. 6 When personality tests are constructed to measure work-relatedcharacteristics such as achievement_and ability, they can show good validities.3A different approach, not as direct as the se f-reporting inventory, utilizes projective techniques to presentvague stimuli. The reactions provide data Ofl which psychologists base their assessment andinterpretation of a personality. The stim1ii are purposely vague to reach unconscious aspects of thepersonality. Many tech niques are used. The most common are the Rorschach Inkblot Test and theihematic Apperception Test.The Rorschach Inkblot Test was rst described in 1921. The test involves 10 cards, on each of which isprinted a bilateral symmetrical inkblot similar to that illustrated in Exhibit 8—9. The person responding isasked to tell what he or she sees in the inkblot. The examiner keeps a verbatim record of the responses,the time taken to make the responses, emotional expressions, and other incidental behavior. Then atrained interpreter analyzes the data and reaches conclusions about the pcrsonality patterns of the personbeing examined.Polygraph and honesty tests Another method currently used 1w some employers to rest employees isthe polygraph, sometimes erroneously called a lie detcctoi: The polygraph is an instrument that recordschanges in breathing, blood pressure, pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms. and rhenplots these reactionS
  • 86. on paper. The person being tested with a polygraph attached is asked a series of questions. Some areneutral, to achieve a normal response; others are stressful, to indicate a response made under pressure.Thus, the applicant may he asked, “Is your name Smith?” Then, “Have you ever stolen from anemployer?”Although originally developed for police work, the polygraph had become an extremely popular selectiontool by the mid-1980s. It has been estimated that, prior to 1988, nearly 2 million polygraph tests had beenadministered each year by private employers in the United States.39 This popularity was understandablebecause on-the-job crime had increased tremendously; it was estimated that dishonest employees costemployers about $65 billion per year in theft and other acts of dishonesty. 4° Since a polygraph will costonly about $25, it seems like a small investment to help reduce dishonesty in the workplace.In recent years, objections have been raised to the use of the polygraph in per •rne selection. There areconcerns that it is an invasion of an applicant’s privacy and that its use can lead to self-incrimination,which would be a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution. However, the mot seriousquestion concerning the polygraph was whether it was, in fact, a reliable and valid method for predictingon-the-job dishonesty. In a recent quantitative review of polygraph tests, it was reported thatelectrodermal measures correctly idenried 76 percent of participants with concealed knowledge,indicating that 24 percent of subjects were able to conceal information without detection.4’These concerns became serious enough that the federal government passed the Employee PolygraphProtection Act of 1988. This legislation has made it illegal for most private organizations to use thepolygraph as a selection device. Government agencies and certain contractors for the Department ofDefense and the Department of Energy are exempt from the act. In addition, private employers whosebusiness involves security and controlled substances are also allowed to continue’ using the polygraph.Finally, it is still legal to use the polygraph a hart of an ongoing investigation of dishonesty as long as theindividual employee’s rights are safe-guarded.42Organizations searching for an alternative to the polygraph are increasingly turning to paper-and-penciltests of honesty. Estimates are that 5,000 to 6,000 rms in the United States now use these duringscreening.4 The two most common types of preemplovirwnt honesty tests are overt integrity tests andpersonality-based integrity
  • 87. tests.44 Overt integrity tests ask more direct questions to assess dishonest behavior, as well as gather ahistory of theft and other illegal activities. In comparison, personality- based integrity tests aftempt toassess an individual’s predisposition toward deviant and disruptive behavior.4 Although some criticsbelieve that preemployment honesty tests generate an unacceptable level of false positive results (i.e., ajob candidate is incorrectly classified as a potential thief when, in fact, he or she is not),46 severalresearchers have provided evidence that certain honesty tests have acceptable levels of validity andreliability. For example, a comprehensive meta-analysis on over a half million subjects reported thathonesty tests are valid for predicting counterproductive behaviors on the job such as theft, disciplinaryproblems, and absenteeism. Tn addition, this study reported that lob candidate scores on honesty testscould also he used to predict future supervisory ratings of job performance.4Step 4: Reference Checks and RecommendationsIf you h ev ppliedf?ajF,y ere probably asked to provide a list of people whom the organization couldcontact to get information about you. These references might have been work-related (such as a formersupervisor or co-worker), or they might have been personal (such as friends, clergy, or family members).In either case, to the extent that you could, you provided the organization with a list of people who youbelieved would generally speak favorably about you. Rarely, when given the opportunity, does someoneknowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression to the new organization.This built-in bias in favor of the applicant is precisely the reason that general references have often beencriticized as sources of useful information. Many argue that they will seldom provide an organizationwith meaningful information about applicants. Equally important, however, are genuine concerns over thelegality of asking for and providing such information. Giving out confidential information about a formeremployee could he construed as a violation of the employee’s right to privacy, and giving a negativerecommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit.45 Most reasonable people would agreethat managers should not be allowed to lie about a former employee or to be malicious while providingreference information. On the other hand, not all references can be positive, and managers should nothave to fear being sued simply for being honest about a former employee.In army event, fears of being sited have led many managers to refuse to provide references for formeremployees. The trend in this direction has also caused orgaruzations to include explicit statements in theiremployee handbooks about corporate policies on checking references. Rather than risk a lawsuit,managers are instructed to give out only verifiable kinds of information such as dates of employment andjob title. Under these circumstances, it is almost certain that references will be of little or no value to thehiring organization except as a check on the accuracy of information contained on the application blank.Organizations must also he wary of any policy which suggests that all references should he neutral innature. Employment attorneys are cautioning organi7a- tions to he aware of a new problem which theyare labeling “negligent referrals.’ If an organization is aware of important negative information about aformer emplo) cc and fails to reveal this information during an inquiry by a prospective employer, itmight find itself in “legal hot water.”4 At the present time, the legal status sur rounding reference-checking and providing recommendations is just not clear at all.Perhaps because references have become such dangerous business, at least 32 states have passed laws thatgive managers some immunity from being sued for providing good-faith, job-related information abouttheir employees.50 Most of these laws are, however, too new to determine whether they will he effective.Step 5: Physical ExaminationsCareful adherence to the Americans with Disabilities Act indicates that physical examinations can heused to screen out unqualied individuals hut generally should be required only after a conditional offer ofemployment has been made. However, if an organization is going to use such examinations, allindividuals who arc conditionally offered employment should he required to have one. Theserequirements do not mean that an organization must hire an individual with a disability if that personcannot perform the job. They do, however, help to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who
  • 88. A note on drug testing Perhaps no other selection practice elicits a more emotional reaction than anorganizational drug-testing program. A recent survey by the American Management Associationindicates, however, that approximately 80 percent of American corporations are now using drug tests.2Moreover, the Department of Transportation mandates both drug and alcohol testing for virtually allemployers ‘ho have truck and delivery drivers with commercial licenses.Why is there such a strong emphasis on alcohol and substance abuse in the workplace? Consider thefollowing statistics compiled from a number of sources by the U.S. Department of Labor. It is estimatedthat there are 14.8 million illicit drug users in the United States and three-quarters of these persons areemployed either full- or part-time. More than 14 percent of employed Americans report being heavydrinkers. More than one in three workers between the ages of 18 and 25 are hinge drinkers (i.e., five ormore drinks on one occasion). Alcohol abuse costs U.S. corporations 500 million lost work days eachyear. S4 Coupled with estimated losses of $120 billion annually attributable to drug abuse,55 the costs tobusiness are staggering.The reliability of drug tests is, however, a major concern, for at least two reasons. First, even when aparticular drug test is deemed very accurate if typical em •ymen test standards are applied, there is apotential for the test to yield a questionably high number of false positives— HRMEMOthe test indicates that the applicant is using illegal drugs when in reality he or In a recent Gallup poll commissioned by theshe is not.56 Second, the personal consequences of heing falsely labeled as a Institute for a Drug-Freedrug user are more severe than those of a false positive on other types of Workplace, a significant majority ofselection tests—a math test, for example. In the former case, the imPlication is Americans supported drugthat the applicant has broken the law; in the latter case, the implication issimply that the applicant has more math ability than he or she has in reality.Also, the legality of drug-testing programs has not been universallyestablished, although many organizational programs have withstood challenges in court. Thus, it is notpossible to determine whether any particular drug-testing program that doesn’t fall under a federalmandate will, in fact, be legal. However, the bestguess is that most good-faith drug testing programs will he legally acceptable if the s organization hastaken steps to:• Inform all job applicants of the organization’s drug-resting screening program.• Establish a high-quality control testing procedure with a reliable testing laboratory.• Perform any drug tests in a professional, nonthreatening manner.• Keep all results confidential.
  • 89. DAY IA. Orientation ofapproximately 12 ratees.B. Break up into groups of four or six to playmanagement simulation game. (Raters observe planning ability,problem-solving skill, interaction skills,conimunication ability.)C. Psychological testing— Measure verbal and numerical skills.I). Interview with raters. (Ratees discuss goals, motivation, and career plans.)E. Small-group discussion of case incidents. (Raters observe condence,persuasiveness, decisionmaking flexibility.)DAY 2A. Individual decision—making exercise—Ratees are asked to make a decision about Sonic problem thatmust be solved. (Raters observe factnding skills, understanding of problem—solvingprocedures, a rid propensity for taking risks.)B. In-basket exercise. (Raters observe decision making under stress, organizing al)ility, memory, andability to delegate.)C. Role-playing of performance evaluation interview. (Raters observe empathy, ability to react,counseling skills, and how information is used.)D. Group problem solving. (Raters observe leadership ability and ability to work in a group.)DAY 3A. Individual case analysis and presentation. (Raters observe problem-solving ability, method ofpreparation, ability to handle questions, and communicatIon skills.)B. Evaluation of other ratees. (Peer evaluations.)The particular types of employment tests that are used in an organization vary with. the type of employeebeing hired. Many of the techniques that have been discussed in this chapter (the interview, for example)are common to most occupations. Others, such as cognitive ability testing, are used with a wideass&trnent of jobs and occupations ranging from blue-collar to managerial positions. However, becauseof the costs associated with a had decision and the complexities of managerial work, organizationsfrequently expend more time, effort, and money hiring middle- to upper-level executives than they spendhiring for positions lower on the organizational chart. One of the best-known multiple selection methodsused for these purposes is the assessment center. The assessment center was first used by the Germanmilitary in World War II. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the United States began to use it inthe mid-1940s. American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) introduced the assessment centerto the world of business in the 1950s. Since 1956, AT&T has used assessment centers to evaluate morethan 200,000 prospective and current employees.7An assessment center uses a wide array of methods, including several interviews, work samples andsimulations, and many kinds of paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes.’8 Exhibit 8—10 presentsbriefly a typical 21/2 day assessment center schedule.Most.assessment centers are similar in a number of areas:1. Groups of approximately 12 individuals are evaluated. Individual and group activities are observed andevaluated.2. Multiple methods of assessment are used—interviewing, objective testing, projective testing, games,role-playing, and other methods.
  • 90. 3. Assessors are usually a panel of line managers from the organization. They can, however, be consultants oroutsiders trained to conduct assessments.4. Assessment centers are relevant to the job, and thus have high appeal because of this relevance.As a result of assessees participating as part of a group and as individuals, completing exercises, interviews, andtests, the assessors have a large volume of data on each individual. Individuals are then evaluated on a number ofdimensions, such as organizational and planning ability, decisiveness, flexibility, resistance to stress, poise, andpersonal styles.The raters’ judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report. Each assessee’s performance in the centercan he described if the organization wants this type of report. Portions of the individual reports are fed back to eachassessee, usually by one or more members of the assessment team.. Because it is an integrated attempt to measure a variety of characteristics of anagers, the assessment centerreport permits the organization to make a number of determinations about human resources:• Qualifications of individuals for particular positions.• Promotal,dity of individuals.• How individuals function in a group.• Type of training and development needed to improve behaviors of individuals.• How good assessors are in observing, evaluating, and reporting on the performance of others (assessees).Overall, the results of research on assessment centers have indicated that they are a valid way to selectrnanagers9—hut they are not without disadvantages. Generally speaking, well-designed assessment centers are arelatively expensive way to hire managers. As such, they are not a reasonable alternative for many smallerorganizat’ions. rnoreover, there are circumstances in which less costly and less admin tratively complicatedtechniques are just as effective in managerial selection.60 erefore, they are frequently not the technique of choiceeven for organizationsthat have the resources to utilize them.Once an organization has made a commitment to investigate what types of selection devices it will use, it mustattempt to evaluate whether its eftorts will he worthwhile. Ultimately, a large part of the answer to this questioninvolves the utility of the selection process. Utility refers to the degree to which using a selection system improvesthe quality of the individuals being selected by the organization.6’Utility has two related components. Statistical utility is the extent to which aselection technique allows an organization to better predict who will he successful. COST-BENEFITOrganizational utilit) which is dependent, in part, on statistical utility, is a matter of ANALYSIS FORcosts and benefits. In other words, answering the question whether the selection THE SELECTIONsystem should he developed arid used is ultimately an issue of whether it saves the DECISIONorganization more money than it costs.Generally speaking, an analysis of the costs versus the benefits ot selection requires estimates of the direct andindirect costs associated with the selection systeni. I)irect costs include such things as the price of the tests, thesalary paid to an interviewer,
  • 91. HR JOURNAL CEO SELECTION: SUCCESSION PLANNING AND THE CRYSTAL BALLCorporations differ in terms of their preference for hiring replacement managers from within their own ranks or from outside theorganization.When it comes to picking a new CEO, however, all bets are off. The choice of anorganization’s highest ranking manager depends on many factors, but two of the most important are the current CEO and his or herrelationship with the company’s board of directors. Research suggests that an outsider will be appointed CEO more often when there is ahigh percentage of outside directors on the board. Outsiders also become the leading candidates in organizations that intend to delegate morepower to their CEOs.Interestingly, outsiders are often asked to infuse an organization with new direction and leadership when the company is facing a financialdisaster.Why are outsiders seen as the salvation of a dying organization? Current thinking suggests that outsiders have not been“brainwashed” by a corporate culture that apparently needs to be changed.The outsider is expected to bring a fresh perspective and be willingto question everything and anything about the organization’s past way of doing business.Then, of course, there is CEO succession in the Magic Kingdom. Michael Eisner is the CEO of Disney who took over a $2 billion companyin 1984 and has helped make it worth more than $25.4 billion today. Much of his success is credited to dramatic shifts in strategic thinking.In 1984 onlyI percent of Disney’s income came from movies and only 9 percent from overseas markets.Today, 43 percent comes from movies, andoverseas income accounts for 23 percent. As the story goes, Eisner hurriedly made a list of possible successors and handed it to his wifeminutes before he was supposed to undergo risky heart surgery. As it happened, the list was unnecessary and he has never revealed itscontents.The selection process for a new CEO is, therefore, qualitatively different from most other forms of selection. It is potentially influenced farmore by political dynamics and idiosyncratic characteristics of the current CEO and the board of directors.Yet people generally agree that theright choice for CEO may never have been more critical to a corporatior’s success than it will be in the globalmarketplace of the next century.Sources: “Disney or Doesn’t H& Face Value’ (January 2002), The Economist, pp. 61—62: David Jackson and Richard Corliss (February2001), “How to Build a Better Mousetrap:’ Time. pp. 40—42: Kenneth A. Borokhovich. Robert Parrino, and Teresa Trapani (September1996), Outside Directors and CEO Selection,’ Journal of Financial andQuantitativeAnalysis, pp. 337—355:John Huey (April 7, 1995),”EisnerExplains Everything,” Fortune, pp. 44—68: Beni Lauterbach and JacobWeisberg (1996),’Top Management Successions: The Choice betweenInternal and External Sources,” Ibor, pp. 103—117; Noel Tichy (Summer1996),”Simultaneous Transformation and CEO Succession: Key to GlobalCompetitiveness,” Organizational Dynamics, pp. 45—59.and the equipment used in a work sample test. Indirect Costs include changes in public image associatedwith implementing procedures such as drug testing.The organization must also estimate how much money it will save 1w hiring more qualified employeesusing the selection system. These savings can COIiiC from improved outcomes such as higher levels ofquality or quantity of output, reduced absenteeism, lower accident rates, and less turnover.Sonietiiiws, when an organization’s managers see how costly systematic selecti ofl can be, they wonderwhether it will ever have henefirs The answer to this ha - sic question depends on many factors. 1ut validselection procedures can yield enormou benefits, especiall’ in situations where the direct and indirectcosts of hiring a poor performer are high. Imagine the costs associated with a single wrong hiringdecisioii when airlines are selecting pilots. Pilot errors can cost the company millions
  • 92. different jobs, he would use the following selectionprocess.• Managers: screeninginterview, application blank, interview, reference check. Professional and technical:screening interview,application blank, interview, refrrence check.• Clerical: screening interview, application blank, interview, tests.• Skilled: screening interview, application blank, tests, and interviews for marginal) applicants.• Semiskilled: screeninginterview, application blank, tests, and interviews for marginal applicants.Clark and Ed hired the managers. Clark himself hired the professionals.While these groups were being hired, an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employeesand supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals.The HR specialist hired theclerical employees with help from the managers andprofessionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their directsupervision.different jobs, he would use the following selectionprocess.• Managers: screeninginterview, application blank, interview, reference check.• Professional and technical:screening interview,application blank, interview, reference check.Clerical: screening interview, application blank, interview, tests.• Skilled: screening interview, application blank, tests, and interviews for marginalapplicants.• Semiskilled: screeninginterview, application blank, tests, and interviews for marginal applicants.Clark and Ed hired the managers. Clark himself hired the professionals.While these groups were being hired, an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employeesand supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals.The HR specialist hired theclerical employees with help from the managers andprofessionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their directsupervision.Then Clark and the HR flspecialist administered the wtests to skilled and busemiskilled employees. Clark lashired the clearly well- soqualified semiskilled spemployees, except in apmarginal cases. Candidates bureceived a review and were cointerviewed by the gamanagers to whom they newould report.A similar thprocess was used to hire forthe semiskilled employees. ofSince there were few clechoices among professional- ale
  • 93. technical and skilled coemployees, it was more prcefficient not to involve the denew managers. apiSeveral problems catdeveloped. Clark and Ed had neno trouble agreeing on 20managerial candidates. But pein 18 additional cases, Clark adjfelt he had found better amcandidates, whereas Ed recwanted more Chicago wapeople that he knew.Among coiClark’s choices were many emmore qualified minority and objfemale managerial 501candidates than Ed wanted amto accept. In the end, they pocompromised. Ed gave up cohalf his choices to Clark, Loiand Clark did likewise. EdThere were also qupr’oblems in the skilled disprofessional categories.These people generallywanted more pay than the budget called for, And the last 20 percent hired were somewhat below minimalspecifications. Clarkappealed for a biggerbudget, given theseconditions.The home office gave him half of what he needed. He had to generate the other half by payingless for the bottom 20 percent of the semiskilled andclerical employees. Clark alerted Ed to the probable competence problem,promising that he’d begin developing a list of qualified applicants in thesecategories in case they were needed.In sum, Clark hired the people needed within the adjusted budget, on time, and generally with therequired specifications. He was able to make acontribution to equalemployment opportunity objectives by hiringsomewhat more minorities and women than the total population, less than hecould have and less than Lois wanted, but more than Ed wanted. All werequalified. No reversediscrimination took place.