Art of Photography by Vivek Desai

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Its a basic guide to photography by my friend Vivek Desai. The slides given within will provide better know how for beginners and amateurs and will help you know a DSLR camera. If you are a …

Its a basic guide to photography by my friend Vivek Desai. The slides given within will provide better know how for beginners and amateurs and will help you know a DSLR camera. If you are a photography enthusiast, this guide is the right place to start with.

It will also help you better understand How to Use a DSLR before you spend bucks and own one.

You can connect with Vivek Desai @ https://www.facebook.com/VivekDesai88

More in: Art & Photos , Business
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  • 1. THE ART OFPHOTOGRAPHY -BY VIVEK DESAI
  • 2. What Is Photography ? Photography Is an art to showcase the world the way you see it ! Photography Requires ..• A Camera• An Eye• A Good Point of View !
  • 3. CAMERACamera is an instrument which , with user’s control , captures light ,processes it and stores in the form of analogue ( photo film ) or digital( CMOS memory ) forms for further processing. Three Main classification - Point and Shoot - Prosumer* - Digital SLR
  • 4. CAMERAPoint and Shoot digital Cameras (P&S):‫‏‏‬- Commonly referred to as “consumer” digital cameras.- Typically small, compact and lightweight- Typically very User-Friendly- Image Quality has improved drastically
  • 5. CAMERAProsumer- Not technically its own specification- Advanced models of P&S- Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLRs-Typically have extended zoom range(8-12X Optical Equiv)‫‏‏‬- Typically combine user friendly-P&S features with more advanced manual features.
  • 6. CAMERA Digital SLR- SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex- Have larger sensors, resulting in greater image quality- Tend to favor manual control,- Much larger and heavier- Ability to interchange system lenses- Most controls by user
  • 7. CAMERAMisconception about MEGAPIXEL!Quality does not depend merely on the Megapixel of your camera.- Each digital image is made from millions of tiny squares, known as pixels.- Essentially, an image is recorded by tiny microlenses (pixels) which make up the camerassensor SENSOR SIZE COMPARED- All Pixels are not created equal!- A digital sensor is essentially made upof millions of tiny micro-lenses (pixels)‫‏‏‬- Pixels are analog devices which record light and color data- Larger Sensors contain larger pixels,which are much better and collecting this data
  • 8. CAMERAMegapixels – Determine the total SIZE (Dimensions) of the image recorded bycamera- More MP does not always mean a better picture- Digital Image dimensions do not equal print dimensions- For example a full quality image from an 8 megapixel camerawill produce a digital image measuring approximately 9X14 inches but printingstandards say that you should not print to “Photo Quality” any larger than 8X10
  • 9. CAMERAExposureA “correct” or “good” exposure occurs when you maintain as much detail aspossible in both the very bright parts (highlights) as well as the very dark parts(shadows) of an image. How much of a range in which you can capture detail fromlight to dark is referred to as the Dynamic Range. As you are about to see, therecan be many “correct” or “good” exposuresThere are three factors which influence the exposure of your image:-Shutter Speed-Aperture -ISO
  • 10. CAMERAShutter SpeedRefers to how long the shutter is open, exposing the image sensor to light.(how long the camera “sees” the picture) ‫‏‏‬Measured in Seconds, from 30 down to 1/8000Fast Shutter Speeds (600 and up) are used to stop motion and will freeze the subject.Slow Shutter Speeds (1/60 or slower) can be used to portray movement or speedVery Slow Shutter Speeds (5 sec. or slower) can be used in very low light situations to obtaincorrect exposure, or achieve dramatic effects.Beware!As your shutter speed decreases, chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold thecamera steady for a longer period.
  • 11. CAMERAApertureAn aperture is defined as a hole or opening through which light is admitted.Inside the camera lens is a system of blades which open and close to increase or decreasethe opening through which light passes into the cameraOften referred to as an f-stop, aperture is usually represented by: f/1.8, or f/5.6A Smaller number means a wider opening and is referred to as a larger value (eg. A largeaperture of 2.0, a small aperture of 22)‫‏‏‬The wider the lens is open(larger aperture value), the more light gets in (you can use fastershutter speeds) ‫‏‏‬ Aperture also controls depth of field (DOF), which refers to how much of your image is infocus.A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF and can be used to isolate a subject.
  • 12. CAMERAISO- Refers to the light sensitivity of the sensor- HIGH ISO value means the sensor will be MORE sensitive to light, meaning it willtake LESS LIGHT to get the right exposure- Similar to Film Speeds in 35mm format- Noise is similar to film grain and causes loss of fine detail in images- It is more visible in dark parts of an image and is generally more noticeable whendisplayed on screen than in print
  • 13. CAMERAFor better understanding of the concepts about Aperture , Shutter speedImagine Your eye as your Camera .
  • 14. CAMERAFor better understanding of the concepts about Aperture , Shutter speedImagine Your eye as your Camera .• Light enters the eye through a small holecalled the pupil and is focused on the retina.• Eye also has a focusing lens, which focuses imagesfrom different distances on the retina.• The colored ring of the eye, the iris, controlsthe amount of light entering the eye.• It closes when light is bright andopens when light is dim.• Ciliary muscles in ciliary body controlthe focusing of lens automatically.• Image formed on the retina is transmittedto brain by optic nerve
  • 15. CAMERAIn similar way The aperture of camera is just like the IRIS which controls theamount of light .When object is brighter , the IRIS shrinks to allow lesser light to pass through andwhen lighting conditions are darker , the IRIS expands to allow more light to passfor better visibility.Similarly Aperture is more when lighting conditions are darker and it is less whenthe conditions are brighter .aperture is defined by ‘f’ numbers . More the ‘f’ number lesser is the diameter ofthe aperture and vice versa. So an aperture with ‘f’ number 2 will be fully openwhile that with ‘f’ number 22 will be having a very small opening.So in bright daylight conditions one has to set ‘f’ number merely around f8 to f16depending on light.While in dark one can set f number as f2.4
  • 16. CAMERAAperture is defined by ‘f’ numbers . More the ‘f’ number lesser is the diameter ofthe aperture and vice versa. So an aperture with ‘f’ number 2 will be fully openwhile that with ‘f’ number 22 will be having a very small opening.So in bright daylight conditions one has to set ‘f’ number merely around f8 to f16depending on light. While in dark one can set f number as f2.8
  • 17. CAMERAAperture also controls depth of field (DOF), which refers to how much of yourimage is in focus.A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF and can be used to isolate asubject. Shallow Depth of Field ( F2.8) Wide Depth of Field (F32)
  • 18. CAMERAShutter speed : ( exposure )Consider your eyes are closed. If you are about to view a scene on a brighter sunny day / where lights are good , you openyou eye for a very short time and close it again.In other case consider yourself standing to view something when the just sets down and there is low light around.Comparing above two conditions you can view more details of the scene in the first case than you can observe in secondcase.You would probably need to keep you eyes open for a longer time to see all the details of the scene.Similar way the shutter speed controls the time for which the light falls on the sensor ultimately the amount of lightcaptured by the same.Your eyelid acts as shutter for your eye .Shutter speed / Exposure is the amount of time for which the shutter of your camera remains open to allow light to fall onthe sensor .So one needs to keep shutter speed high ( short exposure ) when lighting conditions are brighter and has to keep low (long exposure ) when lighting conditions are darker.Shutter speeds are defined in terms of seconds of exposureA shutter speed of ( 1/125 ‘ ) means that the shutter is open for 1/125 th of a second and 4” means that the shutter isopen for 4 Seconds .Less the shutter speed , more is the amount of time the shutter is open and more is the light that is captured by sensor.CAUTION: as you decrease shutter speed image may get blurred when camera is shaken . So a tripod is a must while youtake long exposure photography in dark. ( like night sky photography , night view photography etc. )
  • 19. CAMERAHere are some examples of shutter speed control for different types ofphotography LONG EXPOSURE PHOTOGRAPHY SHORT EXPOSURE PHOTOGRAPHY Less Shutter Speed ( 6 “ Exposure ) High Shutter Speed ( 1/400 “ Exposure)
  • 20. LENSESA camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is anoptical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body andmechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on othermedia capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.Types of Lenses :-Prime Lenses-Zoom Lenses-Macro Lenses
  • 21. LENSESPrime Lenses:-Standard non-zoom lenses are calledprime lenses or simply "primes".-Their advantage, in addition to typicallygiving a slightly better image quality, is thatthey are smaller, lighter andcheaper than a zoom lens of the same quality.
  • 22. LENSESZoom Lenses:The focal length of a zoom lens is not fixed; instead it can be varied between aspecified minimum and maximum value. Zoom lenses are often described by theratio of their longest to shortest focal lengths.For example, a zoom lens with focal lengthsranging from 100 mm to 400 mm may bedescribed as a 4:1 or "4×" zoom.-Zooming is described in terms of focal length. More the focal length , more is the zooming.-Viewing an object through a lens of thefocal length of 55mm is probably sameas u see that object with your bare eyes.-With 200 mm focal length you see theobject ‘closer’ i.e. zoomed.
  • 23. LENSESMacro lenses:-Macro lenses are designed for extreme close-up work.-Such lenses are popular for nature shooting such as small flowers, as well as formany technical applications.-As most of these lenses can also focus to infinity and tend to be quite sharp,many are used as general-purpose optics.
  • 24. Photography Styles : Three Basic Types• Landscape Photography• Portrait Photography• Documentary Photography
  • 25. Photography StylesLandscape Photography :Landscape is a photograph of the environment. It could be the forest,mountains, oceans, or your backyard !Here are few Examples of Landscape Photography
  • 26. Photography StylesPortrait Photography :Portrait photography is a photo of a person or animals.It is important to show an emotion.Examples of Portrait Photography are ..
  • 27. Photography StylesDocumentary Photography :Documentary photography presents facts without changing anything.Good documentary photographs make you wonder what the story isbehind the photograph.Few Examples :
  • 28. Basic In-Camera SettingsExposure ModesThere are several modes available which offer a combination of automatic andmanual control over the three elements of exposure.Auto, sometimes represented by an A, or simply a green square, is fully automaticfunctioning. True “point and shoot” where the camera decides all the settings foryou
  • 29. Basic In-Camera SettingsFireworks - shutter speed and exposure are set for shooting fireworks;pre-focusing & use of tripod recommended.Landscape - take photos of wide scenes. Camera automatically focuseson a distant object.Macro - take close-up shots of small objects, flowers and insects. Lenscan be moved closer to the subject than in other modes. Hold the camerasteady or use a tripod.
  • 30. Basic In-Camera SettingsNight Portrait - take photos of a subject against a night scene. The built-inflash and red-eye reduction are enabled; shutter-speeds are low. Use of tripodrecommended.Night Scene - photograph nightscapes. Preprogrammed to use slow shutterspeeds. Use of tripod recommended.
  • 31. Basic In-Camera SettingsPortrait - Main subject is clearly focused and the background is out of focus(has less depth of field). Best when taking shots outside during the day. Shootusing a mid to long telephoto lens, stand close to your subject within therecommended camera range and, when possible, select an uncomplicatedbackground that is far from the subject.
  • 32. Basic In-Camera SettingsThe metering system within a camera measures the amount of light in aframe and determines the best exposure. Many cameras have more thanone metering mode and each evaluates a scene in a different way.Essentially, by changing the metering mode you are telling the camera toevaluate the scene in a different way.
  • 33. Basic In-Camera SettingsMetering Modes :Center-weighted meteringCurrently the most common digital camera metering system. Center-weighted isthe metering system of choice on digi-cams that do not offer other meteringmodes. Object is focused mostly at center and gets blurred as radius increases.
  • 34. Basic In-Camera SettingsMatrix (evaluative) meteringA complex metering system whereby a scene is split up into a series ofzones. Overall exposure is based on evaluating each zone individually andtaking an average of the total light readings.
  • 35. Basic In-Camera SettingsSpot meteringSpot metering covers just under 4 percent of the viewfinder area. It takes a preciseexposure reading only at the very center of the frame and disregards the rest. Aspot meter is used when a subject is backlit or has bright light upon it and thebackground is dark -- for example, when there are extremes in brightness in ascene.
  • 36. Basic In-Camera SettingsPartial meteringPartial metering is similar to spot metering but covers a larger area of theviewfinder, about 13.5 percent. It is useful for taking portrait photos when thesubject is back lit Underexposure is minimized by metering on the face.Both spot and partial metering are considered advanced settings. They give theskilled photographer more control over exposure than do matrix and center-weighted metering.
  • 37. Composition: The Rule of ThirdsImagine the frame divided into three equal sections both horizontally and verticallyDivided into “thirds”The Concept is: Placing your subject or elements along any of these lines, andespecially on or near the intersecting points, makes a photo more naturallyattractive to the viewer.Frame is divided in 3 parts and subject ( Sailor Man / Gate way of India ) are located in one of the side parts of division.
  • 38. Composition: The Rule of ThirdsThe concept is simple: Place subjects along the lines, or near intersecting points-For portraits, the eyes are often positioned along one of the horizontal linespreferably near one of the power points to make the photograph more pleasing tolook at, and naturally draw attention to the eyes.-For landscapes the horizon is aligned to any of the horizontal lines depending onhow much land/water/sky you want to show.
  • 39. Point of View Try selecting and unusual point of view.BELOW EYE LEVEL ABOVE
  • 40. THANK YOU !