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writing literature review

  1. 1. WRITING LITERATURE REVIEW UVB6023 - 
  2. 2. Literature Review FUNCTION o To demonstrate skills in library searching o To show command of the subject are o To show understanding of the problem o To justify the research topic, design and methodology FORMAT o Written in essay form o Groups related work together o Combines summary and synthesis Hart, C. (2001). Doing a Literature Review. London. Sage Publications Ltd.
  3. 3. What are the key theories, concepts and ideas? What are the major issues and debates about the topic? QUESTIONS which could be addressed by Literature review How is knowledge on the topic structured and organised? What are the main questions and problems that have been addressed to date? Hart, C. (2001). Doing a Literature Review. London. Sage Publications Ltd.
  4. 4. Good Literature Review Poor Literature Review  Is a synthesis of x Is an annotated available research biography  Is a critical evaluation x Confined to description  Has appropriate breadth and depth x Narrow and shallow  Has clarity and conciseness x Confusing and longwinded  Uses rigorous and consistent methods x Constructed in an arbitrary manner
  5. 5. Summary  Shortened version of a text  Contains selected relevant information already mentioned in the text  Other peoples’ ideas BUT written in your own words  Must use appropriate CITATION style Synthesis  Organizes information around a specific topic/issue  Integrates information from several texts  Develops and supports arguments  Your own inference based on texts read Linking sentences  Creates cohesion + coherence  Cohesion = grammatical + lexical links; mechanical links at language level e.g. use of pronouns (it, that, these), use of transitional words (and, however, in addition)  Coherence = how meanings and ideas are related to each other e.g. limit the number of topics/issues discussed in a single paragraph
  6. 6. TASK 1 Where possible, identify the function of each sentence as i)summary, ii) synthesis, iii) linking sentence; in the following paragraph taken from a literature review on Problem Based Learning. S1 Traditional pedagogies, such as lecturing and demonstrating solutions to problems, very often result in students being capable of solving textbook problems, but unable to apply the knowledge to solve real life problems (Brown, Collins and Duguid, 1989; Mayer, 1996; Perkins and Salomon, 1989). S2 Problem based learning (PBL) is one of several instructional methods developed to remedy this problem. S3 Hoffman and Ritchie (1997 : 97) define PBL as “…a student-centered pedagogical strategy that poses significant, contextualized, real-world, ill-structured situations while providing resources, guidance, instruction, and opportunities for reflection to learners as they developed content knowledge and problem solving skills.” S4 In other words, PBL organizes knowledge to be taught around the problems that the learners will encounter in their personal lives or professionals careers. S5 In PBL, the learners are situated with authentic problems in which they are challenged to be active problemsolvers. S6 The ultimate goals of PBL are to guide learners towards “meaning-making over fact-collecting” (Rhem, 1998 : 1) as well as to become self-directed learners (Torp and Sage, 2002). S7 It is obvious that PBL does not present learning content for students to memorize, instead, it mimics natural learning processes where learning is initiated when a problem is encountered. S8 In seeking solutions to the problems, the person learns the skills as well as the knowledge that revolves around the problem and the context in which the problem takes place.
  7. 7. S1 Summary statement - supported by evidence through the use of citation to show that what you are saying is valid S2 Linking sentence to create coherence – own sentence S3 Direct quotation/Summary? – if phrase/sentence /definition is directly copied/lifted from existing source/text S4 + S5 Synthesis – own inference achieved through interpretation of available information – own sentence + idea S6 Summary statement - supported by evidence through the use of quotation & citation S7 + S8 Synthesis – own inference achieved thro ugh interpretation of available information – own sentence + idea
  8. 8. Discrete skills for writing literature review 1. In-text citation skills – Quotation 2. In-text citation skills – Paraphrasing 3. Summarizing skills 4. Synthesizing skills 5. Skills to create cohesion & coherence 6. Critical Reading skills
  9. 9. DIRECT QUOTATION
  10. 10. Short Verbatim Direct Quotation Long Selective
  11. 11. DIRECT QUOTATION - SHORT VERBATIM QUOTATION AUTHOR and YEAR System Author(s) Year published According to Canale and Swain (1980), “Strategic competence is the verbal and nonverbal communication strategies that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication .” (30). Quotation marks Pg no. According to Canale and Swain (1980: 30), “Strategic competence is the verbal and nonverbal communication strategies that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication.” “Strategic competence is the verbal and nonverbal communication strategies that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication.” (Canale and Swain, 1980: 30).
  12. 12. NUMBER System As Quiepo et. al. noted back in 1994 [8], “the heat transfer community can expect to see a significant increase in pioneering applications of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) methodologies to many complicated thermoscience problems admitting optimization in some sense. These exciting applications are being facilitated by the increased availability of high performance computers, distributed computing environments and improved guidelines for the specification of the necessary GA parameters.”
  13. 13. DIRECT QUOTATION - LONG VERBATIM QUOTATION Year published Author(s) In comparison to past behaviours, both men and women in the U.S. today spend more money and time on their personal appearance. Schwer and Daneshvary (2000), observe that, Americana are taking care of themselves by exercising, eating nutritious food, taking care of their skin, and enhancing their appearance including their hair via colour, transplants and permanents. In a quest to enhance their appearance, both women and men are spending more time and money on physical appearance, including personal grooming at beauty salons, beauty shops and barbershops. (207) Pg no. A separate paragraph on its own Slightly indented from other paragraphs No quotation marks
  14. 14. DIRECT QUOTATION - SELECTIVE QUOTATION 3 dots to show that you have not lifted certain words written by the author The intent of classroom discourse studies is to seek out “...objective assessments of student-teachers‟ performance in the classroom and the identification of effective teaching.” (Tsui, 2008 : 261) Pg no. Quotation marks As suggested by Tsui (2008), the intent of classroom discourse studies is to seek out “...objective assessments of student-teachers‟ performance ... and the identification of effective teaching” (261). Author(s) Year published
  15. 15. Task 2 Use information from the two excerpts below to formulate either a verbatim or selective quotation to be included in a literature review on how standard examination can negatively affect the teaching and learning of science. Excerpt 1: Shamos, M. (2002). The myth of scientific literacy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Excerpt on page 231 It is astonishing how exams limit what can be done in the science classroom. Standards testing used to measure students‟ scientific literacy constrains and routinizes the teachers' behavior, causing them to violate their own standards of good teaching. Teachers feel pressured to cover topics in the syllabus so students will score well on tests. Excerpt 2: Wood, T. (2008). State-mandated accountability as a constraint on teaching and learning science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 25 (8). Excerpt on page 641. Examination standards effectively strips students of the opportunity to be active agents in the processes of science literacy. The classroom interaction is structured in such a way as to inhibit students from asking questions of their own. As a result, students' opportunity to express curiosity and inquiry, which is a central processes in scientific thinking, are constrained. These unintended consequences of standard examinations, instead of improving science teaching and learning, continue to reduce science instruction to the literal comprehension of isolated facts and skills.
  16. 16. PARAPHRASING & SUMMARISING Ideas borrowed from a source BUT written in your own words Uvb6023 – 3.2
  17. 17. Task 3 Original text written by Luft, R.L. (2000). Management. In Malonis, J., (Ed). Encyclopedia of Business2nd. Edition. Detroit: Gale Group "Management is a process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. An organization could be a business, a school, a city, a group of volunteers, or any governmental entity. Managers are the people to whom this management task is assigned, and it is generally thought that they achieve the desired goals through the key functions of (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) directing, and (4) controlling.“ Examine each version of the paraphrased text and determine whether it has been properly paraphrased or whether it constitutes plagiarism. Paraphrase 1 Luft (2000) states that the way for an organisation to achieve its aims is through its managers. He then divides their responsibilities into four key roles: „planning‟, „organising‟, „directing‟ and „controlling‟. Paraphrase 2 According to Luft (2000), management is the method that is used to achieve organisational aims; that is, the method that is used to achieve what an organisation wants to achieve. He makes clear that an organisation could be a business, a school, a town, a group of people working voluntarily, or any governing body. Managers are the people who this task is given to, and it is agreed that they achieve what they want through the key activities of planning, organising, directing and controlling. Paraphrase 3 Management can best be defined as the system that is used for any organisation to succeed in meeting its objectives. This organisation can take many forms and be large or small. The key people in the accomplishment of these objectives are the managers. Their most important roles in the process are, planning, organising, directing and controlling (Luft, 2000)
  18. 18. Original text : "Management is a process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. An organization could be a business, a school, a city, a group of volunteers, or any governmental entity. Managers are the people to whom this management task is assigned, and it is generally thought that they achieve the desired goals through the key functions of (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) directing, and (4) controlling.“ Paraphrase 1 Luft (2000) states that the way for an organisation to achieve its aims is through its managers. He then divides their responsibilities into four key roles: „planning‟, „organising‟, „directing‟ and „controlling‟.  Correct information has been included  Not possible to change the 4 key functions in the paraphrase – as it would risk changing original content – so, OK to retain the words = PARAPHRASE
  19. 19. Original text : "Management is a process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. An organization could be a business, a school, a city, a group of volunteers, or any governmental entity. Managers are the people to whom this management task is assigned, and it is generally thought that they achieve the desired goals through the key functions of (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) directing, and (4) controlling.“ Paraphrase 2 According to Luft (2000), management is the method that is used to achieve organisational aims; that is, the method that is used to achieve what an organisation wants to achieve. He makes clear that an organisation could be a business, a school, a town, a group of people working voluntarily, or any governing body. Managers are the people who this task is given to, and it is agreed that they achieve what they want through the key activities of planning, organising, directing and controlling. Too similar to original although some vocabulary has been changed = PLAGIARISM
  20. 20. Original text : "Management is a process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. An organization could be a business, a school, a city, a group of volunteers, or any governmental entity. Managers are the people to whom this management task is assigned, and it is generally thought that they achieve the desired goals through the key functions of (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) directing, and (4) controlling.“ Paraphrase 3 Management can best be defined as the system that is used for any organisation to succeed in meeting its objectives. This organisation can take many forms and be large or small. The key people in the accomplishment of these objectives are the managers whose important roles are that in planning, organising, directing and controlling (Luft, 2000)  Correct information has been included  Not possible to change the 4 key functions in the paraphrase – as it would risk changing original content – so, OK to retain the words = PARAPHRASE
  21. 21. Original text written by Brown (2008) “The meeting tourism market have been vigorously pursued by many former industrial cities in Europe and the U.S. as part of their strategies of post industrial urban regeneration.” Paraphrased text reporting verb Brown (2008) notes that many cities in the U.S. and Europe that once relied on heavy industry are now trying to revitalize themselves by developing a meetings tourism industry. Author Year Published
  22. 22. Reporting phrase Year Published According to Brown (2008), many cities in the U.S. and Europe that once relied on heavy industry are now trying to revitalize themselves by developing a meetings tourism industry. Author Many cities in the U.S. and Europe that once relied on heavy industry are now trying to revitalize themselves by developing a meetings tourism industry [1].
  23. 23. Surame(s) of author(s) + date of publication e.g. Bernstein (2004) Reporting verb -PRESENT TENSE (linking the study with your research) Reporting verb -PAST TENSE (distancing the study with your research) states argues maintains suggests asserts concludes acknowledges predicts warns stated argued maintained suggested asserted concluded acknowledged predicted warned
  24. 24. Reporting verb -PAST TENSE (focus on past event) A survey /study/experiment conducted by Clark (2005) showed that Reporting Phrase According to As stated by In the view of Swales (2002) [name of author(s)] As stated in „Discourse Analysis‟ [name of book/article/paper]
  25. 25. Summarizing + Paraphrasing Written Texts Step 1 • Read and understand the text carefully •Take note of the references used • Select relevant information – depending on your purpose •Take note of page number where information is found Step 2 • Make notes Step 3 Step 4 • Change grammar – rearrange words and sentences • Simplify text – reduce complex sentences to simple sentences • Use synonyms • Rewrite the ideas in complete sentences Step 5 • Add in-text citation
  26. 26. Action Application Step 1:  read  understand  take note of ref used Milldew, R (2009). Teaching phonetics. Boston: City Press. OR [1] R, Milldew, Teaching phonetics, City Press, Boston, 2009 Step 2:  select relevant info  take note of pg no Pg 5 It is undeniable that the large majority of non-native learners of English experience a number of problems in attempting to master the phonetic patterns of the language. Step 3:  make notes Many English language learners have problems with English pronunciation Step 4:  rewrite in complete sentences Many non-native learners find English pronunciation difficult. Step 5:  add in-text citation Milldew (2009) points out that many non-native learners find English pronunciation difficult OR Many non-native learners find English pronunciation difficult [1].
  27. 27. For each of the following written texts: 1. Use paraphrasing to summarize the information – make sure to use appropriate in-text citation format 2. Write the reference list of each summarized information. Task 4 1 An introduction to the world of science. Written by William Short. Printed in New York. Published by Aesop Publication in 2000. The amphibian, which is the animal class to which our frogs and toads belong, were the first animals to crawl from the sea and inhibit the earth. 2 Author is Charles Yin. Book entitled writing made easy. Printed in Singapore by Atlas Press in 200r4. It is not uncommon to encounter sentences which, though they contain a great number of words and are constructed in a highly complex way, none the less turn out on inspection to convey very little meaning of any kind. 3 Urban development. Book printed in Hong Kong. Published by Mac Publication in 2008. Author is Jeremy Martin. One of the most noticeable phenomena in any big city, such as London or Paris, is the steadily increasing number of petrol-driven vehicles, some in private ownership, others belonging to the public transport system, which congest the roads and render rapid movement more difficult year by year. 4 Written by Catherine Cross in the Western Culture Journal. Article entitle British Culture. Volume 6 Issue 3, 2002. Found on page 112-200. Tea, whether of the China or Indian variety, is well know to be high on the list of those beverages which are most frequently drunk by the inhabitants of the British Isles. 5 Changing earth. Article written by Jeremy Irons and Robert Mall in the Ecosystem journal. Volume 10. Issue 1. published in 2009. on pages 53-63.
  28. 28. Author and Year System The first animals to leave the seas and live on dry land were the amphibians (Short, 2000). Short, W. (2000). An introduction to the world of science. New York: Aesop Publication. Number System The first animals to leave the seas and live on dry land were the amphibians [1]. [1] W, Short, An introduction to the world of science. Aesop Publication, New York, 2000. Yin (2004) states that some long and complicated sentences actually contain minimal information. Some long and complicated sentences actually contain minimal information [2]. Yin, C. (2004). Writing made easy. Singapore: Atlas Press. [2] C, Yin, Writing made easy. Atlas Press, Singapore, 2004. Martin (2008) warns that big cities have growing traffic problems. Big cities have growing traffic problems [3]. Martin, J. (2008). Urban development. Hong Kong: Mac Publication. [3] J, Martin,Urban development, Mac Publication, Hong Kong, 2008
  29. 29. Author and Year System Number System According to Clark (2002), the British drink a large amount of tea. The British drink a large amount of tea [4]. Cross, C. (2002). British culture. Western Culture Journal. 6(3). 112200. [4] C, Cross, British culture, Western Culture Journal 6(3), (2002) 112-200. Irons and Mall (2009) observe that Europe is experiencing erratic weather patterns. Europe is experiencing erratic weather patterns [5]. Irons, J. and Mall, R. (2009). Changing earth. Ecosystem. 10(1). 53-63. [5] J, Irons and R, Mall, Changing earth, Ecosystem, 10(1), (2009) 53-63.
  30. 30. SYNTHESIZING Merging new information with prior knowledge written in your own words Uvb6023 – 3.3
  31. 31. Here is a silly story: There once was a squirrel who went into an ice cream shop and asked the clerk, “Do you have any walnut?” “No. Sorry. We’re out of walnuts today.” The squirrel went away, but came back an hour later and said, “Have you got any walnuts?” The clerk looked at the squirrel angrily. “I told you. We don’t have any walnut. Now get out of here.” The squirrel went out the door, but in an hour came back again. “Have you got any walnuts?” he asked the clerk. “I told you we don’t have any walnuts. Listen here. If you come back here one more time, I’m going to nail your paws back to the counter. Now, get out!” The squirrel went out again, but sure enough, an hour later he was back. “Have you got any nails?” he asked. The clerk looked surprised. “No. I don’t have any nails.” “Great!” the squirrel said. “Have you got any walnuts?”
  32. 32. Summarising Synthesizing A squirrel came into an ice cream parlour and irritated the clerk by asking him each time if he had walnuts.  Asking over and over again for something will annoy people  We should never give up  The squirrel is crazy  This is a joke, and in jokes, things usually happen 3 times  Reflect on what you have read  Combine ideas gained from reading with own knowledge  Create new ideas, perspectives, opinions/ Personal understanding of text
  33. 33. Robots are mainly utilized in the manufacturing industry for monotonous and repetitive task such as in car-assembly line. However, with the development in nano-technology, other applications of robots are now multiplying. For instance, search-and-rescue robots are now being used to search for victims trapped under collapsed buildings. The military is also using robots as tools for combat where robots are used to collect information from enemy territory as well as to diffuse bombs. Domestic robots are also on the rise particularly for vacuum cleaning and lawn mowing. Although such robots are not built to look like their human counterparts, they have actually been programmed with a „brain‟ that allows them to accomplish the task they have been assigned for. Reflect on what you have read previously - robots used in manufacturing Now – robots used for search and rescuer operation, by the military, in homes Combine ideas gained from reading with own knowledge Robots equipped with artificial intelligence can do many human activities Create new ideas, perspectives, opinions/ Personal understanding of text Robots may replace humans in many areas
  34. 34. Use the 3-step approach discussed to synthesize the following: Task 5 1 Most children tend to imitate negative things they see on television, as they do not have the mental capacity to differentiate between right and wrong. Parents therefore need to play an active role in preventing their children from picking up the wrong values when watching television programmes. If a television programme contains a scene showing violence, parents need to stress the fact that violence is not the best way to solve a problem. Such violence in real life could cause pain and even death. 2 Greenhouses gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are naturally released through biodegradation processes. However, what is alarming is the fact that human activities are adding to the naturally occurring gases at an unprecedented level. Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels used in electricity generation and automobile combustion. Industrial activities produce large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide emitted during the production process of coal, natural gas, and oil. Such gases act like a thick blanket covering the earth‟s atmosphere, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up.
  35. 35. 1 Most children tend to imitate negative things they see on television, as they do not have the mental capacity to differentiate between right and wrong. Parents therefore need to play an active role in preventing their children from picking up the wrong values when watching television programmes. If a television programme contains a scene showing violence, parents need to stress the fact that violence is not the best way to solve a problem. Such violence in real life could cause pain and even death. Reflect on what you have read • Children imitate negative things they see on television • Parents need to advise children to help prevent them from picking up the wrong values seen on TV Combine ideas gained from reading with own knowledge • Children do not know that what they see on TV is not real • Parents are children‟s main care giver Create new ideas, perspectives, opinions/ Personal understanding of text • Parents need to be actively involved in order to minimize the impact of TV violence on children
  36. 36. 2 Greenhouses gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are naturally released through biodegradation processes. However, what is alarming is the fact that human activities are adding to the naturally occurring gases at an unprecedented level. Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels used in electricity generation and automobile combustion. Industrial activities produce large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide emitted during the production process of coal, natural gas, and oil. Such gases act like a thick blanket covering the earth‟s atmosphere, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Reflect on what you have read Combine ideas gained from reading with own knowledge Create new ideas, perspectives, opinions/ Personal understanding of text • Human activities are adding to the naturally occurring gases at an unprecedented level - burning of fossil fuels, industrial activities • Gases trap the sun's heat and cause the planet to warm up. • Many human activities are releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere • The atmosphere is getting hotter due to the green house effect • If humans do not reduce activities which contribute to the green house gases, the earth will be too hot to live in
  37. 37. COHESION & COHERENCE Uvb6023 – 3.4
  38. 38. Creating Cohesion & Coherence Connections within and between sentences & paragraphs Connections of ideas: Clear, plausible and comprehensible order
  39. 39. COHESION
  40. 40. Cohesion: Within + Between Sentences   1. Use reference words Use transitional markers Use reference words As teachers, we have daily opportunities to equip our students with essential life skills. The job is incredibly satisfying. As teachers, we have daily opportunities to equip our students with essential life skills. These privileges make our job incredibly satisfying. 2. Use transitional markers Retirement should be the reward for a lifetime of work. It is widely viewed as a sort of punishment. It is a punishment for growing old. Retirement should be the reward for a lifetime of work. Instead, it is widely viewed as a sort of punishment for growing old.
  41. 41. Use appropriate reference words and transitional markers to join the sentences in order to create text cohesiveness. Task 6 A wise man once said, “A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. The journey of an emerging writer begins with solid re-writing. Task will help reduce the anxiety of a first-time writer. Task will help organize preliminary ideas. Emerging writers should include steps in their own journeys in writing. If I had to describe my favourite teacher in two words, it would be patiently enthusiastic. Two simple adjectives may be just words to some. To me two simple adjectives encapsulate one wonderful year of learning under the most inspirational teacher. Not my attempt at flattery. Patient and enthusiastic reflect the deepest expressions of my thankful heart. Dr. Edward C. Tolman, after experimenting with rats over a long period of years, found that rats that learned to run a maze under the pressure of hunger took much longer to learn the maze than rats that learned under non-crisis conditions. The learning that did take place was of a narrow type. After learning the "right" route, these rats panicked if one avenue were blocked off. Not able to survey the field to notice alternative routes. When the rats were permitted to learn under non-crisis conditions, they later performed well in a crisis.
  42. 42. A wise man once said, “A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. The journey of an emerging writer begins with solid re-writing. Task will help reduce the anxiety of a first-time writer. Task will help organize preliminary ideas. Emerging writers should include steps in their own journeys in writing. A wise man once said, “A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Similarly, the journey of an emerging writer begins with solid re-writing. This task will not only help reduce the anxiety of a first-time writer, but will also help organize preliminary ideas. Thus, emerging writers should include these steps in their own journeys in writing.
  43. 43. If I had to describe my favourite teacher in two words, it would be patiently enthusiastic. Two simple adjectives may be just words to some. To me two simple adjectives encapsulate one wonderful year of learning under the most inspirational teacher. Not my attempt at flattery. Patient and enthusiastic reflect the deepest expressions of my thankful heart. If I had to describe my favourite teacher in two words, it would be patiently enthusiastic. These two simple adjectives may be just words to some, but to me they encapsulate one wonderful year of learning under the most inspirational teacher. This is not my attempt at flattery, but the two adjectives, patient and enthusiastic reflect the deepest expressions of my thankful heart.
  44. 44. Dr. Edward C. Tolman, after experimenting with rats over a long period of years, found that rats that learned to run a maze under the pressure of hunger took much longer to learn the maze than rats that learned under non-crisis conditions. The learning that did take place was of a narrow type. After learning the "right" route, these rats panicked if one avenue were blocked off. Not able to survey the field to notice alternative routes. When the rats were permitted to learn under non-crisis conditions, they later performed well in a crisis. Dr. Edward C. Tolman, after experimenting with rats over a long period of years, found that rats that learned to run a maze under the pressure of hunger took much longer to learn the maze than rats that learned under non-crisis conditions. Furthermore, the learning that did take place was of a narrow type. That is , after learning the "right" route, these rats panicked if one avenue were blocked off. They were not able to survey the field to notice alternative routes. However, when the rats were permitted to learn under non-crisis conditions, they later performed well in a crisis.
  45. 45. Cohesion: Between Paragraphs Different paragraphs must be linked so that they make sense as a whole. Poor link between Paragraphs Overall, Management Systems International has logged increased sales in every sector, leading to a significant rise in third-quarter profits. It is important to note that the corporation had expanded its international influence. Good link between paragraphs Overall, Management Systems International has logged increased sales in every sector, leading to a significant rise in third-quarter profits. Link It is important to note that these impressive profits are largely due to the corporation's expanded international influence.
  46. 46. Rewrite each of the respective second paragraphs so that that each one is cohesively linked to the first paragraph. Task 7 1 Portland, sixty miles from the Pacific Ocean, is by no means immune to the suburbanization that has sapped the vitality from many cities. Contain about two-thirds of the area's 1.4 million residents and about half of the area's jobs. 2 There are several reasons why it can be argued that television has a negative effect on cultural development. People no longer take part in more traditional forms of cultural entertainment. 3 Fearing for the loss of more Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lubeck, effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War. The Swedish intervention began. 4 Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up the bestseller list. There are other things to note about Tan as well. Amy Tan also participates in the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders.
  47. 47. Poor link between Paragraphs Good link between paragraphs Portland, sixty miles from the Pacific Ocean, is by no means immune to the suburbanization that has sapped the vitality from many cities. Contain about two-thirds of the area's 1.4 million residents and about half of the area's jobs. Portland, sixty miles from the Pacific Ocean, is by no means immune to the suburbanization that has sapped the vitality from many cities. Its suburbs contain about twothirds of the area's 1.4 million residents and about half of the area's jobs. There are several reasons why it can be argued that television has a negative effect on cultural development. People no longer take part in more traditional forms of cultural entertainment. There are several reasons why it can be argued that television has a negative effect on cultural development. Firstly, people who watch television all day long no longer take part in more traditional forms of cultural entertainment.
  48. 48. Poor link between Paragraphs Good link between paragraphs Fearing for the loss of more Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lubeck, effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War. The Swedish intervention began. Fearing for the loss of more Danish lands, Christian IV signed the Treaty of Lubeck, effectively ending the Danish phase of the 30 Years War. Shortly after Danish forces withdrew, the Swedish intervention began. Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up the bestseller list. There are other things to note about Tan as well. Amy Tan also participates in the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders . Amy Tan became a famous author after her novel, The Joy Luck Club, skyrocketed up the bestseller list. Although her fiction is well known, her work with the satirical garage band the Rock Bottom Remainders receives far less publicity.
  49. 49. COHERENCE
  50. 50. Coherence Within a Paragraph   The entire paragraph should focus on a single element The same idea of a topic is carried from sentence to sentence Look at the following paragraph - find the sentence that is off-topic: S1 Each of the Russian manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. S2 For example, the Vostok project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. S3 In another example, the Voshkhod project intended to find out whether people could work in the weightless environment of space. S4 One Voshkhod cosmonaut experimented with weightlessness by taking a "spacewalk." S5 That is, he floated in a spacesuit outside his Voshkhod spacecraft, connected to it by a tether. S6 The cosmonaut to do this was Alexei Leonov. S7 Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U.S. astronaut Ed White. S8 Finally, the Soyuz project, with three cosmonauts, had goals of testing spacecraft and spaceflight skills so that people could fly long missions in Earth orbit. S 7 Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U.S. astronaut Ed White - does not have anything to do with the m ajor goals of the various Russian space projects.
  51. 51. Find the one sentence that has been inserted that does not belong in the paragraph because it breaks the unity. Task 8 1 There are those who argue that the Internet has had an extremely positive influence on communication. Students are a group of people who can benefit from Internet use as they can easily look for information. The Internet allows the use of programs such as Skype to enable people to talk at a much reduced cost. People can also send emails for free. 2 Countries and nations need to preserve old buildings in order to preserve their heritage. In addition to this cultural argument, there are also positive economic benefits. An illustration here is Egypt, a country which depends on tourism for much of its national income simply because visitors pay to come from other countries to visit its ancient sites. Old buildings if not well preserved, can be an eye-sore. 3 There are several reasons why it can be argued that television has a negative effect on cultural development. People who watch TV programmes do not learn anything, they are simply entertained. Watching too much TV can also cause health problems as people do not make time to exercise. People also tend to watch so much television, they no longer take part in more traditional forms of cultural entertainment. For instance, traditional dancing and music is becoming much less popular because people are staying at home to watch the television.
  52. 52. Coherence Between Paragraphs Task 9 Divide the following text into paragraphs. Remember that each paragraph should develop or focus on a particular theme. How to stop yourself snoring Snoring is caused when the airway at the back of the nose and throat becomes partially obstructed. This is usually due to the loosening of the surrounding oropharyngeal muscles, but the reasons why this should occur are varied. The most common are smoking, obesity and the consumption of relaxants such as alcohol and sleeping pills. As with any common ailment, there are a host of "miracle" cures advertised - but you should first try a few simple steps to see if you can halt the snoring before adopting more drastic measures. Lifestyle changes can be the most effective. If you are overweight, a loss of weight will help to reduce the pressure on your neck. You should also stop smoking and try not to drink alcohol at least four hours before you go to bed. Beyond this, try to change your regular sleeping position. Raise the head of your bed with a brick, or tie something uncomfortable into the back of your pyjamas to encourage you to sleep on your side. Both of these will help to alter the angle of your throat as you sleep, and may thus make breathing easier for you. It is also important to keep your nasal passage clear and unblocked. Allergies, colds and hay fever can temporarily cause you to snore; nasal decongestants may help, but you are not advised to use such remedies for long periods. Nasal strips, as worn by sportspeople, have been proven to reduce nasal airway resistance by up to 30 per cent, so consider these as a long-term alternative. If this fails, then you may wish to look at the varied snoring aids that are on the market. They range from neck collars that stop your neck tilting, through to mandibular-advancement devices (such as gumshields) which reduce upper airway resistance, and tongueretaining devices. You can also buy essential-oil products that are added to warm water and infused or consumed before bedtime. They claim to tone up your palate and unblock your nasal passage. Finally, if your symptoms persist, visit your GP or contact the British Snoring and Sleep Apnoea Association (01737 557 997) for advice. If you do not, your partner might.
  53. 53. Paragraph 1 Snoring is caused when the airway at the back of the nose and throat … 2 As with any common ailment, there are a host of "miracle" cures advertised … 3 Beyond this, try to change your regular sleeping position. 4 It is also important to keep your nasal passage clear and unblocked. 5 If this fails, then you may wish to look at the varied snoring aids that are on the market. 6 Finally, if your symptoms persist, visit your GP …
  54. 54. Task 10 Look at the text on „Characteristics of Problem-based Learning‟. The paragraphs are not in the correct order. Arrange the paragraphs in the correct order. Paragraph 1-C The most distinct characteristic that makes PBL different .. 2-B Furthermore, PBL utilizes authentic problems. 3- A The reasoning process is another important element in PBL. 4-D Helping the learner become self-directed is also one of the ultimate goals of PBL.
  55. 55. READING CRITICALLY Uvb6023 – 3.5 55
  56. 56. CRITICAL READING CRITICAL THINKING REACTION PAPER: REACTING CRITICALLY IN WRITING • • • • Determine central claims or purpose of text Distinguish the kinds of reasoning Examine evidence Evaluate evidence  Analyze and evaluate text & ideas  Identify BOTH strengths + weaknesses   • • Extract information actively from text Ask what can be learnt from the text Identify strength/weakness of text/research Identify research gap 56
  57. 57. Read and react critically to the following excerpt: Identify the research’s strength(s) + weakness(es) Studies by Brown (2000) and Green (2003) generally suggest that women are superior to men at understanding body language. For instance, Brown‟s (2000) study found women to have better ability in interpreting body language by looking at facial expression photographs. Likewise, in asking both men and women to interpret body language by looking at video recordings, Green (2003) too found women to provide better interpretations. STRENGTH: Both studies focused on women = better understanding of how women interpret body language WEAKNESS: Used photographs/video recordings = did not use actual real life observation = might not reflect actual situation 57
  58. 58. WRITTEN CRITICAL EVALUATION Discourse Marker showing CONTRAST STRENGTH [ The studies conducted by Brown (2000) and Green (2003) have provided us with better understanding of how women interpret body language. ] [ Nevertheless, the methodologies employed by both researchers were somewhat simplistic in nature and might not reflect real world situation. ] WEAKNESS 58
  59. 59. Task 11 React to the following excerpts critically. Then, formulate your argument in writing. The first one has been done for you. 1 Findings based on a 32 item likert scale questionnaire reveal that property developers are primarily concerned with land use issues. Bard, C. (2005) 2 Fifty students participated in the study, and the fact that 80% were satisfied with e-learning is significant. Richards, M. (2009) 3 Clients who were interviewed immediately after completing the treatment cycle showed improvements in self esteem. Kramer, C. (2007) 4 Married people live longer than unmarried people. Longley, B. (2004) 59
  60. 60. 1 Findings based on a 32 item likert scale questionnaire reveal that property developers are primarily concerned with land use issues. Bard, C. (2005) Critical reaction Strength: Study show land value to be the most important element in property development Weakness: Questionnaire was the only instrument – questions asked may be biased Written argument Bard‟s (2005) study indicated that land value was the most significant element in property development. However, this finding would need to be further verified as it was based solely on respondents perceptions obtained via questionnaire. 2. Fifty students participated in the study, and the fact that 80% were satisfied with e-learning is significant. Richards, M. (2009) Critical reaction Strength: study found students liked e-learning Weakness: 50 Ss = too few participants Written argument Although Richards (2009) found most students to be positively inclined towards e-learning, this finding cannot be generalized as the fifty respondents involved in the study were too limited in number. 60
  61. 61. 3. Clients who were interviewed immediately after completing the treatment cycle showed improvements in self esteem. Kramer, C. (2007) Critical reaction Strength: Study show treatment improves self esteem Weakness: Clients interviewed immediately after treatment – what about long term effect Written argument Kramer‟s (2009) study found that clients‟ self esteem showed an improvement following the treatment. However, this finding might only apply to the short term effect of the treatment as clients were interviewed immediately after the treatment. 4. Married people live longer than unmarried people. Longley, B. (2004) Critical reaction Strength: Marriage = give health benefits Weakness: Argument not fully justified. Could be due to the fact that unhealthy people are less likely to get married Written argument Langley (2004) observed that marriage may be positively correlated with longer life and vice versa. Nevertheless, this view is flawed simply due to the fact that unhealthy people are less likely to get married. 61
  62. 62. Critical Reading ,Thinking & Writing - LONGER VERSION Short Summary Evaluation What is the main question or issue in the text What is the author’s assumption/conclusion in relation to the issue What evidence is provided by the writer to support this conclusion Based on the evidence, is the author’s conclusion valid? Consider the logic of the argument: What does the writer want you to believe? Is the evidence provided credible/sufficienlty supported? Consider the ideology that informs the text: What is the system of beliefs, values, and ideas that underlies the text? What are possible counterarguments to the text’s claim? Critically React + Put forward Argument 62
  63. 63. Task 12 Study the reaction paper on Bodenhausen, Kramer and Susser’s (1994) article. 1 Group the sentences into the following respective moves:  Summarizing/emphasizing important findings  Stating own opinion  Supporting opinion  Identifying strength/weakness of research  Identifying research gap 2 Identify and underline the following:  verbs  discourse markers – what are their functions?  useful phrases 63
  64. 64. Moves Summarizing main ideas S1, S2, S4, S5 Stating and supporting own opinion Identifying strength/weakness S3, S6 S7 Identifying research gap S8, S9, S10, S11, 12 64
  65. 65. VERBS S1 article is… it combines S2 Findings of the study suggest… happy individuals make S3 Feeling of happiness suppresses S4 …finding of the study is… S5 It was found… who were held accountable… those who were not held accountable… S6 This implies that motivational impetus may result S7 This paper has presented… S8 did not fully address… S9 were to be made aware of the fact that their recall experience had influenced their mood, there might be no difference S10 might not use S11 Another shortcoming is S12 This oversight raises.... would influence 65 were found…
  66. 66. DMs S1 because S4 Another S8 Nevertheless S10 In other words S11 Another 66
  67. 67. Useful Phrases S1 …article is particularly interesting because… S2 Findings of the study suggests… S3 Perhaps… S4 Another noteworthy finding… S6 This implies that… S7 This paper has presented some valuable important information S8 …did not fully address… S11 Another shortcoming… S12 This oversight raises the question… 67
  68. 68. LANGUAGE FOCUS IN WRITING A CRITIQUE Beginning the critique [Author‟s name] presents a plausible case that… [Author‟s name] offers an important discussion on… [Author‟s name] has written an important and timely article on… The article by [author‟s name] encompasses diverse theories of… Emphasizing important findings Particularly important is/was the finding that… Especially interesting is/was… Rather significant is the finding/discussion involving… Especially noteworthy is/was… The author has presented some valuable important information… The paper has clearly provided several insightful information on… Highlighting gaps in the text/discussion Despite its many strengths, there are some issues not fully addressed. [Author‟s name] provides a less than adequate discussion on… [Author‟s name] efforts to…was not fully successful There are several weaknesses in this concept. This paper confirms the…but it does not shed much new light on the issue. The authors were successful in… However, they could have… 68
  69. 69. Task 13 Write a short reaction paper on the abstract of the article ‘Types of Bullying Among Italian School Children’, by Anna C. Baldry and David P. Farrington (2003) 69

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