My Background•BA: Mathematics with economics•Nonproﬁt & IT industry work –Adult literacy, nonproﬁt management support, professional theatre –Web analytics (online behavior analysis)•MSI: Human‐computer interaction, complex systems & network science•PhD: Information science & technology 3
Research Themes•How technologies support... –Distributed collaboration –Open participation –Communities of practice•Contexts –Open source software http://www.flickr.com/photos/richardsummers/542738965/ –Scientiﬁc research 4
My Research (to date)•Open source software development –Replication and extension of prior research using secondary data•eScience (& open science) –Using eScience tools for open science FLOSS research•Citizen science –Technologies supporting public participation in scientiﬁc research 5
Connections Open Source ing Op ar Sh en & Pa ss rti ce cip Distributed Ac at ion en Collaboration Op Open Citizen Scientiﬁc WorkScience Science 6
Free/Libre Open Source Software•Distributed software development by virtual teams•Replication & extension –Communication network dynamics –Estimating user interest and adoption from software releases and downloads –Success and tragedy in FLOSS 7
eScience &/or Open Science•eScience != Open science –eScience: research collaboration that is fundamentally dependent on technology –Open science: research that is publicly shared at all stages of development•Both involve sharing scientiﬁc research artifacts http://www.flickr.com/photos/radiorover/419414206/ 9
Open/eScience Example•myExperiment –Repository for research workﬂows & artifacts –Social networking tools•Challenges –Preserving relationships between data, workﬂows, & researchers –Promoting participation –Social barriers to sharing 10
Citizen Science•Research collaborations involving the public with professional scientists –Volunteers contribute data collection or reduction •Intelligent sensor networks •Human computation systems –Diverse contributors, activities, expertise, motivations, and goals 11
Dissertation Research Questions What is the role of technology in supporting public participation in scientiﬁc research?– How do virtuality and technology alter organizing? – How do virtuality and technology shape participation? – How do organizing and participation processes inﬂuence scientiﬁc outcomes? 12
Dissertation Research Design•What – Comparative case study of citizen science projects•How – Field research methods (participation, observation, semi‐ structured interviews) and qualitative (grounded theory) analysis•Why – Provide context for technology design and management 13
eBird•Collects bird abundance and distribution data –Launched in 2002 by Cornell Lab of Ornithology (with National Audubon Society) –World’s largest biodiversity data set •2‐3M observations/month •Currently >80M observations –Participation involves: •Selecting method, watching birds •Entering observations online •Data analysis as desired 14
Great Sunﬂower Project•Collects data on pollinator service (bees!) –Started in 2008 by a single academic researcher –Very successful in volunteer recruitment •1 year: 55K registered •2 years: 77K registered •3 years: 90K registered –Participation involves: •Planting sunﬂowers, 15‐minute observation samples •Online garden description & data entry on Drupal site 15
Mountain Watch•Collects data on alpine air quality and wildﬂowers –Started in 2004 by the Appalachian Mountain Club –Integrates science & education •Hikers learn about wildﬂower life cycles and air quality •Focuses on eﬀects of climate change in alpine areas –Participation involves: •Rating visibility in White Mountains •Reporting wildﬂower life cycle stages along hiking trails, either on paper or online 16
Next Steps•Write & defend dissertation•Get a job!•Future research: –Comparison of diﬀerent modes of participation in citizen science –Comparison of North American projects to European projects –Comparison of citizen science to other online communities 17
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