Introduction• Graphic is the important media used to show the appearance of integrative media applications.• According to DBP dictionary, graphics mean drawing or engraving matter.• Graphics can be interpreted as part of the picture, clip art, photographs and line drawings used to create the background, content information and control search for integrative media products.• It also means the use of visuals to explain the concepts which difficult to be explained in the text.
Introduction (Cont.)• The role of graphics is to increase the attractiveness of the display and presentation of an integrative media.• Computer graphics refers to the images which produced using a computer.• Computer image refers to a simple image such as lines or circles, or as complex as a fractal.• Graphics cover a wide range of pictorial representations.
Important of Graphics• It is important because the visual graphic display can convey such information more effectively.• Individuals who receive it can capture information or message to be delivered with clear, accurate and consistent than using text alone.• Graphics such as drawings, photographs or charts very helpful in communicating such information more quickly and effectively.• Visualization is one of the most important processes in the communication of information and graphics can be used for this purpose to increase the emphasis on such information.• It also serves to attract users, illustrate a concept and also act as a backdrop for a concept.
Graphics Resources• Graphics can be obtained in three ways:- • made from scratch using computer based drawing software • capturing images directly from the screen (screen capture). • using the scanner, digital cameras and video capture.
Introduction (Cont.) Stereogram
Method of Quality Graphics Production• Graphics can be categorized into two main groups, namely: 1. Raster/Bitmap Image. 2. Vector images.
Raster/Bitmap Images• Raster/Bitmap image is formed from a group of pixels arranged in a easy matrix.• Each pixel has a set of bits that specify the color and intensity. Bitmap Vector
Raster/Bitmap Images (Cont.)Pixels • Small squares. • Assigned a binary code to define color. • more bits = more color possibilities
Raster/Bitmap Images (Cont.)• Bitmap file size is large.• Two factors that affect the size of the bitmap image is resolution and depth.• Resolution is the number of pixels contained in the image.• Bitmap file is very dependent on the resolution.• Each time an image file is created, the image resolution required to be disclosed.• High-resolution image will produce sharper images and smoother than the low-resolution images.
Raster/Bitmap Images (Cont.)• The higher the image resolution, the larger the file.• Depth refers to the color and description for each pixel.• Each pixel consists of two or more colors.• Color depth can be described by a few bits of data in the desired colors. • e.g, 1 bit produce two colors (black OR white)
Raster/Bitmap Images (Cont.)Bitmap Image Format:-• BMP (emerge since Windows 3.0)• PICT (use in Macintosh PC)• TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) - use in scanner.• GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)- use in WWW.• JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)
Vector Images• also known as structured graphics or object- oriented graphics.• the basis of drawing elements or objects such as lines, circles, squares and various other images.• Vector or vector object image formed as a result of a series of instructions that directs how the object will be drawn.• Objects such as lines, curves, circles and so drawn and represented in the geometric form (mathematical formula).
Vector Images (Cont.)• When a line is built, a set of instructions will be developed to describe the size, position and shape of the image.• For example • Line: line x1, y1, x2, y2, color. • Circle: radius, color, height. • Rectangle: top view, side, height, width, color.
Vector Images (Cont.)• Vector images do not depend on the resolution.• Users need not worries to determine the image that is created.• It will be generated at the highest resolution that can be generated by the output device (such as monitors and printers).• For example, vector image editing software such as Macromedia freehand, Adobe Illustrator and Fractal Design Expression.
Vector Images (Cont.)Vector Image Format:-• .CDR (CorelDraw)• .CGM (Computer Graphic Metafile)• .DRW (use in Microsoft Designer)• .DXF (use in AutoCAD)
Factors Affecting of Quality Graphics1. Image Size • usually refers to the height and width of an image and is measured in inches, cm and pixel dots. • the size of the same image may have a different resolution. • For example, • the image size 3cm x 5cm (20,000 pixels) is clearer and sharper than 3cm x 5cm size image (450 pixels).
Factors Affecting of Quality Graphics2. Colour/Bit Depth • refers to the range of colors present in a pixel or a number of different colors present in an image. • Images can have a color depth of at least two colors (black and white). • But the color depth can reach up to 16 million colors. • the higher of the color depth, the larger of an image file.
Factors Affecting of Quality Graphics3. Resolution • Refers to the number of points (dot pixel) per inch (dot per inch: dpi) which covers the width and height of the image (e.g 100 dpi or 1000 dpi). • Resolution can be reduced, but usually it will reduce the sharpness or accuracy of the images. • Image resolution can be improved, namely the computer will predict additional data to create new images with enhanced resolution.
Graphics User Manual for Multimedia Products1. Select graphic format appropriate to the requirement of the job. (Bitmap OR Vector).2. Choose the right graphic software.3. Select a minimum depth of color.4. Set the delivery system properly.5. Use of bitmap images for quality and ease of migration.6. Use a vector image that can be accepted by the software composition language.
Modelling of Color• The color is the light wave which consists of visible color’s spectra.• The color of an object can be seen when light reflected from the object.• For example, the leaves are green because the object absorbs all colors except green is reflected.• If all the colors of an object is reflected, we will get white.• If all colors are absorbed by the object, the resulting color is black.
Modelling of Color (Cont.) RGB CMYK HSB Hue (red, orange, yellow, blue, green, and so forth.) Saturation (the enrichment of a color) Brightness RGB Model CMYK Model (intensity of light illuminating the object)